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REFERENCE LIBRARY 
Army Ordnance 



REFERENCE LIBRARY 
^'■my Ordnance 



cd^M'R?J^ 



UNITED SERVICE 



MAGAZINE, 



NAVAL AND MILITARY JOURNAL. 



1865, PART \. 



LONDON ; 

HURST AND BLACKETT, PUBLISHERS, 

SUCCESSORS TO HENRY COLBURN, 

13, GRBAT MARLBOROUGH STREET, 



SOLI) KV AM. nOOKSKM.KKM. 



LONDON 

Printed bji A. ScboUe. 13, ToUnd Sir.et. 



Library of Uosfrress 
By tranerar frxim 
War Department, 

OCl 1 S IStt 




UNdED :-.Tt'es 



INDEX 



FIRST PART FOR 18 6 5. 



Adjiitunts of Volunteer Battalions, 

4J3 
Adrairalty, tbe, on NavftI Affiiirs, 

67 
Adventures of n Qneen's Aide-de- 

Comp. «. 230, 372 
AFricBs We-st Couat of, 419 
Allnntt. Mrs. Alfred. The Day 

Star Prophet, by, noticed, 137 
Aiaalgumation. on, 437 
AmerioB, Topogrjinhy of the Seat 

of War in, and Present Position 

oftbo Belligerents, 3C5 
American Navy, the, 224 
Appointments and Promotions, 

iU, 233. +57. 619 
Armour, Naval. Dedicated to Lord 

PiilraerHton By Jiimea Clial- 

mera, iioticcd, 387 
Arm*, the Bntinh in North China 

and Jit pan, S5 
Artnv, Briiiab, Stationii of the, 

142. -291, 4io. 617 
FroDiutiona, 147, 

297, 460. 6-22 
Army in India, Hygiene of the, 29 
Armv iind Navy Estimates, 427 
Arniiud. Mnraiial de St., 389. 536 
Artillery, tliL- Ruyi.i 127. 2H3. 4.i'.i, 

and Cuvalry, Combina- 

tioD fif. Ul> 

Aii*t«rli(B, the Baltle of,, and ilie 
Compniffn of 1SIJ5. By Lien- 
tenant A. yt<'iiimetK. the Qiioen's 
Own Liglil Infantry, 33;* 

Burometicnl Variations of the 
Lai e Storms, Bv JnmcH Glaia- 
her. K^o . K R.S .' 41 

Beutrico, By Julias Julia Kavuiiugh, 
uoliiM'd, 4-17 

fiongiil Arrnv, Pruinotioaa, 208 

Stuff Corpa, PromotionB, 

2M 

Btekih Lady. The Hammonds of 
Bolji Cruns, by, noticed, ilUt 



Blouiit, Tompeat. By the Rev. 

J. C. M. Belluiv, noticed. 136 
Bombay, Army Promotions, 802 
- — Stafl'Corna, Promotions. 

302 
Bombay, tbe Loss of tlio, 402, 432 
British Arms in North China and 

Japan, the, 85 
British Army. Stations of the, 142, 

291,45.1, 617 
-—— — Promotions, 147, 

207, 4tl0, 622 
Campaign of Marengo [Strategy), 

by Mcdor, 33 
Campaign of 1805, and the Battla 

of Austcrlitz..by Lieut. A Htein- 
. nietz, the Queen's Own Light 

Infantry, 829 
Campaigns in Virginia, Murjiand, 

&o.. &o., by Capt. C. C. Ch-aney, 

H.B , Profeaaor of Military His- 
tory, Statr College, noticed, "287 
Canada and the Northern States, 

a Tonr in, 60, 303 
Case of the MoaIi.TS, R.N.. 429. 
Cavalry Drill. Store, 317. 670 
Chalmer'a, James, Naval Armour 

by, noticed. 287 
Chriatinn'a Mistake, by the author 

of " John Halifax, JJ untie mail," 

noticed, 285 
Church. The, in the Navy. 529 
iQual for Steamahipa. Petroleum ua 

a Buhstitnte i'or, 324 
Coii.^t Uiiard, Appointments, 

PromotionB, RemovaU, 146, 295, 

459, 621 
Ciilouies, Defence of the, and the 

West India Regime ute, 211 
Cnmbemcre, Fiold-MarBhal Via- 

count, death of, 432 
Combination of Artillery and Ob- 

valri", -140 
Correspondence, 127. 283. tS7 
Cost. The, of the Na,V5, ^i\ 



mDKX. 



Jourt ami Poople of Siam, a visit 
to l.he, IVom the Joiirniil of Staff 
CommiiiKler John Ricliuiilg, 
R.N, ediwdby Walter Piirccll. 
Esq., of the Inner Tetnplo, 1, 
170, 340, 51 .J 

Courts- SI nrtial, mid Permanent 
Judge-Atlvomtes, l.W 

Critical Notices. IS.^ 285, ■H'.l, 601 

Cruise ou [bo Sijunisli Main, n, 

■■iio 

CurioBitiiis of Navn! Literatuiv, 
^m The Lepon of Honour, 200 
^ CoffliiB, 577. 



I 




'iiiigiiters of the OQii^erti of the 
Army, Ro>-»l Sfhuol fur. liaiis- 
■lowii, Butti, iOO 

iiv-Stiir PriU'hct, the, liy Mrs. 
Alfrefl Allnutl., noticed, 137 
Defi'uce of the Colonica, and the 
Went India Bi>gim(.'iits, the, 211 
iBcililitie and Mundu of Airuius, 
and the Military Spirit oF Na 
tiouB. on the, by Licuti'nnnt A, 
St*!ininetz, Iha Queen's Own 
Light lufftiLtry, 1 + 
Douglaa, William, Privato lOtli 
I Ktyul Hussar*, Soldiering in 
I 8iinMhiiie and Storm, by, rv 
' viewed. 443 
Drill, More Cftviiln,', :117 
.Jldittir'a Purlfolio, or Naval and 
Military BeiiiHter, 122, 273, 427, 
585 

L Hundred and Sixty- Four, 
SMI Hundred ai'd Biity- 
PiVe, 97^ 
Klihii Jao'a Story, or the Private 
L Lile of an Bajitern Queen, bv 
I William Knifthtou, L. 1..D. Aa- 
si slnnt- Com mission or in Oudh, 
noticed, 286 
ingineurii, Eoyul, PutiefB on 8ub- 
Jecla connected whu the Unties 
of I he Corps uf, Contrihutod by 
Officers of the Royal Erijifinoers, 
iiotiecd. 4tM 
Estimates. Artuy and Nav)', 427 
Esjiloration, I'roposed of tlieNorth 

Pole, 277 
FcBting, Major, R.M., GBllnnt Rgb- 
cae of a Shipwrecked L'rew, by, 
279 
First Help in Accidents: A Sur- 
gical (juidc, by Charlea H. 
I Sclieible, M.D., Ph.D., Ro^al 

MilitatT Acadewv, Woolwich, 
^^ notioei 18S 



I 



Foi-eigQ Summary, lia, 264. ■»(), 

From Hoajienthal to Meyringen ; 
A Swis.H Skekh. 77 

From London to Persepolis, 2.')0 

Glaisher, James. Esc|.. F.R.S., 
Bnrometiea! Variations of the 
late Storms, by, +1 

Gold Mine, and Other Poeras, the, 
by Harriet EIIku Hunter, noticed, 
137 

Greek Anthology, with Notes 
Critical and Bxi>Ijui!ilorj', Trans- 
lated by Major Hubert Guthrie 
Maeregor. notirfd. Vio 

Growth of the Mecliuiiical Arts in 
the Southern States, 124 

HaramoTiils of Holy Cross, the, by 
Lady Blake, noticed, 2B(t 

Hiatoria Booords. Our Rogimental, 
and their Imperfections, K(2 

Hosponthal to Meyringen, from; 
A Swiss Sketch, 77 

Hospiljil for tin; Wivew and Chil- 
drun of Soldiers, 124 

HniLter, Harriet EliKft. The Gold 
Mine, and Other PoelDs, by, no- 
ticed, i;i7 

Hvgieiip of the Army in India. 2() 

Idols, Shattered, notieed. 44!) 

India, Hygiene of the Army in. 2'i 

lateuliona, Mr. Stnana'. by Fred- 
crick William RobinHoo, noticed, 

Irish Still Hunt, an, SSft 

Irvinp, General George, late Royal 
Irish Artillery, Death of. 1:17 

Japan, and North China, tbu Brit- 
ish Arms in. S.J 

Judge- Ad vocalod, Perinaneut, and 
Courts- Marl ial, 1-W 

Karanagh, Mias Juliu. BwitriM, by, 
noticed, 4-17 

Kjiighton, Wllliara, LUU,, A^ihIh- 
tant Commissioner in Oudh, 
Elihu Jan's Story: or. tho Pri- 
vate Life of an Lastorn Queen, 
by. noticed, 2«6 

Knollys, W. W., Oswald Hiwtinf^i 
or, Ihe Adventures of a Qi|pen*» 
Aide-dc-Carap. by, 4:5, 2:i(>, 3^, 
543 

Lato Stormu, Barometrii»l Obtmr- 
vations of the, by James 
Glaisher, Eea., F.R.S., 41 

Letters upon the Organixotion of 
Ca\"alry. ii'6 

Life-boat's Urews, Salvikgc Pay- 
maut« to, lOlt 



INtitX. 



Life-boBt Service, 663 

Literature, Naval. Curioaities of. 
The Legion of Honour, iOO 

Lodge'8 Peerage and Baronetage 
Tor 1865, noCiced, 135 

IxMlgincs for SolOiprs' Wives and 
Familieii at Aldorahot, I'JS 

London to Persepolis, from, 250 

Loss of the Bombay , 4li2. 432 

Lose of the Riiceh.jvse, 273 

Macrcgor. Major Robert GutlJrio, 
Greek Aiitholopy, with NotcB, 
Critical anil EK|ilanator7> trans- 
lilted by, noticed, 135 

Madras Ariny. Promotions, 300 

Staff Corps, Promotions, 300 

Manati, -217 

Wiirengo, Carapiiign of (Strategy). 
B^ Medor. 3:! 

Mannes, Royal, Promotions, l-iti, 
■2115, 621 

Marshal De St. Aniaud, 38!), 5,17 

Musters of the Roj-al Navy, Case 
of the, 420 

Mecliunical Arts, Growth of tbe, iu 
the Southern States. 124 

Ucvringen, from Hospeuthal to. 
X Sivias Sketch, 77 

Military Sjiirit of Nations, and the 
Dinriplinc and Morale of Armies, 
on the. By Lieut. A. Steiuraeta, 
the Queen's Own Light Infantry, 

Militia Gazette, US. 152, U>r,. 1.57. 

:!0t, 307. 310, 313, 315. +6-1, 467, 

47l,*7-t, 623, em 
More Cavalry Drill. 317, 570 
Naval Allnirs, the Admiralty ou, 

67 
Niival Armour. Dedicated to Lord 

Pftlmeralon. By James Chal- 

inerB. noticed. 287 
Navnl Literature, Curiosities of, 

2m. 577 
Naval and Military Intelligence. 

♦,W. 'i05 

Heitisl^r. 122. 273, 427, 505 

Nary, tlie, ita Construction and 

Rwonfltriii'tion. 485 
Xa*r, Rnviil, in Coinmissiou, 130, 

■m -152, 614 
Promotions, U4, 203, 457, 

nu 

Nnvy. tbo Amcricun, 224 

Ni"* Piissnge Warrant, the, 450 

Nicolls. General Sir Edward, death 

of. 4:f2 
Noliw*. Criiical. 135, 285. 437. "01 



North CbiiiB, and Japan, the Brit- 

iab Arms in, 85 
North Pole, pi-oposed Exploratioii 

of tbe, 277 
Northern States, the, and Canada, 

a Tour in. 60, 202 
Northumberland, Death of Admiral 

tbe Uuke of, 432 
Obituary, 137. 608 
Officers of tbe Army, Royal School 

for Daughters of the, JjindB- 

down, Bath, 400 
On AmaIe;ntn:ition, 437 
On tbe Military Spirit of Nations, 

and the Disciplino iind Morale of 

Armies. By Lieutenant A. 

Stein met I. the Qaeeii'* Own 

Light Infantry, 14 
Oabonio, Capt. Sberard. on the 

Sro posed Exploration of the 
orth Pole, 277 

Oswald Haatinps ; or tbe Adven- 
tures of a Queen's Aiilc-<le- 
Oamp, By- W. W. Knollys. 42, 
23(.i. 372, 543 

Our BcKinieiital Historic Records, 
and their Imperfections, 132 

Papers ou Subjects Coimoctod 
with tbe Duties of the Corpa of 
Royal Engineers. Contributed 
by Officers of tbe Royal En- 
gineers, noticed, 448 

Payments, Salvage, to Life Boats, 
Crews. lOfl 

Peerage and Baronetage for 1865, 
Lodge's, noticed. 145 

Permanent Judge- Advocates, and 
Courts Martiiil, 159 

Persepolis, from London to, 250 

Petroleum as a Substitatc for Coal 
for Steamships, 324 

Portfolio, Editor's; or Naval and 
Military Register, 122, 273, 427, 
5ii5 

Promotions and Apiwintmenta, 
rW.:!^, 4.'.7, 619 

Queen's Aide-de-Camp, Adven- 
tures of a. Bv Captain W. W. 
Knollys, 4;!, 230, 372, S43 

Racehorse, Loss of the, 273 

Recruiting, on. 475 

Richards, Staff- Commander John, 
R.N. A Visit to the Court and 
People of Siain. From the 
Journal of. Edited by Walter 
Pureoll, Esq., of tbe Inner Ttim- 
pla. 1, 170, 306. 515 

Royal Artillery, tbo, 127, 2«l, 4Sfl 



J'ltl Murines, Pruiaotioua, 140, 
ph. til 

Military Aciidemy, sncxee- 
ll'ul rntiiii-Lites, 138 
f — - — Nnvy in Commiesiou, 
Slationa of the. 139. 288, 452, 
614 

Promotions. 114, 293,467. 



fil9 



469 



Naral Hueen-e. 148, 296. 

Sc'huol for Danghcers of 
the Officers of tbe Army, Lands- 
down. Bntli. 400 

Siklvago RcginiQiitii to Lifc-BoatB 
Crews, lO'.l 

Sandhurst, Roytil Mililnry College. 
siicctsftfal outididate^ 138 

9.'heible, Chnrles H.. M.D.. Ph.D., 
Riijal Militjirv Aouieiuj', Wnol- 
wicli, First tielp in Accidents, 
ft Snrjrical Gnide, by, noticed, 
135 

Scliool, Royal, Top Daughters of 
the Oflicers of the Army, laHidH- 
down, Bntli, -WO 

Shattered Idols, noticed, 449 

Siam, ft Visit to tho Court and 
People of, from tLo Jonmal of 
Staff Comma II der John Ei- 
chai-ds, R.N., edited by Walter 
Parcell, Esq., of the Inner 
Temi-le, I, 17'J, 340. 515 

Soldierini; in Siinsljine and .Storm, 
By William Dou^'Iub, Private. 
10th Royal Hussars, received, 
443 

Southern States, Growth of tlio 
Mechanical Arts in the, 124 

Spanieb Main, a Cruise on the 
350 

StaEf College, vertu* Staff Corps. 
353 

Steamships, Petrolenm as a Suh- 
alicuto for Coal for. 324 

BloinmelK, Lioiitenont A., Cam- 
palgn of ltfO&. and the Battle of 
Austerlilx. by, 329 

— — ^ — On the 

Military Spirit of Natimis, and 
the Discipline and Morale of 
Armies, by, 14 

Strata- 



Stewart's Intentions, Ur. B] 

Frederii^k William Robinson 

notice of, 186 
Still Emit, an Irish, 359 
Sonimarv, Foreign. 1K(, 2>H, 110, 

583 ■ 
Three WatchcK. the, by W. Q. 

Wills noticed 13« 
Tonography of the Seat of Wur in 

Amprit'd, and Present Position 

of the Hoi I igo rents, 3(J5 
Tour in Cttiiami and the Northern 

Swtes, A, t!'.', ii".i2 
Triclig, and Stnitagcms of War 

By Lieut. A. Bteinmoti;. Offieei 

Instructor of Mnskelry, the 

Qnt-en's Own Light Infantry, 

la9 
VnriatioiiB, Barometrieol, of tb« 

Late iSLorms. Bv James Olai- 

slxiT. Es(].. F,R.S.'. 41 
Virginia. Maryland, etc., etc.. Cam- 

Eaig^iis irA. By Captain C. C 
'lifsnejr,R. E., Prolessor of Mil' 

tary History, StofT College, r 

ticod, 2B7 
Visit to the Ooort and Peoplo 

Siiim, A. Prom the Journal 

St afl- Co mm an dor John It" 

ai-dB. R.N.. Edited by W' 

Furcell. Esq., of i!ib 

Temple. 1, 170, 310. 515 
Volunteer GaKetto, ]4iii. 1? 

157, 305. ;»?, 310, 313, ;i 

■ftsr. 471, 6U. 528 
War, Stratagems and ' 

By Lieutenant A. 

Officer Inetruotor of 

the Queen's Own Lij; 

189 
War in America, To] 

iha Seat of. and P 

tion of the BolligoT 
West Crjast of Al'ric 
West India Begir 

Iho Defense of I 

211 
Wills. W. G.. th 

by, noticed, 1' 
Wynyard, Gen' 

iey, C. B,, 

137 



L£.and Tricks of War, by, 1S9 



J 



CONTENTS 



FIRST PART FOR 1865. 



P.(e 



315 



u 

26 
33 

•41 



A Visit to the Court and PbodIb of Siam. Fram the Journal of 
Staff-Commander John Bichards. R.N. Edited by Wnlter 
Pnrcell. Esq.. of the Inner Teinple , 1, 170, 340, 

On the Military Spirit of Nations, and the Discipline and Morale 
of ArmieB. B; Lieat. A. Steinmetv, the Qneen's Own Light 
Inbntr; ... 

Hj^giene of the Army in Ltidia .... 

Cttnipiiigii ofMurengQ (Strategy). By Modor 
Barometricat Yariatioiia of the Late Storme. By JameG OInlBher, 

Esq,. F,B,8, . . . ' . 

t)8wald Haalings, or, the Adventures of a Queen's Aids- de-Camp. 

Bt W. W, Kiiollya ... 43. 230, 372, 5*3 

A Toor in Camida and the Northern States . 60. 202 

The Adininilly on Naval Afiuira . . ■ . 67 

From HoHpeiitbal to Myringen— A Swiaa Sketch . . 77 

The Brilien Arms in North China ftnd Japan . .85 

1KM.65 . .97 

Sftlvnge Payments to Life Boat's OreiTB 109 

Foreign Summury 113. 264. 410. 583 

C<mrt«-MiirtiRl and Permonent Judge. Advocates . 169 

StralA(I«inB and Tricks of War. By Lieutenant A. Steinmets, 
Officer Instructor of MuBketry, the Qaeon's Own Light In- 
fantry .189 
Cnrioaitiea of Naval Literature. The Legion of Honour, 200; 

CoffioB . .577 

The West Indian Regiments and the Defence of the Colonies . 211 
UMUb . - 217 

The American Navy ..... 224 

From London to Peimpriliii . . . . ■ 250 

Mum C»T«lr» llrill .... 317,511 



\m COVTENTfl. 

Petroleum as & Substitute for coal for Steamships 

The Campaign of 1805, and the BattleoC Austcrlite. B; 

A. Steinmetz, the Queen's Own Light Infantry 
A Craiae on the Spanish Main 
Staff College versiu Staff Corps 

An Irish Still Hunt .... 

Topography of the Boat of War in America, and Present J 

of the Bellieerents .... 

Marshal De St. Artiaud . . ... 

Royal School for Daughters of the Offtcera of the Army 

down, Bath ..... 
The Losa of the Bombay .... 
On Recruiting ..... 
The Navy, its Construction and Reconstruction 
Letters upon the Organisation of Cavalry 
The Cost of the Navy .... 

The Church iu the Navy .... 
The Life Boat Service .... 

Bemtu'ks on Modern Militai? Engineering 
Editor's Portfolio ; or, Naval ftnd Mill tttrjItegiHter 122, 
CorreBpondenco , . 

Critical Notices .... 135, 

Naval and Military Intelligence 

Obitnarj ..... 

Stations of the Royal Navy in Commission . 139, 

Stations of the British Army . . 14<8, 

Promotions and Appointments . ' . 144, 




C O L B U R N ' S 

UNITED SERVICE MAGAZINE 

AMD 

NAVAL AND MILITARY JOURNAL. 



No. CCCCXX XI v.— JANUARY, 1S65. 



COHTENTS. 

A Visit to tee Coitbt amd People of Siam 

Ok Tiui Mii.HABr Sfiiui of Nations and tiib Dibgipldtb and 

UoBALE OF Armies 
HiGiEKE OF tub Abmi in IXWA 
Oaufaisn of Marenqo 
Oswald Hastings, oe The Advestuhes op a Qubek's Ajde-de- 

Camp ...... 

A Tour is Cakaba and the Northess States ■ 
The Abmiraltt on Naval Affairs 
Fboh Hospektbal to Met binges— A Swisa Sketch 
Tbe British Abjis in Nobth China and Japan 
18^4—1865 ...... 

Salvage Pathents to Liee-Boais' Crews 

FoBEtGN SCHllARI 

SDiToB's Portfolio 

corkkspondesce 

Critical Notices 

Obituart 

The Botal Mhitaey Collebb, Sandevrst 

Stations or the Eotal Naty in CoKiueslOB 

Stations oe tee Beitisu Armi . 

Prokotions and ArroiNiHENTS 



U 



LONDON : 

nURST AND BLACKETT, PUBLISHERS, 

80CCE8SOH8 TO HENRY COLBURN, 
13. GREAT MARLBOROUGH STREiiT. 

tai.B ALMO SV BELL AND BRAD^UTE, BDINBURGH ; D. KOllERTS0*(, OLASQU* I 

U'aLAsnAH AMD GILI., DDUI.IM ; O. KOBIaTSOM, MELBODBMi 

AND ALL BOOEtlLLKRS. 



13, G&KAT Mahlbobouob Stii«bt. 



MESSRS. HURST AND BLACKETT'S 



NE(^ PUBLICATIONS. 



A Journey from London to Perseijolia ; including Wnnderings 

ill Daghefiaii, Georgin Armenia. Kurdial.in, MeiO|M)lamia mil I'ertia. By J. 
Ub9hkr, Esq., F.lt.G.3. Bva., with numerous heauliful coloured lUuBtcatianl. 
(Ill Jan.) 

Christian's Mistake- By ihe Author of "John Halifax, Gknti,*. 

HAN." 1 vol. lOs. Od. (January 6.) 

My Life and Recollections- By the Hon. Gbantlbt F. Beebblkt. 

2 vols , B»o,, wilii ["orlioit. 30b. 

*■ A liookr Linrl'alfrcl til l[r puiilJDn In llip n-^Kfjl morfprn IUrrflturp."^TlTneB. 

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Life in Java, With Sketches of the JiiTHnese. By William BAaaiHa- 

TflN d'Almkida. 2 rob. wilb lllustraLiuns. 21). 
Ha.UQted London, By Walter TnonNflUBT. Svo., with numeroUB 
illusiratlonB be K. W. Pairlioll, F.S.A. (Just reailj ) 

Lodae's Peerage and Baronetage for 1865- Under the PHtronnge 

of Uek M«jEsrT, and Corrected liy the Notiility. Silh EoiTtos. I Tol. With 
the Armg licaulilully engraTed, liandBuniely lioiind, nilli gil' r'l^ea. 31a. Sd. 
" The beti fxiiiLiig, und, w« (jclierf, tin: beat paaalble rpurBft. Jt la Lbe atindw^ amboriiT on 
thp BubjetL/' — IfeiBld. 

Memoirs of Queen Hortense, Mother of Napoleon III- Nnw 

anil CiiRAi'En Edition, 1 toL nilh Portr..iT. iit. 

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^' COLBURN'S 

UNITED SERVICE MAGAZINE. 



A VISIT TO THE COURT AND PEOPLE OP SIAM. 

FKOM THE ronR?(AL OF 3TAPF-C0S£UANDEB JOHK RICHARDS, R.N., 
KDtTED BT WALTBB PBBCELL, E3Q.] OF THB INNES TEMFLH. 

CILVPTER T. 

A brie/ outline of the hiiUir; of Siim iu its rclatioa with the civiliaation of 
Europe. 

When the famous Dom Alfonso ()' Albuquerque was engaged in 
the conqutut of Malacca, be de9|)atched a messenger lo tlie King 
of Sinm, offering to transfer the government of tiie principal city 
to that monurcb in return for some military assistance. Instead 
of the aid required, iiis Siamese Majesty sent presents and honied 
words. This was in 1511, the date of the first coraoiunication of 
the Portuguese with the kingdom of Siaio. Within six years after 
that event the Porlugm'sc had nligbted upon Siamese territory. So 
well pleased were the Portuguese with their new habitation, that an 
einbiissHge soon folloived I'roni their Sovereign of Portugal, and 
Diogo Coelho returned to his master, having viewed ihe " Terrestrial 
Paradise"* and glanced at the shadow of the Siamese king. How 
the Portoguese thrived in Siam, may be learned from the fact, that 
when nniuvadjng army of Peguaria menaced the oapital, in I&IS, 
the assislaitce rendered by the foreigners rescued the kingdom from 
impending danger. This liardy and adventurous people enjoyed 
fi>r nearly a century exclusive privileges of settlement, trade, and 
religious propagund ; but the time cairie when they were to be 
coitfrontcd by a race as hardy and adventurous as they, a race 
before whose superior intelligence the Lusitanian must bow, even 
though arrogance should outweigh moderation and mendacity 
eseet-d truth. The Dutch from the Isle of Java sighted the 
*i^[onM that 

" with portly sail. 
Like signiors and rich burghers of the Hood," 
floaled from the Siamese coast. Tlie Dureh were fond of enterprise 
and loved to ronni. One fine morning, in the year ]60i, the 
crafly Lusitanian whs <tnrtled to find the Hollander sellli^d in his 
neiKhbourliood, seemingly as coniplnccnt as lliougii he felt at home. 
Piotwilbalandingsomp, strenuous efforts maile to dislodge him, there 

■ Thi! SlDnieie iiaiiie for Ayii'Iia, III? meient rl|iUal of Siam, hu Sijan Thiim 
•hich meaiii irrrrtlrinl jiarit'lur. 

U.S.Mao. No. I3k Jan. 1865. b 



2 



A VUIT TO 



[J 



AS. 



tile lionet Ilollaiidcr remuiricd. Tlic iiilluciicc of the Dutch »oon 
impressfi] tlie rulecB uf the couutr_y, hikI in iJue lime a Sinniese 
ambassBiIor round his uav to Juva mul [hence to [Ii>!hiiKl. The 
Siamese nohK' was surinisei! tu tiiid llmt ihe Dutch octually 
[lossessed a counlrj of ihcir oivu, uml were not a niUion of pirnles 
H9 were represeiileil to be by the Portuguese ! Cuinnirrcc, by the 
law (if tiiilioiis, oiiglit to be coiiiiiiun, and not converted to 
ini)[iu|iuly and to the |irivale ^uiii of a fuw.* Not bo, ihouglit tlie 
rurluguesc, whdse jealousy of the Diltcli soon iinpeilcd them Ut 
hetiuy iheir narrow pohcy. Not content with embarrassiiisj the 
trade of I he Dulch aiul trealint; them wilh cnnlnmelv, thry pruceedeil 
to seize their sliips and cun(ls;^fltti iheir merclianilise. This insult 
lo his sovereign power aiousid Ihe king from his iiiaclivify. The 
gilded barge of [lie Porluguese prime magnate, as itusleiitntiously 
ffliJed oil the Meiiam, was seized by liie king's urder, and the 
wpacily of the Portuguese was punished by ihcir forfeiture of the 
royal favour. Nor was this all. The Portuguese tlew lo anna and 
the loesm of wac resounded in the Mahiecaa, the Phili])|iiues,t and 
tlie vice-kiiigi!oin of Gua. The king invoked tlie aid of tlic Dutch 
whicli »u» not withheld ; and upon the ruin of the Portu^ue^e 
rose the Dutch inUuctiCe. 

The Dutch cimtiuued to be the favoured nation till the celcbrat* 
Greek adventurer, Pbiulkou, atlaiued power and leagued n' 
French Jesui(s to place the kingdom under the suiritual 
temporal dominion of t'ranee. The Dutch policy had been 
gressive; it dii<si{i»ted some of the dullest prejuiiices of a 
always impenelrable lo the unsteuily rays of a blinking ' 
The lir?t foreigner publicly adnnttcd into the presence 
kin-* was the Duleli East India Company's agent. T' 
iiugui!hcd honour was accorded in ItJSu, the year in wliif 
the amba.-iador of the Orand Munarque to nccive the 
Ilie Lord of ttie White Llephant. 

The must interesting portion of the history of Sinm, 
to its reUiion with tlie eivilisiiion of tlurope, is coniieot 
ihe time ol Phaulkon. Tins exlraordinurj adventurer 
Cephalorii:i, in IQH, uf humble parents. Whilst ye 
eoiiirived to visil Enghiud where he loitered for f 
Biigjand lie directed liis cuurse towards the Ea>t I' 
slnpwri'tked ou tlie coast ot Stum. Casting his 
Siamese, he adopted llieir lauj^u.ifre and iheir hab' 
acijuired by his iiidnsiry ilie menns of purehasitr 
vessel. lie traded and prospered, but liis |jriia}>ei 
Icini;. The eitineiits conspired to rob him of liif 
valuable", wiiicli were on board, and lie wi 

* CniiiniGTciuMi jarc gcalitint cnnunuiie cshf ilslict, ' 
prlVAltjiu puuooi'kim quicbluia cuiiveUi:iiduaj. 3 tail. 

f Tlii> Hnle nf lli^ occurrence was IQ'il. wlicn llie iu 
teignnl [.vvr S|iaia iiiiil ^urlu|;il, licfoie llie lluuite -' 
utitcallly. 



IS66.J 



THE CODftT AND PEOPLE OF 91AM, 



escaped «ilh life. The time that a weak Dian would lose in repiiiin}?, 
Pliiiulkon emijioyed in laying the fouiulatton of a new fortune. 
Time, indeed, was lo him a valuable wliich no catastrophe could 
remove.* The supersliuclure arose, but ibe waves again lashed 
thi- base with furj, anil Plmulkon a third lime whs spurned by the 
angry sea. ll hapjiened that an ambassador of the King of Siain, 
who was returning from the Court of Pekin, whither he had been 
with the pljllering Iribute-tree.t was invulved in the same fate that 
btfel Phauikui. Both were sliipwrecked at the same spot on the 
coast of Miilabar. The young Greek was less nnfnrtnnaie than the 
Siamese nubie. Whilst the one was berelt of everything, tlie other 
bad rescued a thousand crown" from llie dcvoaring waves. I'haulkon 
generously offered to expend the remnant of his fortune in convey- 
ing the ambassador lo his country. Tlie offer was gladly accepted. 
Vi hen llie p.iir arfivcd in Ayudia, the ambassador was not uiimindful 
of his obligalion. Tlie young Greek was introduced to the Phra 
KaloliomJ who recei>ed liim kindly, the ambassador having ex- 
hausted in his behalf the terms of commendation. Pliaulkon's 
grtat natural ahdjty, expanding with his European reminiscences, 
poon recommended him to the Piira Kidoliom's highest favour. 
The Court breathed no religious intolerance, and Pliaulkon liesitaletl 
not to perform the customary prostrations before the monarch ; his 
Christian faitli and foreigii birth were then-fore no bar to his 
advancement. By degrees the rude seaman became on accomplisbed 
courtier, and by deirteea the courtier supplanted bis patron in iha 
exercise of real power. When Pliaulkon had suceteded in gaining 
l.he ear of the king, then- was instituted in thia corner of Asia a 
condition of tilings siindar to thai which anise in England eiglity 
years afterwards. I'haulkon was like the "Groom of the Sioh'," 
the dispenser of patronage, wliilsl the Phra was the ostensible bead 
of the Ouvemineiil, whose courtyard was no longer thronged with 
hungry espectanlt. But the Gieik was more wary than the 
Scolsninri, and ihemislake ciiminitted by Lord Cute was avoided. 
Tlie exemplar of llie fallen duke was suilVred to retnin the semblance 
of pnirrr, and bud no occasion to conceal his shame iu the sylvan 
•hades of -t Clarernont. 

Among the ^uitois th^t thronged around Itie favourite, none 
mm more importumite than the Fulliersof the l''ri'ncli Propaganda. 
TUry terily believed in M,. Constanee,§ affirming that his mis»ioti 
mta adjuvant lo their own. The healuen must be coiivetled, the 
French name glorilifd, an instrument to their hand is this 

* Oiate Mvi MmiewliAie, '■ All nur niisfortuQea, ir we come )iro|ierly to eiginiiie 
ihciT on; in, BriK fruin inir nol undcrotaiiitin; llie u>e (if lime." 

f A •ni"il Iff of gold ot silver sail a few pnnlncU "f tliu t.iuiilry ciiiiili. 
lul* ili« iiiliuM Hliivb ihc kiug or S'lm uuiiiiiiiiei lo bciitl irl'iiiuU; to the Kni|icriir 

of ChtDK. 

i Prime niinlttri. 

f V<e »*mf 1i) wlitili Phiiulkon (wlinM elirlitiBn wttnewM Con»lii"liae)i t» 
lUKiwti aniQtig l^eIlt:b wrli«t», 

b3 



A TI9IT TO 



[Jam. 



adventurous Qtcek ! so tliouglit tlie propagainlists wlio remembered 
that llipy were the subjecis of Lonis, ns well its tlie discijiles of 
Igiialius. Wliot unpolislied man unversed iu Ihe casuistry of llie 
solioiiN like Plinulkon, allliougli gifl;ed with gre^it iiatiirnl tnleiit, 
cuuld loiij; willi^tdtu) tlie lilamli^limcnls of such reliiied mid wil; 
zealots! In lime, the Jesiiils' per^Dasive tonjiue induced Plinulkon 
to think that, with the aid of tlie French u^ition and Ilirou^U the 
kind olFices of the Churcii, he might obtain for himself a kingdom 
here, and a kini;dom hereafter, 

The moat active of the missionary fathers was M. de Berithe. 
Througli the inatrumeutdlily of a certain Drarae who, by reason of 
his plea.iaiitriep, had rendy nccess to the king, the good father 
contrived to impress his majesty with idfBs of the greatness of 
I'rariee, and of tlie wisdom of M. de Beriihe.* The missioniiry at 
lengtli wriggled himself into the king's presence He endeavoured 
to prepare the mind of the monarch for the reception of the 
subversive doclrinca that Constance wua one day to announce. 

In 16*42, Phftulkon abjuretl Proteslnnlism. This circumatancs 
brought joy to the Vatican, joy to Versailles, and Innocent and 
I.ouia congralnlaled each other, mid boasted in tlie face of Europe of 
the success of the machinntioiis that would give to the one Bpiritiiul 
dominion, and to tlie other temporal sovereignty over a new nation. 

The auvrnt of tlie ambassador of Louis, in 1685, was hailed witV 
delightj not only by the missionaries and I'haulkoii, but by li- 
king himaelf. Never was representative treated with more Halt' 
ing di.itinction than M, de. Chaumont, Whejiever he moved u 
the water, as he himself tells us, he was enthroned in a g"' 
barge and was escorted by the iiighest nobles of the f 
Whenever he journiod on land he was mounted upon a richi' 
risoned elephant and surrounded witli the trappings of almO 
state. Whenever he condescended to repose ashore, he wf 
within a palace painted red, red being the peculiar co 
inilicalps the abode of royalty. In the Hall of Audlen 
Biiifcrpd to read his harangue — so he styles the lett' 
muster to the Siamese inonnrch— -whilst he was sealed i 
hi* hai, four score courtiers being, at the same tiio 
before the tiirone of the despotic prince. 

NotnithslanJing all this blazon and show of fi 
Chaumont was foiled in hts endeavour?. The ki' 
change his religion. His majesty, with prove 
reasoned with the amba-'sador, saying: " I atn s' 
friend, the King of Frince, should interest himsf 
that lies betwixt God and my conscience. Bi 
long established id this kingilom, and in oil 
religions flourish. If the Divine Being who OP 
we should all profess one rcligion^the relt' 

* Rcltlioa de I'AmliuHds ile M. de Chaumoul i 
AaitieiiluD 1680. ^V 



1865.] 



TUB COURT AND PEOPLE OP SUM. 



France — would He not in giving souls and bodies to men, Im^e in- 
clined them to tiie form of worehi]) most acceplable to Himself? If 
an unity of fail ii be most agreeable to tlie Cre;itoi, an unity of^ailh 
dependini^ wliolly upon Divine Providence, why this diversity of 
pcclB Hiiicli lias existed through all ages ? Other beinj^s glorify 
God after their own manner, and man, tiie hi,:rhest of God's 
creatures, is to be denied the privilege the lowest enjoys. We 
admire variety and beauty in nature. Surely variety and beauty are 
not less admirable in supernatural things, nor are they less worthjf 
of the Divnie Wisdom." 

M. de Chaumont niigoliated n " Treaty of Friendship" and 
departed for France. Before his departure he elloweJ his hopes to 
revive, for he promised to send a re-enforcement of priests to M. de 
Berithe and a FreTich guard to M. Constiiuce. 

In due time arrived two envojs from the French Court, to 
exchange the ratification of the treaty. With the envoys carae the 
promised guard and priests. Pliaulkon regarded the arrival of 
these auxiliaries as more than opportune, for an accident at the par- 
ticular period of their coming had caused his ititlucnce to culminate. 
The Shall of Persia had despatclied an ambassadnr to Siam to urge 
the king and his people to accept the Koran, His majesty wa* as 
unwilling to enibace Mohammedanism as Christianicy, but Moslem 
fatialacism attempted to overcome his reluctance by an argumprit 
tlien happily disused by the Chrisiian, Two princes of Giiampa and a 
prince of Mncissar, refugees in f iam, compassed the dciilh of the 
perrerse monarcli, hut Phaulkon discovered their design in time to 
fruslTale it. Thereupon Fbiulkon'a praises resounded far and near. 
It was when the acclamations were loudest, the auxiliaries arrived. 
Fhnuikon saw his shadow fill the land, and the feet of Llie people 
n-verently traverse it, and he knew that he was loved and leareil. 
His triumplis lie had achieved alone, and for the coming (Humph 
of his life Heaven sends him aid, the aid of a centurion of Trencli 
soldiers and French priests! He saw a sign. It was the sign of a 
morbid fancy — a superstitious growth ! This period which he 
deems the brightest in his career is (he foulest, and whilst he thinks 
himself most secure, the blood-red hand of Deiith is raised to clutch 
him. 

There were two men in the State wlio had watched the favourilo 
and ciiqtirllinf; Jesuits, as if Ihey would penetrate their dci'igns ; one 
was Phra Plmtraxn, nu ambitious noble, the other was Cliau Dua, 
an illegiiiinate son of theking. The undisguised favour sliown by 
Phaulkon to French interests, engendered in llic minds of these men 
« distrust, which soon begot hatred, and hutrcd begot co'jrage. 
Phra Phnlrasca and Citau Dna lonned around ihein a parly of 
nialeontenl?. This circle extended itself (ill it embraced a few 
stragglers from the far-removed order of the prieslhooil. With 
the introduction of the priestly clement tlie movement soon changed 
iti complrxion ; iwlilical discontent gave way to a ]iatriutic aud 
rdigioiis enthusiasin. 



A VISIT TO 



[Jas. 



All appnrent tratiquillity prevailed till the beginning of 1683, 
wlieii t!ie kin;^, vlio was ut liis country sent, fell ?ick. A tumult 
arose among the nobles, and Plintraxa oppeareil as llieir eonlrolling 
genius. Pliaulkon acling with bccuiiiiiii,' eneri^y, summoiiecl a 
pirly of French Irnnp^ fiom llnni-kok, dislant one ilav'^ journey, in 
order to arret Plialraxii, but I'lintr.ixH had maturt'd his sfhemi?, 
and wasforliiiudngaitist ihiscniitiiiyciicy. The Frfiiclion llieir marcU 
met llie posted retainers uf Fhalr.isa and Miffercil themselves lo be 
deluded by an idls tale. They were too lale, ibey wure rold, as 
the kiii^ a'fls dead, iind the f.ivnuri(fl depo*i'd. Tlie rieiieh tiinieil 
back, and nothing could persuaile tliein to ventnrc ag.iin outside 
their forts. Pbaulkon, fiiidina himself deprived of hi* laaiii support, 
tnisled lo bis personal inllin'nc« to remove all opposition, lie 
actju^iinted the king with Phatraxa's couspirncy, and urjjed tlie 
monarch, wbo nas old and inlirin, and who had but one b'g^itimale 
child, a daughter, lo iiominate his son-in-law or one of liis two 
brothera hie successor. The son in-law and the brothers were 
Pliaulkon's creatures, but the king haled all three and would 
declare only hia dangiiler, llegeiit. Tlie inoniireh's Imndu were, 
loo feeble to wield tlie trenchant sword of piwer, and the knowledge ' 
of his conditinn ebmiled bis aulbority, and Bireiigthincd Die 
nhidans arraied ngJiiiist hirn, Ph;iolkun «as irrel rievably losi. 
The hostile i-pirit vihicb ai'ose behind him when he firrt begnu 
to pira'le his treasonable intentions had received einbudiment from 
bis misdeeds, and now swouped mercilessly upon him. Pliatraxa. 
made himself masler of t'le king's pcrsun, piuclalmcd himself 
Ileyent, hurried Moupi, the king's son-in-law, to execuiion, threw' 
Fhiiulkon iiitu jtri^^on, and ordered the king's Iwi brorbers to bo j 
taken to a neigiihouring K-inple, and ihere be^il.en to dealii willii 
clubs of *anda! wood.* The king soon attcrwartls dii'd, Phntraxa . 
usurped the throne, and Pbaulkon, at the early age of forly-onc, 
expinteil, wil)i the loss of life, lii^ treason, and his folly. Had 
Jl. Des Fnrges, who commanded Ibe French tmop?, brhnved 
diirpiently, the result, might have bern oti)erwise, and instead of 
having lo couple (reason and lolly willi the name of Pbaulkon, uc 
mighi hove had to employ olbcr terms, the terms that desngnalc » 
successful ambilion. 

Thus ended the temporary ascend.incy of the French in Siam, andj 
the cireer of tlie extraurdinary Cephaloriiuii adventurer. 

The people whom we next Una courting the friendship of the 
Siamese, are the proud Castilians. In 1718, ihc Govcrnur of the 
Philippines sent hi; nepiiew, Don Gregirio de Bustamcnlo, as his 
reprccuntHlivB to Siam, to esLiblish bitwctn Siam and tiie new 
kingdom ot Castile a friendly peace ullcrcd by Philip V. Senor 
de Bnst.imento was received with dislinctioii, but his misfiott, 

* The ordiniiry moiie of pulling to ilrilli in Erring prince. Slruiigulilioii is 
occutiuuallT lubaiilulEd. The Siamoe cuDuilei lb« rafiU liluuci ti>o Mcie4 lo l>o 
((ulled i'j Itie UG uf ilia ntcuUonu. 



1S65] 



THE COURT *ND PEOPLE OP SIAM. 



bcfond an int^rchsfige (jf fneinlly assurances, wns wittiout 
result. 

'I'hv. Diilcli, rc-eslnljlisliei] in fuvnnr af[er the expul-ion of tlie 
French consequent on I'lianlkoii's intrigue, continued lo enjoy 
nimiist a monopoly of the tnule of Sinm for a lengthenfl period. 
Till llip arrivnl of Mr. Craufurd, envoy from the Govi'rtior-Cii'nerBl 
of lodia, in \iii2, no oilier ri»tinn sought to supplant the Dulcli 
by sending a fipecia! mission tu the Siiimp-ic Court. 

Mr. Cruuim-d «iis i'ls'riicted by Lord Cortiwallis to procure a 
treaty of coinmerco, whicli would be ntlvanla^coua lo Great 
Brilain and her iniiian dnTninion?. Mr. Craofurd was tin: most 
pliant of envoy. He lell? us, in his simple way, that he nns 
denied ni) elephant to ride upon, and that he found it most diflicidt 
lo obtain oven common carriprs for liis litter. In net hammocks, 
each suspended from a pole borne by two men, were the envoy and 
the oHiccrs of his suite conveyed lo the palace for audience. At the 
M'conil gateway, tliey dismounted from tlieir lillcrs onil parted wilh 
their siile arms ; at ihe third gate, opening into the courtyard of 
the Hidl of Andipnce, they wi-re divested of their shofs ; and Ihils 
denuded thty were u?lit-red into llie presence, whdst a flourish of 
wind tiisliuments proclaimed the triumph of the barbarian. No 
guod could be expected to result fro'n ncijoliatinn cmiducted by 
ench a j^entle envoy. Mr. Craufnrd left Siam witluiut having 
efl'Kt^'d anylliing for commerce, but having imbibed a Herce dislike 
ton-ards the Siamcie. 

Four years ailcr thedepaTturc of Mr. Craofurd, another emissary 
from the Ooverior-tJciieral of hidm arrived at Bangkok. 'I'lie 
Indian Ooverninent was at war with liirmah, and deemed it ex- 
fwdieiit to obtain the co-Dperalion of the Kiu" of Siain, and remove 
the disquipt occasioned to our setl lenient at I'enau" by tlip Siamese 
orrupntion of tite lerrilory of nur ally, the King of Qnedah. 
Unpinin Buriipy succeeded in negotiating a treaty. The treaty 
eflpclwl but little for commerce. It wan, however, a wedge intro- 
duced into tiie gnarled slump. 

The treaty with England wa? fulltiwed by a Irealy with America, 
Dogotiated in 1S33. The American treaty must be regarded as a 
spurious edition of the treaty obtained by Captain Biirney. 

In IS.7O, Sir Jamea Umoke arrived at the Siamese capital 
rnlruJled by our Sovereign with plenipol.Mitiary p'lwera to negotiate 
an improvi'd treaty. No man could be more (itled for bis office 
tlian Sir James Urooke. Tlic ability, the tad, the self-|H)?spssion, 
the suavily of manner, the self-sacrificing piilriolism, all the 
QUnhtics psspminl lo tbe cotisammate diplomatist were bis. Yet 
Sir James Brooke failed in Ids object. The cause of the failure haaj 
been kept a secret by his governnicnl. 

In liir wake of Sir James Brooke followed Mr. Balleatier, iH 
commi»sioner from Washington. Mr. Ballcslier prnposeil lo himself | 
anacbicvetiiti.il wliiuli mocked the eiideavouri of Sir Jiiioes Brooke, 



8 



A VISIT TO 



[Jas. 



as if rank and ability were disaUvaiitngcs to a negotiator, and it 
remained for au nuknowii trader of Singnpore to slille tlie 
preteuaiona of a court tlmt repelled a Bovcreigii prince of world- 
wide repute. Tlie trenttuent whicli his lemeritj deserved, awaited 
the American eoinmii^sioner. He was refused an audience. He was 
denied even tlie poor consideralioii of li.ivirig tlie Prcsidenl'a 
letter read to the king. Having received only marks of discourtesj, 
Mr. Eallestier was compelled to retreat. And lie relrealed with a 
bad grace. Bliaking his fists at the Government and the people, he 
threatened both people and Government with the fiercest displeusure 
of the American nation. 

Soon after the discomfiture of Sir James Brooke and the retreat 
of Mr. BallesJier, Phra Mongkut, the present First King of Siaiiij 
succeeded to the crown. Phra Mongkut had pnssed the preceding 
twenty-six years of his life in seclusion. By study and retleclion 
he had acquired knon ledge and wisdom, and he came to the throne 
prepared to display the treasure which he hod hoariied in his retire- 
ment. When Sir John Dowringap|ieared at the Siamese capital in 
1B55, and announced the object of liis visit, Fhra Mongkut lieBitHt-ed 
not to enter into a treaty with England, based on (he principles of an 
enlightened policy. With increased commerce ami develo|iing 
resources must come, as natural attcudiinis, auifmeiiled revenue 
and diminished wants. Tiie sage monarch acknowledged this 
truth, when he ooosentod to abolish monopoly and suslain a 
temporary loss resuliing from the measure. In proving his 
capacity to govern, Phra Mongkut has attached a new meaning 
to the verb to rp.ign.* 

A treaty similar in every respect to the treaty negotiated by Sir 
John Bowring was subsequently procured by France and America 
respectively. 

As it appears to be the privilege of England to initiate in distant 
latitudes a new and enlightened order of things, it seems to be her 
delight to pioneer neighbouring nutions to the regions thus laid 
hy her inquiry. In order to give full elfect to the treaty of 1S55, 
by rendering safe the navigation to Siam, Mr. (now Stalf- 
Commander) Richards was sent by llie Admiralty to survey the 
coast of that kingdom. Wlukt engaged upon thin iunportjiut 
duty, Mr. Kichards collected the facts which will be foui.d recorded 
in the following pages. 

CHAPTER II. 

Arrivit in the Cnif of Slam. — DUcoverjr of thipwrecked Chinarnen. — SumBse lor- 
tk lishPra. — Fall in nilli schooner betongiug In ttie king. — Curinui custom among 
tlic king'* tars. — PakmuD lo Bungkok. — lulerview witU the Furcign Minister. 

January 5th, 1856. — Soiled from Hong-Kong for the Gulf of 
Siam.f 

* Tb Ttlgn ia tlie SiimcBe language ninnB literally lo rfecaur llie people. 

t TLe JoumaliM 1* responiililc lor the rneti caancuteil with the " Viiil," the 



1865.] THE COOKT AMD PKOVhi OV SIAU. 9 

January lltli. — Aricliored off tlie main island of the Pulo Obi 

group, easlem eiilnince of llie gulf. Thermometer H2°, being 20° 
higher than al. Hong-Kong.* 

Jamiiiry l8lh. — Found here five Chionmen preaeiititig the 
tlehumaiii/.cd u|ipear;mce ihnt squalor find starvation can (ogelher 
effect. The following is tlie account whicii theyguve of tbemselveR, 
Ba interpreleci by our Cliinesecook : — " Five jears ago tliey, umoiig 
others, iiad embarked, as coolie einigrniit?, in an English brig at 
Macao. Whitlifr bound they renteinbercd not. On their passage 
southward, sickness broke out among the emigrants. Those 
affecled were landed somewhere on ihc coast of Kaiabodia, few of 
whom survived. Among tlio survivors were these. The turtle 
fishers of the coast enguu;ed the services of tlie surviving party, 
nho continued to pursue their new avocation till, on their visit 
to this island two months ago, they were nrecked in a gale of 
wind. Of the whole party only live racaped — these five. They 
continued to eke out a wretched existeuce upon cassava and such 
like indigenous plants. 

Although this story was not very satisfactory— there was no sign 
of a wrecic anywhere — the condition of tlie luckless fellows moved 
our compassion and wetonk tlieiu on board. 

January 24. — I'ulo Way group. A junk at anchor off the 
eastern island. Landed on the eastern island and surprised six 
Siamese turtle-fijhers comfortably located in a snug hut. The 
Siamese beliaved very civilly. Tliey pointed out where fresh water 
was (o be obtained, and, with cheerful alucrily, rendered us other 
eervices. In return for their civilily we invited them on board, aud, 
wiibout manifesting the sligiicst distrust, tliey accompanied us. 
Tliey had no sooner beheld the distressed Cliiuanien, ihiin they 
appeared lo lake a particular interest in them. They a|iprouchea 
tliem and conversed freely with them in Siamese. Whatever may 
have beeu the subject of their conversation, the result of it soon 
became evident. Wlien the Siamese had gratified tliemselves with 
B view of the decks and enjoyed our hospitality, displayed in a mild 
form, they requested that the Chinamen might be allowed to depart 
with them. Of course I was glad to consent to an arrangement 
which seemed to promise a fair provision for our celestial prot^g^a. 



Eililor for (he garb id nliioh they are arranged. Lcit the fact) should appear ta 
be travc£l]rd or di&giijbed, The Cdilirr has been ^[laring of emlftltishmciU ; tiut, 
if ornament lie alinosi ilisregardcd, the dress hai retcived the muri: dteiitlDn that 
U might not he unhi^coming iu iu plniDn^iii. 

The forin of dlnry ina heen silopled where It leemt to be tbe hSBt tailed. The 
Mfraiive form ii emplojed where it is ludiapeniabte to the Editor, and wliere tliB 
conytiiience of the reader appein <o demand It. The narrative form Is iniliBpen- 
■alle to the Editor, laorc particulirl; wlicn the conduct of the Joutnalist coniea 
unrinr review. One word wilh regard to lliii coiiiluet. The man who dcBPrvta 
well of hii toontry ought not to be entirely (orggllen. lliough he msj go wlioUy 
unrewsrilnd. — Ed. 

• Janoaiy i> the eoldeit raoBlh in Cbtn*. The Lot leawia U. Basa. \*seB». 
■I»ul the middle of February. — Ed. 



10 



A VrslT TO 



[Jan . 



Tlie Cliitinmm, on lenving, gnvc m many ilemoTistrntions of tlnir 

gratitude. 

Jaii'iury 30lli. — WeJtitied and eleereJ fur tliu Island of Kului-- 

ClllltlL'. 

Kobnmry 1, — AVhii-t procccdiiiK lownrds tlie Dny of Kolisi. 

Clinng, fell in wit!i n suiall pclnmner belcnitini; I" I In- King "f 
Siiim, liaving on board M^ssr*. Bfll anit FoiTe^I, of llie IIopi;;-Koii;( 
Civil Service. Tuese gi-ntlpini-n liad left, liaiigkok iiii llii; l«L ill?! , 
irilending to visit llie Clietitabum Klver. Tliiiikiiif? limy could be 
uf gen'ice to us, tln'V kindly came on board, unJ sbniidoncd l.lioir 
ciriijiiial j)ur|to!e. 

Anelmred olf n small villoge in tlie bay, with Hia Siarae^c 
Majesly's schooner in alli'iid.incc. 

Tho natives si'eined to Itc in no way peiplexed by tlio sinldcn 
n|ip&irance amon]^sl them i>f British lars, but thfj wcro nut i)i- 
dilf^reiit to the iidvi-nt of ihe tms of the king their mnslpr. Tho 
license allowed tlifse fellows is cerlninly singulnr, even in countries 
like Siam. 'J'iiej )iick up any fuwis llnit coiite in their wny, wring 
lIlL'it necks oiT, und tuck lliera under their Brm«, in the coolest 
uiiinner [ms'iljle; help themselves to vegelahlesor other com iiioiiities, 
without let or liinderanee. In answer to my in(|Uiries re'pecling 
Ihis strange conduct, I was told that it wns customary for ihe 
native iiavid forces, when cruising, thus to supply themselves with 
fresli slock. 

Kebruary 6tli. — Arrived at the deboucbeur of the Metiam, off 
Pakn:im. Paknitm is (lie [irincipal port uf tlie kingdom. Ii is 
tlefendi'd by ihree ftirls. IJeri' idl foreii^'u trading vessels reputt 
their arrival to (lie Cuslitm-House authorities, and deposit t.heir 
guns and ammunitiuii bel'ure lliey cnn udviincc to the capital,* wliieb 
is situate eiglileen miles up the river. 

February 7tli.— leaving tlie "Snracen" at nnchor oil' the bar, 
proceeded in my gig towards Bnnijknk, accompanied by Messrs. 
Hill,' Head,* Liiidsiiy^ ami Covey,** «iih ilic ptniiace. Before wo 
reached half way, we lust the tide, and were oiiliged to anchor. 
Night came on before the current n-liirtii-d, and we had no alterna- 
tive bill til sli'ep in our boats. Such airy chambers mi^ht not have 
been undesirable, considering the heat, if we were secure from tile 
attacks of moaquiloes ; but those pests, free to luirrass os, denied nil 
conifoil. Morning relieved us of our tormenlors.f and we resumed 
our Voyage. 

Fubrusiy Sth.— Got stglit of Bangkok at eight o'clock. 

Tiie land at the entrance of the river and for a considerable dis- 
tancc beyond, ap|}earej almost uncultivabic ; rliizophoras and 

• In iccorrtaiice Willi Trcsly Hcgiilmiona. — Eit. 

^ ^ A^sialEiLit'^urg^oii. ^ Aecoiiil.niasier, ^afa«ihtDnl.pavniii«l(.^r, ' nuiblrr'^-awsiEtant. 

j Tliii villninijus U'tlG inici;! iei-nit to vnrjr a> I'l ilie lime sntl place of III p>ir«uit 
iu il^lT^ruiiI places, la China if iplrlocn viHiifl Ttver-boftla, wtulBl in Sijutti An>oiJcp, 
il loTca to prowl Rl luarniug, f icJdiDi; the etenuig tu llie icniiinueru, uid to llie 
Mucuila the night. — H(L 



1B65.] 



TUB COURT AND PKOPLH OP aiAM. 



11 



cocoB-nypa liixurinleil lliereoti, as in the time of Craufurd's visit 
five-niiil-lliiriv j(';ir? before; but fiirllicr on t1io scone cliangcil, o'ld 
rice tiflds nin! siigiir [ilimtalions evervwliere met t!ie eye. Tlie np- 
proQC'i lo Uiin^;;ktik iircscnti-i! a iwvel and beuuliful iippefiraiicp. 
On eillier siilr ol Llip river wa? a row (if floating iiabitniimis moored 
to tlie shore, ocfnincd prineipnlly by (Chinese rho|i-kee|ier«; biliiivl 
tlir-se was a prufiisiion of trn[)ictil fnliawp, einbosotniiia the hou'es ••! 
the nnbles niid Kumpwiiis; iinti tnweriiig above nil, toselliffjliiteriiig 
Lfpires of llu' Budithi?t (ein|ile*, sUjjfji'Slive, iillhuogb emniialiniis of 
fk\ae worsliip, of a tun;^ililc Irihiile, ;is if of some lustrous thing 
about to aaccinl from man nnH ejirlh lo the Most Hifjli. 

After a rcfresfiing ablution and a eomforling breakfast. Mr. 
Bichnrd* adilrcs^ed himself to ilie p.irtiiularubjict of liis visii, Ac- 
compatited by a Brilisli re.-iJenl,* »bj kindlj vobinlcered to act na 
iuterpreter, he souglit the Phra Kiaiig, or Minister for Foreign 
Alfiiirs, Having ex])liiiny[l to the niinisler the nature of tbs duties 
liiMt devolved upon In'ra, adroitly ideiiiiryiiiij the interests of both 
! countries, he expressed a dtsirc to pay his respects to the king, ihat 
•his undertaking mijjlit not uppejr to have bieii bej-un without the 
approval of hi^ Majcptv. This ^nceful coniiiliment iuii)res.'cd the 
minister most favouralilv. The Plini Khiug advised bisvisitorto 
Elate the substance of his wi^bes in ibe form of a iiole to Hie king, 
which he hiiiiaclf would prusenl, and lo which he could promise a 
gracious reply. The buviness of the inliTview ended, his Kxeelleiicy 
inquired if his vi>itiir had i-uitable necoiomud.ilioti I'ur liiin^elf and 
bis tptintie. On bearing llist ihey lind slept in op^'n boats the pre- 
ceding Tiif^ht, he expressed his re^Tct, Hud look great bljini- to him- 
self for n<jl Imving sent a fiisl -pulling bout lo bring them up, Tbe 
Diinialer concludid h'ta remarks by placing at Mr. Rifhards' dls- 
po^td one of bis own barges, together with a guide and an in- 
terim' ter. 

During the inlerview, wliicli lasted nearly aii Ivjor, a musical 
► enleitainment had been proviilcd in a screened neighbouring apart- 
ment. The notes of stiiiiged and wind insiiuments, now and ag^iin 
obscured by the derp tones ol goitg-*, wire more musical lli.iu could 
be anticipated. Alternalely wiih native were played Pritinh airs, in 
compliment to tbe visitor. Il i' hnnily surprising th.it our honest 
suilor should have fell a CDriositjr to know who the pirfonners wpre, 
tlnil could draw such dulcet stiiiins from inetrurainis which, in the 
hands of his Malaytiii friends of IJoineo, (grated on bis accustomed 
eiir. The pcrfortners were some of his Excellciicy's wives. Tbe 
favourite of them wag summoned lo receive an approving nod from 
her gr.rcious mik-ler. She ctuwied loilh. Hot daring lo walk np- 
riglit, Hushed and tremlding, u beautiful, yet atiject tiling, « ho 
seemed to be conscious of but one circumstance, the illimltiible dis- 
tance belneeii her master and his stave. 



* A Mr. Iluiiler, rcmarkDlilc for hii ciiility. Tlie Phra Klnng ifole eictillciil 
Bnsti'li, wliich tie rsierved for priiatc convaruiian. 



u 



A VISIT TO 



[Jak. 



CHAPTER III. 

Pabltc receiition of the king, followeil hy a privnte interview : hia M«]F«ly miui- 
fesCs greul inlelliEcu'^e and kiadiieas, — The loyal jaclil nod Utc ninniigeinciit, 

Hiivinj> sirollcd about in orJer to gratify the first and strongest 
craving of curiosity, Mr. Hiclinrds reiunieJ lo liis lecnporarj' resi- 
iJeiice lo Hju) a presuiit of fruit from the I'hra Klnri_2, nnd to receive 
an inliinatioii lliat tlie king "would be hnppy to i;rant liim an 
Builienoe nl ten o'clock next morning." Aa ho had been led tu 
expect a delay of several days, and was desirous of speedily bcgiii- 
ning ilia work, he fi;lt elated at the intelligence. The cirfum- 
stntice served to prepossess him in favour of the king, who, no 
doubt, allaclied to his pecdiiir duties nil the importance they 
deserve. 

On the following morning, the people in the neighbourhood of 
the psiiice were unusually astir. The coinmolion attracted the atten- 
tion of our expectant courtier, who looked about with inquiring eyes. 
He could distinguish the grotesque figures of half-naked. Sepoy- 
looking soldiers bustling among a gaping throng, and suspected that 
the elements of the Rayol Guwrd were coming tugcllier. At ten 
o'clock was aniiuuneed the arrival of one of his majesty's slate 
barges to convey liiin to the river entrance — the grand entrance of the 
palace. Accompauied by Messrs. Hill, Read, Lindsay, and IDovpy, 
of the "Saracen," and by a few British residents, he embarked. 
On landing nt the palace, they were received with honour. They 
wete slionn into n waiting-room. Court etiquette, in Siam, pre- 
scribes that strangers should be kept waiting :i con-idcKible lime 
befnre tliey can be admitted to the Presence ; the object being, no 
doubt, lo inspire a wholesome awe that otherwise might not be 
felt. In ibe present instnnce, this object ccrtaiiily was not altnined. 
Our imputient sailors soon voted the delay a nuisance, and, in order 
to beguile the lime, they wandered about the pulaoe. Having 
visited the royal stud of elephants, and viewed the interior of Ihe 
kiug's private wat, or temple, they returned to the wniling-room, 
where they found ciikes and coffee sent to tliem by the king. At 
two o'clock they were summoned to ihe audirnce-chamber. The 
way Ihrougii which they were conducted wns lined with soldiers. 
They piissed the inner gate and entered the third court-yard, (he 
sacred enclosure, onee troddfU by a British envoy with shoeless feet, 
but now to be traversed by a new generation aa though It were but 
common ground. Opposite the doorway of the audience-chamber, 
was a large screen which concealed the interior of the ball from 
view. Our officers passed rourid this screen, removed their hats, 
crossed the thresholti, bowed polilely to the king, who occupied a 
liigh-gilded throne at the further end of the apartment, advanced 
towards the middle of the hall, and took possession of ihe cushioned 
stools placed therefortlieiracconnnodiilion.* The hall was crowded 

* Sir Jolin Bowriiig auil suite tal a la^lurqur, during 111 eir receplion, tbe year 
befotr. — EiL 



1865.] 



THB COURT AND PBOPLB OP BIAM. 



13 



witli proslrate courtiers. On eilher Ji'de, behind the nobles, was 

■ raiigpcl a double file of the Royal Guard. "The kin^, in a loud, 

■ oracubr voice, iiiqoired the object of my visit ; how Joii" I had been 

■ from England? wliot coasts 1 had surveyed? wlielher I would visit 
t Cochin-Chiria?* kc. His MajtJty, h.iving cojickuled his interroga- 
tories, said he vas accustomed to receive public officers in this 
m.iiiner, but he would be happy to have some coiiversntion with rao 

■ afterwards in his private sparLmcula. A curtdn was drawn across 
I the throne, and the courtiers regained their feet. Thus ended the 
I public interview, We took otf our swords, and proceeded In join 
I the king. His Majesty received us at the door of liis drawing-room, 
I shook hands with u?, aud offered us wine. Of cour^'c we drank 
I iiis Majesty's health. The king engaged me iu a conversation 
I about engineering and aalronomy. He wished parlicuhirly to 
H know wlien the Suez railway would be completed. The plan for 
H connecting the Gulf of Siam with the Indian Ocean had occupied 
H his Majesty's attention. This plan — Sir Jolni Bowriug's dream 
U from childhood, as he told me — found no favour with the king, who 
I deems it to be wholly impracticable. If I wished, however, to 

■ survey the line proposed, his Majes'ty would give me his earnest 
I support. Of astronomy, the king staled that he was particularly 
I fond, lie declared his intention of getting a transit instrument out 
^ from England, and exprt^sed a hope that I would assist him in setting 
H it up." After further conversation, of a desultory character, our 
W friends took leave. Boats and guide had been offcre.d for their ac- 
I oommodation, and his Majesty's steam-yacht placed at their service 
I " to convey them buck to their sliip. The king presented his aulo- 
I g''aph and card to eacli, and used towards all the kindest expres- 
I sions. 

I After such on unexpected display of intelligence and good-will on 

I the part of the king, Mr RicliarJs felt exceedmgly buoyant. In- 
I stead of proceeding Id complete his review uf the novel appearances 
I around him, he directed his steps to the residence of the Phra 
H K-lnng. 
I "The niioister was at home, having just returned from the Court. 

He received me kindly, and treated me to music, as on the previous 
day. The principal to]>ic of conversation was tiie proposed catial 
between the Gulf of Siaia and the Indnm Oceim. The scheme 

L failed to meet his Excellency's approval, simply owing lo its im- 
praclicability. 
Next morning, the Phra-na-\Vhy, or Lord High Admiral, waited 
upon me for the purpose of conducting me on board the king's 
yaclit, which liis Majesiy had consideralely placed at my disposal. 
Before we embarked, the complaisant dignitary showed me over 
the Prime Minister's new house in the course of erection, an csti'ii- 
aive stone building, cumbiuing the advantages of an English palnce 
: 



* The kiog't worrfs were coinejed by the foreign Sucrelary to tbe iiiterprcler, 
who eoinmuniciiied thru to Mr. Kicbar'l), 



It 



ON TBK MIUTAR? SPIRIT OP NATIONS. 



[Jaw. 



and an Imlian bunj^low. Tlie " Rojal Stat," n scliooiier riyijpil 
screw Ele:iii] vl-sscI of ejily tons, liad un twinl nil itiiuu'iise (|Uiiii(il,v 
of fruit and vetietabk-s sciiL as it jjrfseiit bj the king. Brfiirc we 
startid, a eapilal dinner, cnokcd iii llie European ttvle, nrnviid as 
a forllter L-vidtncp of tlie atlentiuii of liis Maji'sl j. At liiree o'clock 
llie "Royal Sciit" was under wt-iyii. \Vc liiid not yet cpan-d lo 
miirvel at llie novelty of our position — Jn llie keeping of a liliick 
ciplaiji and black engineer — vrlien a llllle incident occurred tliat 
ins|)ired us nitb a fix-ling of respect for our coinp>niiins. Tlie 
en^'ine «as oinsiruclcd on the high pressure principle. One of 
the cocks happent-d to be bluwn out Tlie vessel ivas ut once 
a'eered into mid-chaiiiiel and stupped, a plug "*3S driven in, and, 
in less llian five iniinitis, vre were again in moHoti, There was 
uo more exciteineat than would be on board a Brititb gun-boat." 
(To be continued.) 



ON TflK MdJTAIlY Sl'IIUT OF NATIONS AND TIIM 
DISCU'LlNIi AND MORALE OF ARMIES.* 

BT LIEDTJSN.Un; A. STElKUbTZ, TUB QUKEN-'s OWS LIGHT ISPAMtEY.^ 

I. 

" Military virtue is the chief bnlwarV of nations," siiid Na- 
poleon ; and all history proves ibiit if it has been liable to grG;>t 
itbuses, and somelimeK attended with disastrous consequences, ils 
absence has alwavs enlaiicd the ruin ofstiitcs and the Sosi of nahiinid 
independence. In the comparison of tlie Cidaiiiities incidental to 
the abuses of all things here below, ne shoiiKI assuredly prefer 
those which leave u-«, ut lea't, powerful amongst the naliotis. 

Of all tiniions, it is amoni;st the ancient ttumnns that we find 
the roost b'iili.iu' example of the military spirit whicli exalts a 
people. In the palmy dajs of the republic every citizen was a 
suliliiT. Military service was ibe iii'li^iiensable inlroduclion to 
ollice. All her state>men were wairi^rs ns »eil as men of busi- 
ness. Tluy were ready st^iiy moraeiit to proceed from tlie senate 
to the camp— to direct a campaign, and fight tbc buttles of ibcir 
country. 

The enlire eduealion uf the Roman youlb was designed to furin 
good soldiers; the CiDipus Klartius whs :i well .organized School 
of Arms for the entire peopl""; and bow well ihey p otited by their 
teacbiiig is ahuiilaiitly evident from their eminent and proud 
securily in all emrrgencie?, and their universal achievements and 
eompiesla,- so that the Apostle Paid lield fnrih tlie perrection of 
the Uomaii solilii-r as un imsge of that ijerfeelioii wliich is necessurv 
for the ^piiitual pilgtiin in his arduous progress " to siimd" on the 
lluly Mountain. 

• AlUoii, Europr I Jomiai, Fricit ,■ Slelnmuti, S/rn.Vi^y awl Tuciici. 



isfis.] 



OS -TBE HIUTAay SPlEir OP NATION'S. 



]1 



It is tliu want of ihis mililary spirit tiint hns cuuseJ tlic puliticnl 
jiarulyais of the modern iiilialjilaiits of Ilnly. That lier cliunniiig 
cliiiJQle, as observed by Alison, is ca|).ibie of briiigiiig tu madiiity 
a race of licroes and [wtriuts as well as pouts and artists, need be 
told to none wlio are acquainted witli Llie glurioua story of Rotne 
in ancient, and llie uoL less ht-art-stirring annids of the ItaliMii 
repuUics iu modern timi's. But tiie lii:<tory of Italy for tlie last 
tbree hundred yearB— and siuce the independence of the lesser 
states has been mei^cd in the ascend. ml of the transalpine 
monarctiies, has completely dumonstrated that the warlilte virlues 
are no lunger in e^iiniation, and that tlie arts and enjoyments of 
peace huve eutireiy disqu.dilied ihcm for the generous aacntice?, 
the heroic aelf-dcnijl, which are necessary, eitlicr to attain national 
independiiice or lu supijorl military courage. • 

Duubtk-ss there are individual exceptions — and one, at all 
events, who seems to have come long altet Ills Lime, vJiich should 
have bcL-n that of the Gracchi and theCartii; but hia failure in- 
conteslably proves the general ualioual delieiency. When led by 
French oflicers, mid placed beside French regiments, the inhabil- 
niils of Lombardy — during the wars of Napoleon — attained a 
high and deserved rc-)mtation ; but so did ihe Hiiidous and the 
Portuguese under British direction, in the campuigoa of the Pen- 
insula and Ijidia. 

The pensantry of every country— even the most effeminate, will 
Sght well if g.iUantlv led : it is in the impossibiliiy of (inding such 
gallant leaders among iheir own liigher oh.sses, that the never- 
fuiiing mark of n^ilional decline is to be found. Often individually 
courai;eoiis, the Italian*, oa a nation, li:ive been for cenlurics lo- 
lally destitute of llie mililary virtues. Tlicy hnve iirvtT, since the 
deleal of the invasion of Charhs VUL, at the close uf thi.' Slteenth 
century, been able to stand before the shock of the French or 
German bayonets. 

Is there no national li-ssou to learn from this " sad f.illing olT ?" 
Experience, says Alifon, has nut yet enabled us to determinH 
whether this decline from tite heroic cour-'ge of ancient time? is 
to be useribLid lu the enervating ellVcts of a delicious ciimate, or the 
general seltishtiess produced by a \uii^ period of pacific enjoyment. 
But the future history uf Great Britain uitl solve tlie problem — for 
its winters are not likily to be ever ksa rii^nrous ihun they wne 
iu the days of Nelson and Wellington; and if its inhabitants lose 
their couragi?, h can be ascribed lo no other cuu^e but the corrup- 
ting iiitluence uf commercial gre.iliiess, 

Bui., indeei^, wiLlmul the pnasure and influence of potilical 
cirenmstnnce,'^, tliere is no inslmici? in liislury of the pcrinainnt 
continu^ince of tliif martial »']iiril in a nntiun. AJI nnliDns 
seem til Imvu clierished it until lliey completed the work they wciu 
Bppoinind to do, and then rrNij^ncd it for other nspirations winch 
prepircd ihi-ir do»ii('iill. 



^ 



ON THE IIIUTAH7 8PIRIT OP NATIONS. 



rJlrT 



Considering it na tlio guarantee of security and pnwpr, we siiy 
—happy the nation wliich, like tlie Swiss and t!ie French, fiiiil 
it nurtured and kept ever alive bv the pohtical ci^CU:Il^tanccs whioh 
surround tiiera ! Tlie pecuHnr situation of France in tlio miiL-t of 
the great miJitiiry monarchies of Europe, has ever led to the coii- 
slant Diuiuteitance of a lurge standing army, and its cunsequrnt 
inftuencE! in nourishing tlie niilitflry spirit of the nnlion. Upon 
the decny of feudal manners, consequent on the proitresu of luxury 
and the detitruction of the inlluence of the nobles which re^^ultcd 
from the introduction of fire-arms, no power remained in the state 
capable of withstanding the regular forces of ihc monarchy; the 
nation, dazzled by the pag-aiit of military success, silcmly re- 
signed to I hi^ crown the whole real powers of govcrniiicnt. Sucll 
was ihe evil* consequence of the martial spirit fontered in the 
Frwicfi ; but wiiat happened at the Great It-volution ? It was 
not the territorial noblesse, headed by their re?p!'cLive lords, whu 
took the field, or the burghers of towns who maintained insulated 
contests for the defence of their walls, but thir National Guard, 
who everywhere flew to arms, animated by one common feeling, and 
strong in the cnnscinustiess of mutual support. They did not wait 
for their landlords to lead, or their magistrates to direct, but uctini; 
boldly for themselves, they maintained the cause of democratic 
freedom against the powers they had hitherto been accuslnraed 
to obey. The military spiiit of the French people, and tlie nntive 
courage which a long series of national triumplis had foslrred, 
rendered them CBpiibtc both of the moral fortitude to commence, 
and Ihe patient endurance to sustain a conflict. But for this oir- 
curaatnnce, the rcvolulioii would never have been iiltempled, or, 
if begun, it would have been speedily crushed by the military force 
at the disposal of the monarchy. In maiiv countries of Europe, 
such as Spjiin, Portugal arid Ilnly, ns before instanced, ihe people 
have lost, during centuries of peace, the liruincsa requisite to win 
their freedom together with their military spirit. 

They compliiin of their oppressors, tliey lament their degeneracy, 
they bewail their liberties, but they have not the courage generally 
to attempt the vindiValion of these liberties. Unless under the 
guidance of foreign officers, as before observed, they are incapable 
of any sustained or courageous eB'urls in the field ; when deprived 
of that guidance, they sink immediately into their native imbecility, 
But tbe case was very different with the French. The long and 
disastrous wars with the Enghsh — the fierce and sanguinary reli- 
gious contests of the sixteenth century — the continued cunflicis with 
the European powers, had spre^id a uiilitary spirit throughout tlie 
people, which neither the enjoyment of domestic peace, nor the 
artvnntngi's of unbroken protection, bad been able to extinguish, 
and ill spite of the supposed terror with which an immense stand- 
ing army inspires a people. 

"Li every age," exclaims Alison, "the French h:\vc been the 




OH TOB MILITARY BPIKIT OF NATIONS, 



17 



most warlike people of Europe; and the spirit of warlike enter- 
prise Lf riencly aUicd to tliai of civil freedom. Military courage 
may, ntid ofleii does, subsist without domestic liberty ; but domestic 
liberty cannot long subsist witliout military cours^. Tbe dreflms of 
ineSLperienced pliilaritbropy may iiourtsii expectsliona io consistent 
vilU t)iis position, and aiilicipale an adequate protection to private 
right from the extension of knowledge, or thcititercsts of commerce, 
without the aid of warlike powers; but eipericnco gives no coiinteu- 
ance to Ihcsi^ ideas, and loudly procUima the everlasting trnlh— that 
BH regulated freedom is tlie grfstest blessing in bfe, so it never can 
be defended for a course of agea from the assaults of royal or 
democratic despotism, but by the hardihood and resolution of 
those wiio enjoy it." 

The first mentis of fostering the military spirit of the nation is to 
eurrouiid tbe army with all public and social consideration. The 
Gecoiid is to secure to services rendered to the stale tbe preference 
in ail admiiiisiralive eii.ploymeiits that may become vacant, or 
even to require t!ie preliminary of a fixed term of military service 
fur certain em piny men Is. Doubtloiis there arc mauy employQieiKa 
wliich require speciid studies; but would it not be possible for 
military mcu lo devote themselves, during the protracted leisure of 
peace, to the study of tbe c.illing which they would embrace after 
liuving paid ihcir debt to the country in ihat of arms? And 
noulil not this stimuliite officers lo think of other occupations than 
tlie pursuit of pleasure whilst in garrison, with leisure lime on their 
hands ? 

But perhaps, us Jomini observes, this facility of passing from 
military s< rvice lo civil appointments, might in certain cases, be more 
delrimciilui than favourable lo the military spirit of a nation, which 
in order'to strengthen it, rather requires us to place the soldier 
entirely out of the reach of civil employment— as was done originally 
with tbe Mamelukes and the Janissaries, who nere purchased as 
slave?, in their Btventh cr eighth year, and who had no other idea 
than to live and die under their standard. Long teim of service 
is a[.*o equivalent tu this enrolment for life; and wherever it exi?ts, 
it Hould periiups be improper to permit any fusion between railitarv 
and civil iipjwiiitments. But this shows the inexpedienee of long 
terms of service; and in every country where military service shall 
be made a temporary duty imposed upon the populations, the ciise 
seems altered, and tlie ancient ituman institution wliich, a« before 
BlaleJ, required a service of ten years in tlie legions before becom- 
ing a cundidale for the vniioua |)ublic ofBces. appears to he the 
best mean? of promoting and preserving martial spirit, especially 
at liie piefeiiL day wbeti tlie geiiernl lemlcncy towards material 
well-being seems lo have become the dominant passion of s'lciely, 

"Be that as it may," exclaims Jomini, " I am of opinion that 
under all pessible innlilutions, the pi-rmaneiit object of a «\s«. 
poverniiifnl will always be to exalt ^a^UVAT-j *eis\s:.« , 'w. t,xfii?t V* 

U. S. Mag. No. 4;U, i AH.\b6ij. '^ 



18 



ON THE UILlTABTf SPIRIT OP NATIONS. 



[Jam, 



• 



invigorate the love of glory nnd all military virtue — unless ihey are 
willing to run the risk of incurring llie blame of poaterity and 
eipericncing the lot of llic Lower Empire." 

The iustitulions of two modern nutioiis, Pru'sia and Rns*in, 
seem to reproduce ihose of ancient Home, and to secure tlieirefrcols 
in jiromoting tile military spirit of (lie population. 

By imitatingtliemelliod of the ancient Itoinnns, Frederick the 
Great of Prussia made liis iuoonsidcrable kiiufdoin a first-rate power 
oil the ooiilinent of Kurope. By an admirable system of organisa- 
tion, the enlire youth of thi' nation were compelled to serve a 
liniitifil number of jenrs in the army in early life, the etfi-ct of 
whicii «M8, not only that a taste for military habits nns universally 
diffused, bnt that the alate always possesseil within its bosom a vu*t 
reserve of trained soldiers, who ini;^ht, iu any cmergeiiey, be called 
to its defencp. The service rfached to only four years; aiid Ihu 
oonseqiience was Hint the aversion evinced in so many other countries 
to the military profession, from llie nnliaiited length to which it 
exlended, was unknown; it came rather lo be rcgnrdi'd as nn 
agreeable mode of speiniiiig the active and enterprising period of 
youth. Ali the world knows that Prussia reaped the full henelit of 
this judicious system, when she withstood the three greatest powers 
in Kurope during the Seven Years' War; mid that she was 
indebted lo the same source for those numerous and courageous 
defenders who docked lo her standard during the latter pari of the 
revolutionary contest. By the coiilinued workitig of tlip same 
system, Prussia is still a first rate power amidst llie strongest, — 
with wfiich she is capable of coiileiuhng with equal cliBiices, 

The results of promoting the mihlary s]iiril of a nation are still 
more striking in ilie caseof Ilussia. The whole energies of the nation 
are turned towards the army. Commerce, the law, and all civil 
employments ore held in no esteem ; the enlire youth of any 
consideration betake themselves to the profession of nnns. 
Immense military schools, in dilfertnt parts of the empire, 
annually send iortli tlic whole Eower of the popuiatimi lo this 
dazzling career. Precedence depends entirelv on rank in the army; 
and the heirs to the greatest families are compelled lo enter its 
ranks in the lowest grade. Facing danger and hardship with the 
same courage as the private soldiers, they were to be found in the 
breach of Ismael and amid the snows of Finland. 

Promotion is open equally to all A government depending 
entirely on its mditary prowess, flnds itself ohligi'd to proniolc real 
merit ; and great part of the olEcers at the head of the army have 
arisen from theinferioi stations of society. 

If the Crimean War ultimately demonstrated the inahility of 
Bussia to cope with the might of England and France united, it 
must still be admitted that what we cidl " the fortunes of war" 
bad a vast deal to do with her humiliation on that occasion ; and it 
wdl be very unwise to consider it the guarantee of a similar lesult in 



1805.] 



ON THE WI 



: .'ARY 



19 



fulnre. Russia is empliaticallj a coutitry of tlie future. Her lime 
is ro come. Her militiiry spirit is developing for an cpipliauy sucji 
aa tlie worH 1ms nevpr jet. belield. As Alisou observes, "ifllie 
bflief ill tlie abililv of one Knirlisliuian to figlit Iwo Freiiclimon is 
gpiierMtly ini[ii-essi;j upon tlie Britifih peasaiilry, nii(l Laa not a little 
coiilribiiled lo the many fields of lame, both in luieieiit and modern 
times, where llmt result has really tiiken place, it is not less true 
thnt every Russian is inspired witb the conviction, that his country 
is one day to conquer the world, and that the univfrsaJ belief iii 
this result is one of the chief causes of the rapid strides wliicli Hussia 
«f lute years has made towards its realisalion. The march through 
Germiiny, the cspliire of Paris, Ihe overthrow of Napoleon have 
disseminated, and on grounds w hich can hardly be dented lo be jnsl, 
ihi! ideii of their invincibility; whilst the tales recuuiited by the 
veteran warriors, of the deeds of their yoiilh, of the wines of Cliani- 
pat;iie — the fruits of Lyons — ihe women of Paria and Italy, have 
inspired universally that tnitigled thirst for nationat elevation and 
individual enjoymiriit which constitute Ihe principal elements in 
the iusl of conquesl." 

n. 

The morale of armies is nol the necessary result of military 

spirit in a nation; indeed, ihey are two very ditTereut thitigs, 
which must never be confounded, Siill they produce the same 
effect. The former may be the result of passions more or less 
Iransilory, such as political or religious opinions, a great love of 
country, the remembrance of former victory or the conviclion of 
nalional superiorily; whilst military spirit depends less upon cir- 
cumstances, and must be the work of a prudent governmenl, the 
result of wise institutions, the inspiration of a skiUul monarch. It 
must especially animate the officers and non-commissioned officers ; 
the soldiers always behave well when they beloug to a brave nation, 
if led by good officers. 

"Besipnation, bravery, and the sentiment of duty in (he officers 
and non-commissioned officers," says Jomiiii, "are virtues without 
which it is impossible lo have a respc-clable army. All sliould 
know that firmness and fortitude in reverses are more honourable 
than enthusiasm in success; because it only requires coui-uge to 
carry a position, whereas heroism is indispensable to make a difficult 
relrcat before a victorious and enterprising enemy, without being 
tliscunoerlcd, and ever presenting lo him a front of steel. A 
good retreat should be rewarded like the most brilliant victory." 

Wilh us, liowevcr, as with the ancient Uomans, discipline is the 
first necessity of llie army. It is the essential cimdilion on which 
it depends, and bv «liifli it existji ; and if liislory proves anylhins, 
it is that tiiose armies « bich have been most conspicnons for llieir dis- 
cipline Inve won, in nil timi's and CDUnlries, iin iiiconteslible supe- 
riority. It WAS by Ibeir admirable discipluie (hat the ancient llomnns 



20 



ON THE MlUTAWY BHBIT OV NaTIONB. 



[Jak. 



became llie dominnnt nntion of tlieir epocH, and " ruled the earth" 
oftlieirdaj; 8i)d the uiifliiicliiiig courage of the British soldier, 
his fortitude or moral ccjur,ij;e, nud pluck, would nol have won for 
his colours their nuinerou* mid glorious inscriptions, had he not 
Ijeen always^ — like his Eoman prototype— coiispii-uo us for liis perfect 
diT^cipliiie. 

It is a pity that we iniisl ascribe much of tliis to the stem, 
Bevere, uiinompromising teacltitigs of tlie Mutiny Act and the 
Articles of War. It is also a pity that doubts i>xist ns lo the 
poasibilily of havini; a disciplined army of unpaid cilizens or 
volunteers, without the salutary terrors of the Act and Arliclea in 
question. 

It was the same, hovrevir, aith the Romans. Notvcitlistiindlng 
the superior coristituiiou uf ihcir armies, the Ilomuns believeil tliat 
discipline couhl only be secured bv the severe't rules and tiio 
steniesl enaclujents. 

It is thus a nolewortliy fact that the armies of the two Krealeat 
nations the world ever beheld, have owed their triumphs to ibo 
rigid enforcement of the sltTnest discipline. 

Yel, class for class, tnan for man, the Roman soldier, in the 
best days of the Hi-public, was far higher in the social scale than 
the itnmense majority even of our Yolunteers. In spite of the 
terrible discipline to which he was subjeded, the Roman soldier 
actually hail to show a properly quHlification. None were admitted 
into the ranks of the Roman armies but those who had a niaterisl 
interest in ibe defence of the cnunlry. Every Roman cilixpn, from 
the age of seventeen to forly-j^ix, was buuii'l to serve; but none 
were enrolled uii!e*s they possessed a capital of about £G00, at 
least, of our money; because it was supposed that the object of men 
in figlitirig is to defend their po^sesainns, and that those who 
possessed tiie most were pri'ciicly ihose who would fight tlie best. 
This, of course, refers to the best dava of Roman greatness ; when 
verging towards the di-cliin' and fall, Rome hired mercenaries and 
even armed slaves lo fight her inglorious battles. 

Tlins, notwitlistandtni; the geniilily of her sohliers, Rome exacted 
from them the severest discipline ; and p^ rhaps the discipbne of the 
Roman soldier exceeded everylhing of the kind ever known. The 
sligliteat delinquencies were puni>lied with the utmost rigi>ur of 
llie law — genenilly with the lash or the rod, often with death. 
There were slioiuluiits lo gnod conduct, in the shape of money 
rewiirds, prQinoliun, and "decoialions;" Ihe last, however, con- 
si.'ting merely of crowns of Oiik leaves, l.mrel, or grass. Unl, if 
a legion gave way, or wavered in baltle, ihe men were obliged to 
dye a pari of Iheir uniform with a certain colour, or ordered to eat 
iheir meals standing, wliich was, in fact, the punishment awarded 
lo a legion which gave way before Annihal. Decidedly, the dis- 
cijiline, even of our regulars, in its sternest enactments, is very 
mild, Mheii compared to tliat which fettered the true gentlemen of 



1865.] 



OV THE MILITAET SFISIT OF NATIOyS. 




Rome ill lier armies. Luxury and elTemmacy rninetl the Roman 
legions. Those I'ormidable soldiers, wlio H-ore helmet and cuiniss, 
and carrifd tiie buckler beiicalli the burning skies .of Africa, in 
liio times of tlie Sci|iioF, found tlit-m tuo iieavy under ihe cold sky 
of Gaul and GL=rmnnv. It wns t'lrn iill over »itli the Empire. 

Conceding to diseipline oil Us (flicacj, it must, however, be ad- 
miUeJ that most of tlie Conliiicnttil armirs greatly dep' nd upon 
ihe morale of the soldier. Na|ioleon was will aware of thisj hence 
liis flaming addressfa to his troops on nil occiisions. When ihe 
lenucily of tKe Kiissinn S'lldiers wiis praised. Napoleon, whilst 
admitting tlit-ir other mihtary f|unlilie3, objected to their lack of 
soul iind pacsion. "Give mu," he exclaimed, "soldiers for pro- 
clamations," (des soldula d prodama lions). 

Morale, tlitn, means llie soldier's "spirit," his being " op to 
the slicking poini," his "game," his "pluck." This morale ia 
everyl.liiiig in the French army — in the French soldier. Without 
it, he is nothing. It is the "boiling point" of his thermometer, 
and the " storm-poinl " of his baroniiiter. It does not dejiend upon 
liiinself, but tlie circu instances by which he is inlluenced. His 
cwTir, or " heart," is not always in his keeping. As it is a favourite 
saying among the French, C'est le ccear qui fait le grenadier, 
"'Tis the heart that makes a grenailit-r," so, on a larger scale, it 
was invariiibly a maxim with Napoleon, that Ibe value of the 
morale over the physique of an army was in the ratio of two to 
one ; and, as a striking illustration of the prevalence of Ihis opinion, 
we may slate tliat during the Peninsular war, in several inslanca, 
there fell into the hands of the Uriii>h engineers, the governor's 
daily report — during the different sieges — of the strength of liia 
garrison, in which the Iwurhj Qdctuntions of " la morale des tronpts " 
were as carefully recordtU as the motion of a weaiiier-cock at un 
obsi-rvalory. 

Tliese fluctuations in the soldier's morale are closely akin to 
panics, of which the French have given not a few curious exam]jlps. 
No one cnn doubt the valour of Mie French soldiers when well led, 
but hislorj records their inconceivBbIc panic under Yillars, after 
they liad won the battle of Friedlingen, in 170i. They exhibited 
another sinking inslancc of it after the victory of Wagram, even 
when tlm enemy was in full retreat; and, "what is siill more 
extraordinary," says Jomini, "is the rout of the 97lli demi-brigade 
at the siege of Genoa, where 1,6U0 men fled before n coinpiiny of 
linssars ; whereas tlie same men, two days after, carried the Diamond 
Fort by one of tbe most vigorous coups de main recorded in 
history." 

The morale of the Briiish soldier is simply a matler of colirse. 
It is confounded with discipline. It translates ilseif into dult/. 
"England cspecls every man to do his duty," said England's 
greatest hero, at Trafalgar. Wellington only did his duly at 
Waterloo. No Gnglishmau does auything but his duty in fighting 



ON THB UlUTARY 8P1KIT OF NATIONS. 



[Jak. 



like a lion ajid djiiig bs a hero. Hence Nnpoleon said, at St. 
Helena, that " lie could conquer the world wilh English sohliiTs," 
Hfuce, also, tlio absunlity of any " sjicecliifjing " to British soliiif rs 
before baltlc, as is usurvl wjtli the I'Veiicii. An ICiiijIisli ?uldiet 
einres Viiguely at ail apjH'nl in liie shape of a "figure of sjiet'ch," 
but he ru^dily ami insUutlj- imbibrs [iluiii matter uf fact. D'jring 
the Fciiirjsulur mir, a battalion was mounting a sleep to dialodgo 
the French. Tlie oSicera were told to eticoutnge their men with 
a few spirit-stirring words. Some reminded Ibcm of Budnjos, 
others of Talavera, &c., but a shruvrd In-<hin!iti, hilling the nail on 
the head, contented himself witti saying, " I teil you whnt, my men. 
You see those Freuciimeu up there; well, if you don't kill Ihem, 
they'll kill you — thiit's oil!" This rantt^r-of-fatt appeal was received 
with a glorious clieer, not without laughter, and, invigorated by 
their merrinieDl, the men apeedilj achieved the exploit.* 

An appeal even to trhat he has acliieved adds less to the Britisli 
soldier's pluck that the home conviction of wh;it he musi do on 
some given occnsion. " 1 remember," said Colonel M'Murdo, on 
a recent occasion, " seeing men buckling im tlieir bells, falling in, 
and standing in tlie ranks on a cold, drizzly, dewy morning, A 
casual observer u'ould have supposed those men were downcast. 
They were certainly not in the best heallli. They had toiled 
through the lung inarches in the hot days and chill nights. Many 
of them had pitssed through the hospitals, and were huggurd and 
toil-worn. The faint flirkers of the dying watch. Urea along iho 
ranks, showed these men silent, but steady. I have seen them in 
heavy columns move silently into the gloom beyond, not a drum 
being beaten or a bugle heard — knowing that in (he course of lliree 
hours i,tttiO British troops would have to attack 2S,0(J0 men in a 
strong position. That wns the battle of Mcuuee, under Sir Chailes 
Napier. I went with those columns; and as they marched silently 
along, I saw men shiver; whether it was the chill of the morning, 
or tiie shadow of death passing over some of ihero, I do not know, 
but I an] sure tlicre was not a man there who had any ulhi-r notion 
than the certainty ot victory. As the heavy mists of the Indus 
cleared awny, the men looked brighter, and plucked op cuurago 
when they heard the long roll of tiie enemy's drums. That force 
advanced in direct echellon of line of battalions from tlie right, and 
I saw that little force of 2,500 opposed to '^a.OOO men, and keeping 
up a file-fire for one mortal Iiour, only broken by repeated bursts of 
the enemy from the bank, and by bayonet ch.irges of iho British 
soldiers, ns they drove them back again. The men were then armed 

* Vt'e give this nrLGCitote hi it weib relaltd to ua by onQ who should be lu au- 
tharilf Si lo tlic inciciciits of that war; but we 6nA that tberc ii a mucli older 
■I017 of Itic kind. An old Scotch general when Ilie HightaFidert uied clajmorei, 
being befoio the cnem;. exclaimed "1 li'll ye what my lads, il'a cuslomary for 
the unci's! 10 niBke a ipcech 10 llie iojerE, but houti ne'ie no time fur that. All 
I tiare to uj tayou i>, tlieie'a ihfl enemy, and if ye don't luI tAem, Ikry'tl cut 




1365.] 



OS TBE UlLITABI SPtHIT OP NATIONS. 



23 



their flints, and wipe 



willi old Brown Bess, and I saw tliem change their Hints, aiiU wipe 
the nioialure out of the pans of tlitir Hint lucks, wilhuut failing to 
the renr, but keppiiig llieir bajonets towards the enemy, who were 
not three jards in front of \.\\csu." Long traiiiiiii,' in marching, 
and discipline of mind and body, psttence under i^ufferiu", fortiluda 
under reverses, have been aUnvB ihc cliaraclerislics of tlie Ilrilisih 
sohiier, and with such persistency, that his morale is merely a 
iiiiitter of course, always to be depended upon on the most Irying 
occasions. Sir John Moore's exhausted and disorganized remuaiit 
of troops at Coriinna, were reanimated by tlieir own native valour, 
and their heroic general's uxertiona, to deal upon their pursuers 
a deci.-ive repulse with ruinous assault. 

Jomini says, " that it seems easy to convince brave soldiers that 
death reaches more rapidly and with greater cerLaiiity those that 
run awiiy in disorder, limn those who remain united to present a 
frunt of steel to the enemy, or can rally promptly when tliey are 
inomenlarily pierced. But when we have done everything with the 
soldier, we must still bear in mind the very great difference 
between the material eflects of aclnal battle anil those of the 
routine exercises of his training. The Hrst booming ofarlillery 
at the beginning of a campaign, is not like the sweet music 
in a lover^s serenade. The highe-t ilowu enthusiasm is apt to 
shrivel up in that cunjuncture. Nothing could exceed the en- 
thusiasm of the French volunteers of 1792, going forth to fight 
the batlle of their beleaguered counlry; yet it is a fact, ihat the sight 
of a cannon ball dashing up the earth of a ploughed field, at a 
certain di-tance before liiem, produced a panic in an entire battalion. 
Neverliicless, the very same battalion, a lillle later, figured con- 
spicuou!-ly amongst the hr:ivest, not uselessly ashamed of its bad 
beginning. Tlius, it is just us well to know that the sound of 
cannon bulls, huwitzers and shrapnels, in battle, aifccts the im- 
agination much mure strikingly than that of the bullet whizzing 
past, or even a cut of the sword. It is size and the reality of " big 
war" ihnt lend a disagreeable " enchantment to the view." Be- 
sides, a cannon bail will cut ihrough twenty ranks in column— a 
formidable sight to lake place literally "in the twinkling of on eye." 
But Ihere are no perils in life against which we cannot to a certain 
extent arm ourselves beforehand, by familiarizing ourselves with all 
the details by imagination ; and it is quite certain that tliere is a 
feeling closely akin to enjoyment in tiie rush of buttle, and its 
consequent oblivion of danger, in a position wherein the thought of 
security is entirely eliminated, for the time, it seeim the natural 
slate, and we conform lo it accordingly. 

The Uussian army is held forth by Jomini as a model of steadi- 
ness in retreat, resulting as much as possible from tlie national 
character as the natural int'tii ct of the siildiers, and rigorous dis- 
cipline. Inured to liardahipa from his infancy, the Hussiau soldier 
is better caloulateii to bear the fal'gues of war than any in Europe. 



u 



OK THB HIUTABI SPllltT OP KATIOIfS. 



[Jas. 



He knows no ilutv so wcred as obedience to his ofBcera. Submissive* 
to Uis (iUci|)line iib tn tlie onlinaiicis of liis religion, no fuliyuf, no 
pcivalion caa make him forifet its obligalioiia. Tlirough i-vi-rj 
march, through entire campuigns, jou bdiulii Ihe c;(inioiieer iiour 
hi* piece nt the post aa^^ijiiieJ to iiim by his commnnder ; unil. uulrss 
3Utliorizi,-d to liu so, nolhiiig will imluce hiio lu abntuloii il. Tlie 
wflggon-trnin «.ix their liarnes^ under a cold of 5° ubove Kero, 
Foliieiiheil, as tliej would do for a day of parade in tlie tiiieal 
weather. This Bdmtrable siiirit of precision renders Ihcir defeuts 
exiremely rare; and the soldiers were so nccuBtoined in tllc wara 
with tlie Turks, to look for safely onlv in closing llicit ranks, and 
to expect dcslrucliun if lliey i\aii, tliul they have lianilj ever been 
broken. If they Imve not the ficility of ralhing aftir a defciit, 
which their iiigii degree of inlelligrnre has given to the Fretioli 
hliers, they have sreater firmnesa in resisting it. 
Disorder in the nuika is not, liowever, eo much the fault of the 
Idler; it results more from llie want of precaution on the pad of 
e leaders, " I have been often a^lonialied," says Jouiiiii, " at the 
relesfness of mosi generals in this re*pret. Tliey not only did not 
ndescend to take the least precaution to secure the direction of 
ihe amall delachments or ii^ohited men, lliey have not even adopted 
my signals for rallying, in order to facilitiite to the dilfBrcnt corps 
if an army the reunion of the fruclion?, which might bo dispersed 
ly a panic, or even an Irresialible charge of the enemy. On llie 
ntrary, they have even taken offence when I have ventured to 
iUggesl eucli precautions. It must be admitted, however, llmt the 
greatest courage and the sternest discipline wd) be freqnenlly power- 
less to rt'medy great dir'ortler in the troops, w'.icli a good syslein of 
rallying-signala for the divisions might much more ensily obviate. 
Doubtiesa there are ciises in which all human resourcea wouM be 
insulEcient to maintain order, such, for instance, as that in nhich 
lie physical snfTerings to which the troops might be a prey, shall 
have ended in reiideiing them deaf to every kind of appeal, and 
in which the leadi-rs might ihemselvea be ullerlv unable to do any- 
thing lo effect orgauizalion, as h:>ppened in the terrible retreat from 
Moscow in 1812. Excepting in such very exceptional cases, good 
babils of order, good tactical precautions, and good discipline will 
oftcner succeed, if not to prevent all panics, at least to secure a 
remedy." 

f Universally resigned and patient under suffering, the discipline 
of tlie DHlish soldier is only apt to fail in the temptations of victory 
and pursuit; and a memorable instance occurred after the Biiltla 
of ViUoria— when the accomnlated plunder of a kingdom during 
five years, fell on the path of the conqui-ringdelivcrcr''. For milea 
iogetlier the parsurrs aiiv be almo^l s.tid lo have marched upon 
gold and sdver, viiliiiat stooping to pick it up. But the regiments 
which followed, uol etjtally tranned in the fi^ht, were not so dis- 
int«re9t«d; ui) tiie eSeOa of this prodigious booty speedily 



^inl 



1S65.1 



OK THE MIUTART SPIRIT Of NATIONS. 



25 



appaireJ m the dissolution of tlie bomls of discipline ia ti larire 

Eurt o[ the flriiiy. 'I'lii' friglitfiil national vice of iiiletuperuiice 
ruke out in Jreailfiil iiitetis-ilv, from I lie uiibouiKled inmiti!i of 
iudulgiiig it ffliiuti were ihus suddenly Hcijuireil; and vo buve (lie 
autliorilv of Wc-!liii(riiiii fur llie asMTlioti, lliat tlitee wpeks a^tt-r 
llie buttle — altliouijli tlie lolal Iops of tlie coinbalunis wms nuly live 
tlious;itid OTIC Imtidred and ciglity — ^abuve twelve tliuusoiid sulJiers 
bad diinpppiired from l.lieir culuurs Ol tnis immense bod v, three 
thousand thret^ hundred anil cit^Uly were Drilisb ; and lUtse 
Btrajrglere were only rttluiincd by sedulous efforts niid rigorous 
seventy. " I am convinced," exclaimed Wi-lliiigtoii in a ktter to 
Lurd lliithursl, "that we have now out of our ranks doifble the 
auiouiit of uiir loss in tiie b.illlc, and Iwve lost more men in the 
pursuit ihun tlie enpinv have, tiiuuL'li we liave never in one day 
made more liiiUi an ordinary niarcli 1" 

li it Utopian to expect ibnt the lime will come wbeii the valour, 
and fortitude, and exeiuplury discipline of the British soldier will no 
longer be afsocisted with ihe vtces ihal degrade homanityp It is 
ai home— in time of piace— in tlie barracks, that «'e must train tiie 
men who ahull everywhere do honour to the Brit.isli name us men, 
as well as warrinrs. A* we have reduced llie foKliVr lo the condi- 
tion ol an obedient child, lie cannot be eK|iecred to elevate liiinself 
in the social si:a!e. We must enable him to rise, as all others rise, 
by all the good motive* of bumaii conduct held forth to him — wilb 
the hope of (greater well-being for himself as the re-ult of good 
conduct and character. 

We know wiih what earnestness and zeal many have followed ill 
the foolslfps of ihe lale Lord Ili-rberl ; we know that much ia 
lion doiiiL;, and that much has been aireailj done to amelionite tiie 
condition of lliu suldiir; but with iht yUwi and palpable fij^uiea 
of the lijal report on the health of the Army before us, we can do 
no liss than urpe on lo incrciised activity all who possess 
Bulbority and influence. To spe.ik plainly, the chief causes of tls 
degradation, illness, and death in the army are two— ^ri'ce and 
defective barrack accommodation. The means of cure, or cerlainlj 
of alleviation, of this deplorable state of things seems tolerably 
plain. The excesses and licerttiousness of soldiers would indis- 
putably be curbed and reduced, were greater facilities given for 
marriages. 

On the oflicers themselves rests a heavy responsibility— a weight 
which they must not i^mire merely because it is hard to bear. 
The prole^sion of arms is one into whioli no dolt or sluggard has a 
right to enter. Incalculable is the good that m'ly be done by a 
kind and active-commanding olB..ep; almost innueaaureable Lbe 
evil that must necessarily result from incap icily and sloth. 
Many condilions of the soldier's life, besides those merely pliysicid, 
demand speedy amelioration. Our army must have, not les« work, 
but, at any rate, more play ; and it will do good to both alike, if 



u 



OS THB UILITAUY SPIBIT OF NiTIONS. 



[jA!f. 



He knows no duty so sacred aa obedience lo his officers. 8ubmi?siye 
to liis discipline ns tu llie onliiiancis of Ills religion, no fali;^uc, no 
privation can make liiin fori^et its obligations. Tlirough every 
march, through eiilire carnpaifjiis, you beholii the ainiioneer near 
his piece at the post asji<;ned lo hiiji by liis commniider ; ami, unless 
autliorized to do so, nuthiiii^' will iiidticc him lo abandon it. Tlie 
waggon. train nax Iheir haniesi under a cold of 5° above zero, 
Kahrciiiieit, as they would do for a day of parade in the liiieat 
weather. Thia aditiirjble spirit of pteciaioii rniciers their defeats 
exlrerocly rare; and the doMiers were so accustomed iii the wars 
with the Turks, to look for safely only in clusirig their ranks, and 
to expect deslructiun if tliey Hod, tliat they hiive hardly ever been 
broken. If tliey have not the facihty of ralhiiig aftix a defeat, 
wliieli their high degree of intelligence has given to the French 
eoldiers, they have grenter firuinesi in resisting it. 

Disorder in tlie ranks is not, however, so much the fault of the 
soldier; it results uiore from the want of jirecdution ou the part of 
tlie leaders, " I have been often a-^tonislied," says Jomini, " at the 
carelesfiies." of mosi generals in this respect. They not only did not 
cotidescend to take tlie least precaution lo secure the direction of 
the sniull delocbinents or isolated men, ihey have not even adopted 
any signuls for r.illyin^, in order to I'acililnte lo the different corps 
of an army the reoriion of t!ie fr.iclions, whit-li might be dispersed 
by a panic, or even an irresisliblu ch.irge of tlie ejioiny. On llie 
contrary, they have even taken olTence "hen I have ventured lo 
soggesi such precautions. It must be admitted, however, that t!ie 
grealrst courage and the sternest diseijdine will be frequently power- 
less to r-'Hiedy great disorder tn the troops, w icli a good svxlein of 
rnllying-signals for t!ie divisions might much more easily obviate. 
Doubtless there are cases in which all liunian resources would be 
insufficient to maintain order, sueh, for instance, as that in which 
the physical suffcrtngi to which the troops might be a prey, pball 
have ended in rendering ihem deaf to every kind of apjwai, and 
in which the lenders might themselves be utterly unable to do any- 
thing to effect orgamzntion, as luippened in the terrible retreat fri)m 
Moscow in 1812. lixcejiting in sucb very exceptional cases, goinl 
habits of order, good tactical precautions, and good discipline will 
oftener succeed, if not to preveikt all panics, at least to secure a 
remedy," 

Universally resifjued and patient under suffering, t'le diacipliue 
of the Brilish soldier is only apt lo fail in the templHtioiis of victory 
and pursuit; and a memorable in-tance occurred after the Battle 
ofViltoria — when the accumulated plunder of a kingdom during 
five years, fell on the path of the conqui'riTi;' deliverer*. For milea 
together the pursut-rs ni^iy be ulinost s.iid lo have marched upon 
gold and silver, wiilniul stooping lo piek it up. 13ut tlic regiments 
which followed, not equally W'armed in the ti^'ht, were not »o dis- 
interested; and the ctTects of this prodigious booty speedily 



1H65.1 



OS THB UlUTABT SPIRIT OP NATIONS. 



SS 



appeared in the dissolution of tlie bonds of dif>cjpline in a Inrge 

Eart of tlie army, Tlif friglittiil nal.ional vice of iiiteniperiuicie 
roke out m lirendful iiiLenfitv, from ihe unbounded meuus of 
indalging it w<iidi vere ibus snJdenly iic<|uired ; and we hitve tlie 
authorily of Welliriiitoii fur the asserLioii, liiat three weeks alter 
tlie biiltle — aklioutili the luttil Iops of Elie eOLnbalnii's w.is only live 
thousunii one iiuiidred iiiul liglity — abi.ve twelve thousand soldiera 
Iiad dijuppeiired from iheir ciJouis Of liiis immense body, three 
thousand three hundred and eighty were firili:<h ; aiid iht'se 
stragglers were only ri-cluimed by sedulous ifforts and rigorous 
seventy. " I am convinced," exclaimed Wellington in a letter lo 
Lord Bathurst, "that we have now out of onr ranks double the 
amount of onr loss in tlic batile, and h.ivc lost more men in tlie 
pursuit than tlie enemy have, tiiouijh we hate never in one day 
made more llian an ordinary march !" 

I« it Ulopinn to expect tiiat the lime will come when ihe valour, 
and forlilude, and exerapltiry di.-cipiine ol' the Biilish soldier will no 
longer be associated with ihe vices ihal degrade humanity? It is 
at home— in time of pence — in tlie barracks, tliat we must train the 
men who ahull everywhere do honour to tiie British nameas men, 
us well a» warriors. A< we have reduced (he j^oKlier lo the condi- 
tion ol an obedient child, he cannot be ex]iecled to elevate himself 
in the social scale. We must enable him to rise, as nil others rise, 
by all the good motives of liumnu conduct held forth to bim — with 
the hope of jirealer well-being for himself as the te=ult of good 
conduct and eharacler. 

\^ e know wiih what earnestness and zeal many have followed in 
the footsteps of (he late Lord Herbert ; we know that much is 
now duiii^i and that much ha:^ been alrendy done to ameliorate the 
conditiuu of the soldier; but with the ]>hiui and palpable figures 
of llie hist ri'port on the healtli of the Army before us, we can do 
no less llian uriie on to incre.ised activity all who possess 
sulhority and itiHueiice. To spenk plainly, tlie chief causes of tie 
degradation, illness, and death in the array are two~n!tce and 
defective barrack arcommodalion. The means of cure, or ccrtaiidy 
of sllcviation, of this deplorable stale of things seems tolerably 
plain. The exce:-ses and licentiousness of soldiers would indis- 
putably be curbed and reduced, were greater facilities given for 
TO.irriages. 

Ua the oflicera theraselves rests a heavy responsibility— a weight 
which they must not ignore merely because it is hard to hear. 
The prolr»sion of arms is one into which no dolt or sluggard hnsa 
riglil to enlj-r. Incalculable is the good I hat iniiy bi: done by u 
kind and uetive-commanding olR-er; almost nnmeasurenble the 
evil that mu^t neces^arily result from incapicily and sloth, 
Many conditions of the soldier's life, besides those merely phjaiciil, 
demand speedy amelioration. Our army must have, not less work, 
but, at unj tale, more ploy ; and it will do good tu both alilci', if 



£8 



UVGIESB OT THB AKMT TS INDIA. 



[.Ta^. 



tlie officers slmre (o a grenirr extent than at present in tlio 
BiDQfemeiils of tlieir meu. Improved by more fftrniliar, tliouj^li 
liol le.*s respectful, iiilercoorse iind associiitioii willi llieir lenders — 
refined by llie grudually elcmtiiig iiitlutnce whicli menial culluro 
ikiitl physical coinfoit would esert — our soldiers would soon awre 
tu liBuker for the dull debauchery of the ctiiileen, or for other 
excesses >till incirtj d.iiii'eruus. 



HYGIENE OP THE ARMY IN INDIA. 

It is no uncomJnoti thijig lo hear men, who have liver] in India, 

Bay that if Rumpmns live tcinpemiely, nnJ lake orditniry care, lliey 
may enjoy as good henlth there us here. It is Irue that these are 
moFt who liave come back, und wiio, believing tliey have done bo 
vilh unimpaired henllli, are likely to speak according lo their 
espcrience, forgelting ihe proportion of their contemporaries who 
went ont with liieui, nnil «liu nre resting from their labours in m 
land from wliich tliey will never relnrn. We have ofleti been 
Blruck by the diB'erent way in which those who have returned 
(peak of the climate, from the manner in which those Europeans 
wrile of it who are domicilcii in the country, willi no iaimediuto 
prospect of getting away from it. Excepting the bill cli?trict», 
they seldom have anything lo say in favour of any part of it, anti 
certainly if tlie number of deaths among otficiaU of the highest 
rank be taken a? an indication of the mortality whicii prevails there 
among our couiilrymcn generally, the iidvarilages of u residence 
there onght to be great to compeiisiile for present discomfort and 
permajienlly injured health. In the case of private individuals it 
rests with themselves lo take what precautions they please, but the 
case of the army is ditl'erent, and any suggestions for improving the 
I health of the men are deserving of serious consideration, not entirely 
on account of the men, but also on account of the difficulty nf find* 
iiig recruits, as well as the expense to the country of sending them 
lo India when tliey are |)rocureil. The latest work on the Hygiene 
of the Army in India, is, perhaps, that of Air. Stewart Clark, and 
the account he gives of the conditions under wbicli Eiirojienns live 
in tliut country increases the value of the suggestions he makes for 
improving tliem. 

in a hot country where active exercise is almost impossible, pure 
air is more essenliul li)an in temp<.-rnle climates, where the quajitity 
of oxygen absorbed capable of neutralising the impurities it cont.iius 
rests very much at tlie will of each individual. Unfortunately the 
air of the hirgc cities, towns and villages of India is very far from 
being pure, inilt-e<l, considering the want of cleanliness on t!ie part 
of the natives, and the bad sanitary arrangements, the wonder is 
that rpirlemica itrc not more frequent than they arc. Take the case 



1865.] 



BYOtSIfe OP Tirit ARMY IN tVDIA. 



of Calcutta for example, whicli beiti:; the seal of llie Viceroy, ana 
would sujipose woulil be maile as wlioiesome ns circuTustances woulj 
allow. Its sariilary Birniigeim nls nre exceeiliuglj imperfect, mid a 
source of poiiulioii exisU tliCR-, wliieli if it existed liere would i^lnke 
u« with liorror, A recent reporl, whicli if we reinernbet ri^Ully was 
oificial, sajs "TiiB condition nf tlie river upon liie banks of nliicK 
Culcutla slaiitis, is as abomitmljle as tliat of llie cily itself, I 
lieeil only meiitiou one fact reanirtlin^ it. More tlian five tiiousaiiil 
human corpses Imvc actually bi-eo tlirowii into the river in one year 
from the (jovernineiit HospiltJa alone. 1 am aware that measures 
have been taken b; the Uovernineiit of Bengal for putting a stop 
to thia sliameful practice," Ou llii.i subject, the autlior of " Prnc- 
tical Ob*erv;itions on the II_Vf!''^"<' of ''"' Army in India," says, 
" every one who has seen the llonglilv must hiive been struck with 
the intensely dirty stale of the river. In adilitiun to the sewage 
of the town of Calcutta, and the other towns and villages on the 
banks of the river, thousands of dead bodies and carcases of dc^id 
animnls lloat about in it until the liesb is completely decomposed, 
and the bones fall to the bottom." That the air of the city is not 
worse than it is, may be attributed in great part to the absorption 
of the gases, emitted by the putrid bodies, by the water. But 
with all the eiisling sources of contanilnation in tiie air, it dues 
not appear thnt mutters arc as biid there now, from a satiitar/ 
point of view, as they were wiien the pfpulalioii was comparatively 
small, when it bore the nppeilalioii of " the graveyard of Kuro- 
peaiis," and the deaths of Europeans were so frequent tli.it it waa 
a common oeeiirreuee to see a proce,=sion of cor(i9es, lasting for 
upvtards of an hour, wending its way along wh<it was then called 
Burial Ground Road, and now Park Street; the processions being 
ciiiicealed as much as possible fnmi the si^ht of the ladies, " that 
the vivacity of their tempers might not be wounded." It is true 
ihat one source of mortality existed then which can hardly exist 
now lo anything like t!ie siime extent, namely, small-pox, which 
then curried otf considerable numbers, though the nalives were in 
the habit of practising inuaculatiou extensively by converting the 
coTitagitins matter into powder, mixing it up with some liquid, and 
giving il to the patient to SM'uilow, Their mode of treating patients 
Buffering from dysentery in tliose days, saja Dr. Goodeve, in a paper 
published ujuny years ago on the progress of European uiedeeine in 
the East, was by giving them "an unliniiied supply of wine, 
piU-ius, carries, grilled fowls, and peppered chicken bcolli, with a 
glass or two ot medecine, or a little brandy and water, and a dessert 
of ri|)o fruits," Like European doclors in the olden times, the 
native doctors classed their diseases as hot and cold, and had spicial 
remedies for either; and the Portuguese doctors to acclimatise 
Europeans, prescribed the changing of the European blood in their 
patients' bodies into the native's, not by transfusion, but by re- 
pealed bleeding, until they imagined they hud absttaled all the 



28 



HYGIENK OV THE AHMY JS INDIA. 



[Ja!*. 



former and replacefl it with tliiit produced by the eonsuraplion of 
the prnducts of tlie counlry. Thi? rtate of things has been chiingcd, 
but the mortality in Calcoltn is still very higii, and if so httle litis 
been done iti (he capilnl to improve liie atTiios)ihere, what may we 
not exprct to find to be the cn^c. in biirrnclts in towns of compara- 
tivelj little import mice. AccnrdiiiK to Mr. Clark, the »entilatLoii of 
barracks is too bttlc, find tHe diet of (he army too large. As regarda 
the latter, we ackowlpdge thai ue are surprised at its amount when 
we compare it wilh the dieiarj which 15 conjidered sullicieiit for our 
troops ill this counlry, however cold the wenther may be. In a 
country so hot as India, it must surely be too much to give a man 
daily of meat lib; bread lib; vogptable* lib; rice 4 ounces, salt 
1 ounce. As the irork under consideration has only just bix'n 
issued from the press, «e must conclude that it represeuta iu all 
respects the existing state of things where the contrary is not 
expressly slated ; but we cannot avoid remarking that as re- 
gards one important portion of the dift, that of vegetables, the 
author makes some obs^rv.itions which go to prove that the soldier 
does not get the diet laid down in the scale, .\fter recommending 
the sabstilution of dall and such dried fruits as apricots, raisins, 
plums and dates in lieu of a portion of the meat, he says, " The 
greatest defect in the diet of the Kuropean soldier, ia the want of a 
due amount of vegetables. If the want of a plentiful supply of this 
most e'^ential article of diet is the caUi<enf disease in other groups of 
individuali', why should it not be eqanlly so amongst soldiers? In 
fact they are often so badly supplied with vegetHbles, tliat there can 
be no doubt that dysentery, diiirrlicea, and other complaints which 
very often assume n scorbutic character, may in a great measure be 
attributed to this cause. The two principnl dilBculties connected 
wilh the supply of vegetables for troops are the cultivation of them 
in the first instance, and the inducing the mm to use them after 
they have been pr< cured — a point wh;ch is by no means so easy as 
might be supposed. About two years ago, an application «'a= made 
to the prison departmt-nl relaling to the supply of veget.-ibles for the 
troops from jail gardens, which led to sone enquiries being made 
regarding the probable quantity that would be required, and the 
probability or otherwise of the vegetables being tlirown on the hands 
of the department after they were cultivated. The result was not 
encouraging, and I presume the military department found their in- 
quiries unsatisfactory ; at least the question never took a practical 
form, wliicii it might ea.'ily have done by securing the prison de- 
parlmcnt against loss." 

liow are we to reconcile this witli the dietary table given ? if he 
gets one pound of vegetables daily he has abumlance, and if he does 
not get the vrgetables, we cannot feel satisfied that he gets the 
other articles specified in it. 

We quite agree with Mr. Clark, that the quantity of meat to 
which the soldier is entitled is too large, except, jierhnps during 



1S65.3 HYGIENE OF THE AHMf Id UlDlA* 2i) 

tho cold spflson, and it doea not mend matters llial tbis meat is 
niucli u( it of ihe very worst kind. Tiie bacon and porii, we are 
told, of wliicli tlu'y are very fond and of which tliey eat freely, is 
badly ojul Hithily fed ; the bazaar pii^ are the bazaar sciivoniicrs, 
and their flesli, when kept for even a short time, actually smells 
of the very tillh on which they hud been livijig. Knowing as wc 
nil do Ihal tlie most serious disensea may be enf;endered by the nse 
of diseased meat, it saeraa hardly credible that the povernmeut 
which pays so much attention to ihe quality of the food fupplifd 
to' our army in this country, should sulTer tiie continuance of such 
B stale of thin_[;s in a oounlry where the cost of every soldier is so 
much greater ihaii here. As if it were not bad enough that the 
meat should be of such inferior quality, the arranfifementa for cnok- 
ing it are not better. Here again we quote from the author, that 
it may not be supposed we esiiggerate his statemants by putting 
them into other words. "The mode for cuokiiip and the cook- 
looms are most defective, and in many instances filtliy to a degree. 
Tile preparation of tlie food is usually conducted on a dirty mat, 
spread on the floor of the cook-house, t be luxury of a clean dresser or 
table being rare The cook-rooms, instead of being well- 
lighted and properly defended from flies, external dust, and filth, 
are dirty, amoky places open to every filth that may be blown their 
way." 

The quality of the food must of necessity affect the health of 
the men, and in considering the subject of the mortality among 
our troops in India, it must always be difficult to assign the reLitive 
influence exercised by food and wattr. We have had occasion to 
pjieak recently of the great care taken by the inilitary authorities 
to ensure that soldiers shall have the purest water obtainable and 
in ample quantity. In India it is not always possible to give the 
desired quantiiy, and it is still more difficult to procure this in a 
alote of anything like purity under existing arrangements. Tlie 
wells are on the average under forty feet m depth, and this might, 
though it greatly depends on the nature of the soil through which 
it is Bllered, remove the organic impurities which it comes in con- 
tact with when it falls on the surface. But however pure the 
water of the well in.ny be, it is quite certain that if natives are 
permitted to wa-sh themselves on the edge of the well, and let 
Ihe water tliey have used run bnck into il, as well as that Lhi'y 
use in washing their filthy cluthing, it mu!<t nrcessmily become 
badly contamirniled wiib organic matter of the worst kind, es- 
pecially when several hundreds of persons do this daily. But if 
the water of the wells ia bad, that of many of the tanks is inlinitcly 
Worse, "for if the bathers do not go into llicui bndily, eviry drcij) 
of water, as it runs n|f them and is wrung from tiieir net clothes, 
reluniH into the tank." Nor ia this tlie oidy source whence the 
water of welU derives its impurities. Being unrtivered, every wind 
that blows carries with it orijonic impurities which fall into them 



so 



BysiBNB OP -me auki in ikdia. 



pAir. 



mid flojit on llie surface, nnd as tlie water carripr lias only a leather 
bucket for Jrawing tlie woler, it is quite cerlaiii tliat llii' snldicr 
gels his full slwre of these impurities. As a matter of course, where 
the waler is obtsincd from rivers, it is, os a rule, iniich lew |)iiro 
tlian tliiit got from well?, in cori^icquence of the pracli'ie of throw- 
ing dead boilifs into them, thou";li Mr. Clark docs not n|)pear to 
sllach so much imporlance lo thi$ as we should be inclined lo do; 
for he says that he has seen bodies hanging across the bows of I he 
filler boat while the water in which they lloa ted was hcing pumjjed into 
the casks on board the ship beside whicli it was lying. Tlie tillering 
process it undenvetit was merely uominsil, yet, though he hail many 
opportunities of doing so, he could never trace any evileU'eclsfo 
its use during the voya_>re lo England. According lo Mr. Clark, 
the Army Medical Uegulatioiis wliich direct the Medical OlHoers 
to pay strict regard to the qunlity of the waler, do not extend lo 
India. Moreover it would be of little use if ihey did, unless tho 
representations of the olGcers could bring about n change in tho modu 
of supply, such as deep boring and the use of pumps. Bui he is 
not a very strong believer in the opinion thai cholera and dysentery 
are produced or much alTccled by the woter drank, and these being 
the principal evils which affect the health of our troops in India, 
it is inoporlant lo consider «lial his experience leads him to believe 
lo be the chief cause of these epidemics, and the remedy he suggests 
for their jnitigation or removal. 

The principal cause of llie heavy mortality among our Indian 
troops then, he attributes to the want of pure air. As tlie union of 
two gnses will produce a fluid so destructive of most organic 
substances as sulphuric acid, we cannot doubt that Hie presence of a 
small quanlilv of some foreign ga^es in ihe air may, on coming in 
contact willi Ihe blood at the lungs, so poison it as lo excite the 
diseases so common in India. But even witliout imagining that any 
peculiar action is produced by this eaufe, we can Imve no sort of 
doubt that air loadt'd with the foul exhahilioiis from men's bodies, 
combined with Hie particles of organic matter whicli mu?t abound 
in a room where a number of men have uncliitlied themselves, 
cannot fail lo produce a most injurious effect on those who inhale 
them. That these particles of organic matter excite a kind of 
putrefactmn of ihe blood is probable, since we know llmt if they 
are treated in certain ways ihey give off a putrid odour. The time 
wlicn the men brejithe these purtioles in greatest quantity is pre- 
cisely when the vitality is at lis lowest paint, that is, when asleep ; 
the blood is grndiially corrupted thereby, and, finally, tho spark is 
kindled into a flame, and cholera is developed. 

The rapidity with which the disease is ]iroduced and ils virulence 
mu't depend greatly on the quantity of air allowed to each indivi- 
dual. In the stagnant atmosphere of India it is evident that greater 
space should be allowed, or effeclual means adi^pted for changing 
tlie air incessantly by artiliciul ventdalion. tor Ihis purpose, 



1865.] 



HYDIirNB ClF THB ABMT IN ISDIA. 



31 



]>QTil>ahs are declared by the antlior to be eiitirolj iiieflioient; they 
BffitiiLe tlieair, Slid by iacrensiiig t lie evaporation from tlie surface 
of the body produce a scmatioii of cuolne's, but tlie air in the 
room reniuiiis unchaiijjed. In most of lUe old barracks in the 
Nottii We.'t Provinces, tlie average allowance of breathing apace per 
mau is under sixty cubic feet, and the air in tiiis limited space he 
bas to breathe over and over again, for where the temperoture of 
the external air is pretty nearly ihe same 09 that of the inlerior, 
however tiumeroiis the opmiiigs in tlie apartment may be, the nir 
will remain almost unchanged, while these numerous openings will 
allow llie temperature of the room to be lowered at the same lime 
as, though at a slower rate Ihnn ihe external air is cooled louanis 
the early moriiiiij;; conseijuenlly, the bodies of llie sleepers which 
have been covered witb perspirulioii all nii^ht nill bo cooled duwn to 
a dangerous point at the very time wlieii lliey are gelling their 
soundest sleep, and the evils arising from this cause are considered 
by very bigh authorities to be of exceeding gravity, and likely to give 
rise to fatal coniplaiiKs. The space allolteil to each soldier is, it is 
greatly to be fe^ired, much less than is requisite for bis maintenance 
in bealth, apart from llie additional evil of iuefBcient vcntilatiou. 
Even when tiie men are sleejiing in tents the case is no better, and 
therefore the mere sending them away from barracks when an epiijcmic 
breaks out is not likely lo be of mucii benefit : such openings sa there 
are in them the men commonly close wherever that is practicable, and 
too many are crowded into tlic same Ipnl, Not only that, Ibcy 
have to sleep on the ground, and thongli the natural tendency of llie 
air exhaled by the lungs is at lirst upwards oti account of th<; heat 
it contains, yet if not carried olt by a current of fiesh air admitied 
from below, it will by its sivecilic gruvity gradually sink down to ihe 
ground ami be inhaled again and ag:iin. As a parlial remedy for 
this, Mr. Clark proposes that the men should carry with theiu liglit 
iron folding bedsteads, which they should also use in barracks 
instead of the cumbrous wooden ones they use at present. Tbe 
objection that there might be a difficulty in trans porting these, seem 
to be met by his staleinciit that in ordinary mRrchea sixteen caits 
would be suHicieut for the coiivevatice of these bedslcads for a 
regiment a thousand strong, as well as tbe ve.nlilatiiig apparatus he 
proposes to u^e to make tlie tents a^ wholesome to sleep in as any 
barracks in EiigUiid. 

Wo are thorouglily persuaded that the authorities on whom rests 
the responsibility of tlte management of our army, require only lu 
have a method of diniimstiing tlie present frightful inorlality in our 
Indian army siiljuiilli'd tu them, to give it. their most atlenlive cnn- 
sideration. 'I'be principal objecis, apparently, of the ent;inei-r, 
whose work we have been exaniintng, is to sluw that the causi; uf 
the mortality is imperfect veiitilatiun, ami lo prove that tlie "ple- 
num " principle, which is that employed by the. late Dr. Heid, wiili 
such modititutions as he suggests is capable of making soldiers' 



88 nVOIBNB OP THE ABMY IN ISDIA. [JtX. 

quarters in In(iin, whether barracks or Itnts, more healthy to live 
in ihun ihey am in this cuiirilry. We have nut space to di^seribo 
the (iilTeretit kinds of apparatus he would einploj' in elficlirif; tliia 
object, nor is ibcre tlnit dei^rec of novelty in tbem Hint rtmi-'trs it 
necessary; their principal value cunsijtint; in their being cliostn 
especiulty lo meet the reriuirements of an Indian BtinospliPi-i' by oiio 
who bas had consiilerabii; experience of the climiile, and who has 
made it hin particular busiiieps to study such miiltcrB. At 6M 
Right, it would appear that there would be some difficulty in getliuij 
men iiitelli;;ent enou);h lo look after the engine* and niaciiinrry 
tliut Would be required to carry out his projections, without tukiuft 
out a considerable number of pkilled workmen at a gn-at expense. 
That any expense incurrt-d in cirrying out icnproveineiits which 
would really effect the object of rendenuft the barracka thoroughly 
healthy, would be real economy, is evident, but Mr. Clark »u^'j,'est9 
that it would not be necessary to dj lliisi, tb.it an abundant 
supply of labour might be obtained from atnoni^ the soldier* them- 
selves by giving them extra pay, which would likewise tend to keep 
the.n in good health. They might be employed in carrying out 
draiiiage works, in removing matters from the vicinily of their 
quarters, which though likely to produce the inosl injurious eft'ecis 
if allowed to remain there, would be invaluable if employed in the 
cultivation of gardens by the men for their own benefit. They 
Blight also be employed in the performance of many otiier works 
which would greatly improve their condilion, and add lo tbeir com- 
fort if it were once determined so to employ them. 

In considering the various improvements wliich the author pro- 
poses shiiuld be made, the cost of making them is an important 
Dialler for consiilerali.m. Ilis estimate Tor a ateum-engine, pipes, 
aud every requisite fur carrying out a perfect system of ventilation ; 
for water-works on a most complete scale, to ensure an abundant 
supply of good, wholesome water j icf-making machines, conser* 
vancy, ranges of waah-band basons, sliower-bafhs, ami a swimming- 
bath, for a reLjiment of 1,000 men, amounts to !)l,3t)0 rupees. 
For the ventilating apparatus for tlie same number of ineri in camp, 
and for muveable filters on carriages, 2lJ,8'iO rupees. Tlie grand 
tots) for nn army of 7<',000 men is a Lrge one, but according to 
Mr. Clark's estimate, ba.'ed on the lowest ground, the money value 
of the lives s;ived, «ould in two years be more than sufficient lo 
balanee the outlay. 

Oilier sugget-ti.jns are made for improving the condition of our 
Indian Army by the author of ihe '■ ilygiene of the Army in India," 
but the chief sulgect (ur consideration il contams, is that we have 
just ri-ferrecl lo, viz. : arliUcial ventiialion, and to this we would call 
the special altentiun of the I^Iiiiister in whose hands is vested the 
control of our Army in India. 



K 



Ifi65.] 33 



CAMPAIGN OF MAEENGO. 

(strategy.) 

BI UEDOK. 

Napoleon Bonaparte — whose career strangely resembles tlie 
reckless flight of him who, wlien released from his gloomy prison 
by Sin and Dea'h, unhesitatingly plunged into the boundlesa 
realms of Chaos anil Night; 

" At last his sail-broad vans 
He spreads for flight, and in the surging smoke 
Uplilteit spurns the ground ; thence many a league. 
As in a cloudy chair, ascending rides 
Audacious ; but, that seat soon failing meets 
A vast vacuity." 

Napoleon Bonaparte had now ascended the chair of the dictator, 
which he was shoiily to transform into the throne of the Emperor. 
Sin and death had indeed contributed to open the " adamantine 
gates" for the egress of the giant intellect, for which tbe world was 
too small. Sin and Death, alas t sin and death were to assist its 
development, to accompany its course, and to mark its decline, 
when the elements alone could accomplish its destruction. 

At the period of Napoleon's elevation to the consulate, the future 
prospects of the French naiion were clouded by the disasters that 
had occurred during the languid rule of the Directory, The violent 
impulse, communicated to the people, by an enthusiastic faith in 
the wild theories of the Bevolulion, had yielded, at length, to the 
cold realities of the practical world. Feelings of exhaustion, of 
discontent, and of terror, the usual re.cults of reaction on ihe 
human passions, had fallen oo the relaxed minds of the revolutionists, 
attended by tliat dreary sensation of despair, which according as it 
is dealt with, is at once the forerunner of ruin, or the cause of 
extraordinary good fortune. 

The five individuals, who had held the directorial power, were 
nnable to deal with the exigencies of the country. Sailing on a 
troubled sea, their only hope was to keep their ressel afloat until 
the storm should subside or drive it into some haven of chance, 
where peace and security might be found. Their hope was vain. 
For them the stonn would not subside, and they and their vessel 
were lost amidst its convulsive throes. But then a ship of war was 
launched, which for long, despising alike the angry rage, or the 
penceful calm of the elements, navigated with haughty pride 
and supernatural skill, the restless waves of the ocean. It was 
wrecked, however, by their repealed efforts, and its shattered hulk 
was finally dashed to pieces on the fatal rock of St. Helena. 

At first the power of the dictator was anything but firmlv 
eatftblishi'd. At this time his character was u»(,\e\?s>di^ vmv\e^^^EK&.. 

U. 8. Mao. No. 4:14, 3a**. \li6!l, ^ 



34 



CAMPaiGN OF MAKENGO. 



[Jas. 



He was saiTounded by sll the un scrupulous military lenders of the 
Etvolution, who viewed his elevation with very questionable 

sentiments, and those of them who were uol bound lo liim by 
ties of petsonfti regard did not hesilnip to express opinions I 
extremely hoalile to hi? government, and tliu obvious tcnricncy of 
his ajnbilion. His equals in birth, they had risen from obscurity, 
as lie hiid done, by the exercise of their talents ; and so Tur as 
physics! service, or the giving and the receiving of hniii blows, 
may be accounted meritorious, tliey considered themselves to be hia 
superiors on the field of bailie. Il is in fict the pecnlinr misfortune 
of genius that its grent qualiiies are rarely appreciated except by 
posterity. When it is uiiaccompanitd therefon- by a bold and 
vigorous physical orgnnizalion, it generally sinks beneath the 
fstimation in whicli its inferior contempuraries ore held. Its 
eccciitric condui:t often excites ridicule, and its odd B|ipenr.»nce 
sometinies produces langhler; so it retires from the world, and 
seizing its own great wtyipnn, the wenpon which is more punerfiil 
than the club of Hercules, or the speur of the Philistiue, it laboura 
diligently for the instruction of agi'sto come. 

Napolton was gifted wiih genius of the highest order; but 
Nature had also endowed hiai with a nervous system that could 
enbdue and bend alli'thcr nervous systems lo do its will. It had 
formed his features in the calm repose in which real power alwais 
displays itself, and before nhich weaker mankiml Lows in awe. In 
fine. Nature had produced on earth a materiirl parallel of tliat 
spiritual existence whose pride drove it into rebellion against ihe 
Almighty, and whose fall dragged millions to etern^il punishment, I 
Meii of this kind retire indeed into seclusion; but it is ilie seclusion 
of a fervid intelligence buried in the profound depths of intellectual 
rrflection, and cut off from all sympathy with physiciil rniture. 
Subtle, cold, pitiless, inflixible, such men are solitary in the midst 
of thousands. Single-iianded they struggle with the masses for 
Diiiveraal dominion. They are defeated, and convertingdefeat iiilo 
victory lliey succeed. In ilie course of time they yield; but il is 
death who is then their vanqui^her. 

The way for the career of Napoleon had been prepared by cir- 
cumstances. The people of France had for ages submitted their 
necks to the yoke ofa cruel and a haughty nohility. llopehss, and 
helpless, they had yielded to the doom which appeared to be the 
irresistible decree of a malevolent fate. For ages the story of their 
wrongs, transmitted from father to son, had been acquiring new 
and more dreadful features of horror; and for ages vengeance 
unappeased had been acquiring additional force in the breasts of 
the oppressed pi'ople of France. At length the endunince of 
nature is exhausted, and the accumulated vengeance of ages falls 
with fearful violence on the heads of the tyrannical nobility. The 
Revolution sweeps over the country like a mighty torrent leaving 
naught bat confusion, and anarchy, and rulu in Its track. The 



1805.] 



C4MPAIGK OP MAHFNGO. 



35 



Bocial orgsnkation of classes ond orders is dissolved. The solid 

fuiiiidHtion n-hich constitutes the true busts of government gives 

Sihice Ui ati ideoi svslem unsubalnntiui as the moniiiig vapour, and 
''niiice btcornes ibeliuid orplmiitoios, visions, dreams, and pliailona. 
NHture tliud violaleiH, refuscil aubmisiion to tlie control of ordimiry 
men, and ai>[)oinle<l, at once, a ruler and an avenger. 

In this manner does Nature sometimes point out the man *lio is 
able to rule and avenge. And in souie such manner also does she 
gel rid of him, should his ruling and avenfiing come to lun foul of 
her laws and precepts. Ye that rule, and je that arc ruled, shull walk 
in llie paths which I liavc traced with an unerring Iinnd; otherwise 
lliey sholl be swept from tliy view, and confusion, and anarcliy, and 
rum, will rnge among je for years, even to the end of time. 
Wliither thr-n art thou going, foolish man ! ILiat thou not 
health, and strength, and food, and raiment, a path before thee, 
and eyes to see it ? But now Nature, in a rude way, has set a 
ruler over the Krencli ; has set him on high amidst glory and 
l>oHer, and the hearts of Ihe people are in liis grasp, Wliere then 
is thy ]ialh, O Napoleon? 

During the time ihiit Gi'nernl Bonaparte reinsined in EL^pt, a 
congress was held at Kaaladt, which had laid the materinls for a 
general conflagralion. Austria had refused to accept of the terms 
ihere proposed by the Directory, and Eufiland, and Eiissia had 
resolved to assist her in contesting llie pretentions of the Rt^puhlic. 
In Ihe month of Slnrch, I7H9, the French comuieticed the war on 
all sides, and on all sides they were defeated and driven back. The 
armies which had entered Germany were forced to recnisa the 
Ithiiie. Mftcdonald was routed by Suwitrrolf", in the valley of the 
Trebbia. Jonbert, who had been despatched into Italy with a 
fresh force to stem the tide, was defeated and sluin at the battle of 
Nuvi. Finally, nothing remained to the Republic of all its conquests, 
but Uolluiid, and SwilKerland, Aided by EngUnd and Russia, 
Austria had been almo>t entirely snccessful; but evil days were ap- 
proaching; were now indeed at hand. 

Austrian armies could invade France on two hues. First, by 
ascending the valley of the Danube, or secondly, in a morecircuiluus 
way, by traversing the 'lyrid, and ascending the vailt-y of ihePo; 
or they might advance by both of these lines at tlie same lime. In 
Ihe hist race, as in the year InOO, so long as the respective masses 
coniinued abreast of the Tyrol, they could communicate freely with 
each other tlirough the rnoutilaiii passes of that country, as it re- 
mained in possession of the Austrian Government. But when thev 
should advance lo«iird!i the Rhine into Suabia on the one side, mid 
towards the Alps into Picdinont on the ot)ier, then liieir lateral 
communications would be iniprne|ilpd hy SwiUerland. which re- 
mained in possession of the French Government. Under such 
circmnslaiices, commnn sense would surely indicate the valley of 
the Danube, or llie shorltst route, as the real line of invasion; and 

u2 



OiMPAlON O? MAREyOO. 



P*N. 



the vailey of tlic To, or tlie longest route, as Ibe fnUe line of 
i!iva?ioii. The Aiistrintis, therefore, evincing pome reeanl for 
common aense, shouM hnve a>8iiiiieii the offensive in ficrmiiny with 
an ovcrwhrl'iiiriii for""!', nml in ihe meniitimt*, wilii a smaller force, 
have mniiilaiiieil n defl'll^■ive ;itiilu<le in Italy, until tlie army of 
Germanv hafl struck a vigoriins blow iri the lifait nf tlu' enemy's 
terrilories. Then the army of Idily. hducvi-r sm;i|l, a ivancint; in 
fecuriiy on its own line of invnsinn, would luive ovcraweJ Ihe soulh 
of FrHfice, and aiivaTitiigpously cmilribiited to t lie conquest of Ihfi 
whnle country. But the Guvarnment heing misleil by llie result of 
the ppevnin:^ cnmijaiftn in Ilnly, and their iillenlioii beiiiy comjiietely 
absorbed by a desire of retniiiing pusse-siim nf iheir Ilulian ac- 
quiailiniis, resolved to dn ihe very reverse. Thus K ray and his 
army in the number of 12ii,000 men, senltered over a joit;; line, 
reaching from the frotitiers of Swilzerland tj thn Main, were ordered 
to contitme inactive ; while Meli? and his army of liO,OUO men in 
Picrlmont, were ordered to as'utne the oll'enaive, to cross the 
A[n*niiines, and the River Var, ind to invade Provence. 

These erroM were in a |;reat measure occasjjned by an ill-eon- 
trived system vfhich the Anstrinns had iido|)ted for ihe administra- 
tion and eonirol of their armies, A mure di-conlrived syslem of 
administratioti^Tid cojiltnl, in Irnib, ihe most imbecile OuvernmiMit 
in the world could hardly aflopl, viz- : The natural and artiQcial 
features of the tueatrc of war ; tlie lofty mnimtiiiti rangi-s with tiieir 
craggy precipices and deep valleys; (he spncrous plains studded with 
forests, Hud intersected by gre it rivers and winding streams ; tha 
capital rities, the inferior towns, and the smaller vidni-'i's, willi tlieir 
intncnle net-work of communications, were all, with the aid of the 
artist, reproduced in miniature, and represnued nn a smnolli surfaee 
in the form of lines, curve*, and diila. The iheafre of war thus 
constructed, was submitted to the scruliny of a number of drilled 
men, who were aecuslomed to assemble daily in n secluded chinnber 
in lite ciiy of Vienna. Their chief occupation was of a miliiary 
chnracler; but they had formerly other duties of a courllv nature lo 
perform, and tiiey had therefore aci|uireil the name of the Aulic 
Conned. Assisted by the printed observation-' of travellers, the 
despalches n'ceived Irom the seal of war, and the proiilic vi!,'our of 
imasiiialion, winch re.-ulls from a severe course of oiliciid drill, these 
men undertook lo control and dirrct, at a distance, the measures 
of the commanderain-ehief of the Austrian armies. 

The commander-ii'-chief iiiraself wa* always seleeled from a cla=9 
of iifiicers in whom mature a|ie had ciiilled the lire which prompts 
youthful generals lo seek for vietnrv in ihe midst of de.'trucMon ; 
and Lo whom experience had laiiLiht the wisdom of obeying, and tlie 
sad results of resisting de^polic aulhority. Otieyed by such cura- 
maud(Ts-i II -chief, so con^liluled, and so situated at a distance of 
several hundred miles from the theatre of war, it is not a matter of 
surprise that llie Auhc Council should sometimes commit grave 



1865.] 



OAUPAIGN OF H^RSNGO. 



S7 



errors; Drid t.Ims tlieir airangeinenla, as alrcwJy mentioiied, in the 
yrnr JKOU, were ?ucli as could liardly fail to ensure ibc defeat of 
tlii'ir arniies. 

In llie most skiKullj arranged plan of campaign, liowever, there 
will always occur one or more errors of cancepiion, or one or more 
errors of execution, wliicli will lay it open to di-leal. The Aul-C 
Council had previoii^iT n^cerlaitied, b_v rejieated etftirls, that S^iizer- 
hind was iLii|iref;Tialile, so in this instance they left it out of iheir 
cnlciilaliuns idlu^ielhi'r, 'I'hi^y resolved to assunie llic od'eiiaivi! in 
Italy on ihe loii^jcsl line of itivasinn, and to rcinnin on the defeuaive 
ill Gerraanj on the shortest line of invasion. Tliuse were ermrs of 
Conct-jitioN. Marslial Knij? scattered bis ariiiy over sucli an extent 
of country, ihat t!ie fraclions of il were exposed to ihe altuck of j 
the enerav's masses. Marslinl Melns, as it wdl be seen, ii'-^lcctedl 
to provide for tlie safety of liis coimnunications nilh hia basis jF] 
op'Tirtions. These tt'ero errors of execution. The ability to dis- 
cuver this inevitable error, or defect, is one of the dialinguished 
cliaracterisiica uf a gnat leader, and accoidiitgly a single ghiiite at 
the position of Swiizerlund on (he map of Kurope, revealed to 
Napoleon the advnulagcs which he mi^'lit hope to obliiin I'rjui ihe 
pjsse.^sion of ihat couiiiry ; and selecting it as a point of depaiiure, 
lie evolved a general scheme of opcraiion, that io the end of time 
will render his name illDStrious aiiiong^t the great masters of the 
military art. ■ 

His conce])tion was at once grand and simple. While the 
imperial array of the left w;ia battering al the gjtes of " Geiiova la 
Snperba," and its ngfd ici-ncr;il dreaming ol cunquist in Provence and 
llie south of France, the Man of Ufsliny would, with his invincible 
legions, scale tlie snow-clad summils of the Alps, and descending 
on the Binilini' phiiiia of Italy, like a storai-tloud, would pour 
trouble, and terror, and destruction on Ihe rearward tr.icta of the 
invading forces. While Kray and the army of the rifilit, dispersed 
over a wide surface, were Inlled to rest in fancied security. General 
Moreau, with the army of the Uhine, Io tlie number of 130,000 
men, issning fruin Schaffhauren, would steal upon their fl;nik and 
rear, cut them off from Yiennn, and force them to fight for lile and 
safety. Tlins, by making a skdful use of Switzerland us a centre of 
operations. Napoleon aimed at nothing le?s than tlie uller an- 
nihilaliiin of the cnrmy's niassea. By a single blow deuU on each 
eide, Italy would be reconquered, Germany over-run, the cuurls of 
Europe terrilied, and an imperial dyuasly established in France. 
These marvellous results were all obi lined. Italy w;i9 reconquered, 
Germany was over-run, the European Courts were >truck dumb 
with amazement, and an almost imperceptible little man, from an 
nliDOst unnolicible little Island in ihe Mediterranean, climbed up, 
and seated himself upon, an imperial throne. 

Here ia a fact to think of, O, ye pale students! Ye who are 
yet imperceptible and little, lliin and lauky it uiay be, with care and 



tn 



0AHPA1QN OF KAREsao. 



[Jas. 



weary watcliings ihrougli ilie hoars of night. HtaltL and slren^tlt 
have Jcpurterl, hikI footi and rnimciil are for ye but a poor tnntler. 
15ut linst lliou not a soul, 0, |i.ile student, in tliat tliin ond Innlty 
body of thine ? A soul, indestructible, iiumoitnl, wliicli will enable 
theeta Iriuin|iii Je^jiite lliy lliiniie*?, and Uiy lankincK', tliy dejinrkd 
heoltli, and lliy wasted sirenatli. Docs not nntnre, tlir(iui;h the 
spirit which is in tiiee, cry aloud, and urge thee forward upon tliy 
path? Courage then, O einacialed man I Whatsoever ihou hast 
got to do, do it with all thy niiiiht, and thou shidt yet, exparidttig 
into plump fatness, become a very kinj; nmong^t men. 

All the available forces of I'Vance were apparently assembied on 
the Rhine and in Lignria. The army of the Riiine was commanded 
by Genera! Aforeau, and amounted to the number of 13U,000 men ; 
but Massena, who commanded in Liguria, had no more than 
S6,UU0 men under arms. On these grounds then, the Aulic 
Council projectid their plan of operations. Aware that the warm 
climate of Italy would enable Uelas to commence his march at 
a much earlier period than Kroy in Germany, they conjectured, tliat 
when llie former should have penetrated inio Provence, Napoleon 
would find it necessary, having; no other forces at his disposal, to 
weaken tlie army of the Rhine, in order to reinforce Mnssena. In 
which case, Kray, assuming the oli'ensive, would immediately ad- 
vance in his turn, and it was but natural lu suppose, that Im would 
easily defeat and disperse a reduced and dispirited enemy. In this 
manner, Switzerland, against which the Aulio Council had formerly 
knocked their lieada in vain, would, so to spe;ik, be strangled be- 
tween the Austrian masses, Kray and Melas lugging violently at 
each end of the string ; and tlie steeples of Paris, though still a 
long way off, would nevertheless nppeur visible on llie horizon. 

This plan was altogether hypothetical. Now the principles of 
war are so plain and simple, that they can he easily coinprehended 
by the iowest degree of military intellijience. It is by no means 
difficult, therefore, to construct an extremely elaborate, and un- 
exceptionable hypothetical plan of campaign. With an excellent 
map before him, indeed, and a volume of General Jomini'a Art of 
War at his elbow, an ensign of six months standing may chalk out, 
on a given theatre, successive systems of opentions, which will 
appear absolutely faultless to the theoretically disposed military 
mind. On such a theatre, he may skilfully assail, and satisfactorily 
defeat and annihilate all the armies of his Russian Majesty — tliat is 
to say, hypothetically. But what, if your hjpotliesis do not occur? 
What if events precisely the contrarj' of your hypothesis do occur ? 
\V)iy then it will be necessary for your commander-in-chief, in the 
midst of uproar and contusion, in the midst of dire disasters it may 
be, instantly to divest his mind of a number of ideas, which have 
possibly become fixed there by a long course of thought and study. 
Nay, he wilt not only have to do this, but he luust immediately con- 
ceive another plan of operations in accoidnnce with the unforeseen 



1865.J CAHPAIGM O? MAEENGO, 39 

transactions wliicb are now occurring so rapidly around biiii. Ilia 
presence will he ri.'t|uired at diirer<-(]t points of tlie lliealre of war 
at tlie same moment, as the enemy will be here, there, and every- 
where. A iuiiidrt'd contradictory reports will reaeli hiiu during llie 
space of five minutes, and during llie same space of lime he will 
be harassed by a number of apidkutions, to eaeli of which a decided 
answer must be relumed. Verily your commatider-iii-chief may 
consiiler hitnsell furlunale, if, under such circumi^tances, he alio u Id 
eecape with liis life, nud a sane mind. 

Tills is exactly what happened to his Excellency, Field-Marshnl 
the Baron von Mtlas, in the first year of the present century. The 
Aidic Council baviiig adopted their phn, and having modi&ed and 
arnuiged it according to tlieir pleasure, inslriicl*d him to seize 
Genoa, to march rapidly on Nice, and finally having crossed the 
Van, to invade the south of France. Accordingly the Barun vou 
Melas attempts — though in a somewhat careless uiauuer as regards 
tbe safety of your excellency's communications — to do this very 
thing. Nor are his first attem|its unsuccessful. Tlie Freiicli line 
is speedily intersected, and General Snchet and the left wing, 
being thus placed in a hopeless and forlorn situation, liave to beat a 
retreat towards the Var; widch river, after sundry rude jostlinga 
and demurring?, Sucbct and the left wing find it their interest to 
cross. On ihe olber hand, Massena and the right wing:, fighting 
valiantly for tiflcpn days, but fii:liting in vain, are at leiigtii over- 
powered by superior numbers, and driven into Genoa, where they 
are cloiely besieged by General Ott and 25,000 men, detached to 
do this important duty, and wl:)ere famine and discise having 
reduced theai In the last degree of misery and want, they shall 
shortly capitulate. And now the Baron von Melas, elated by 
victory, and basking in the smiles of fortune, advanees to complete 
his task. Already lie treads tlie territories of the hostile Kcpublie, 
from whom lie has wrested the la^t foot of her Italian possessions. 
He now enters the city of Nice in triumph, and the south of France 
compara'ively destitute of defenders, lies temptingly open befora 
him. Already he issues orders for the march of bis conquering 
soldiers, when — lo! as if by encliantment, an army of 60,000 
men is descending upon your excellency's communictitiuns. 

As if by enchantineiil 1 What if your hypothesis du not occur? 
In which case your ordinary general invariably finds himself in 
tbe abyss. 80 far was Napoleon from reducing the army 
of the Kliine, that at one time he bad almost determined to rein- 
force, and take the cooimand of it himself; but circumstaiicea 
occurred to cliange bis determination, and he finally resolved to 
cross tbe Alps with tbe army of reserve. " Melas is in Alexandria." 
said be to bis secretary, on the 17tb of Maruli. " In Alexandria 
he baa his artillery, his magazines, his hospitals, his reserves. 
There he wdl remain until Geuoa is taken. I'assing tim Alps here 
(at tbe Great St. Deiuaid), I shall fall upon Melas and cut ulT 



88 



CAHPAIGM OP MaRENQO. 



[Jam. 



weary watcliings tlirough tlie liours of night. Ilesltli and atrtuij^tl) 
ImvB deported, and fouil ami rnioienl are for je but a poor matter. 
But ha^t tliou not a s>iiil, 0, pale student, iu tliat thin and lanky 
body of tliiue ? A soul, iiidtstructible, immorlnl, wliicli will enable 
thee to trioni))li despite tliy thiniie-s, and lliy lankiries;^, tliy departed 
lieaitli, anil lliy wasted sirens^tli. Does not nature, tlitough the 
spirit wliicli is in lliee, cry aloud, and urge thee forward upon tiiy 
path? Courage then, emaciated man! Whatsoever thou hast 
got to do, do it with all thy mi^ht, and thou sluilt yet, expanding 
into plump fatness, become a very kin;^ nuiong*t men- 
All the available forces of Frunce were apparently a.°sembled on 
the Khine and in Ligurin, The army af the liliinc was commanded 
by General Moreau, and aiiiounii-d lo the number of 1SU,000 men; 
but Massena, who commatided in Ligtiri;i, had no more than 
36,U00 men under arms. On these grounds then, the Aulio 
Council projected their plan of operations. Aware thai the warm 
cUmate of Italy would enable Kielaa to commence liia march at 
a much earlier period than Kray in Germany, they conjectured, that 
when llie former should h.ive penetrated into Provence, Napoleon 
would find it necessary, liaving no otlier forces at his disposal, to 
weaken the army of the Rliine, in order to reinforce Ma^.'^ena. In 
which case, Kray, assuming the offensive, would immediately ad- 
vance in his turn, and it was but natural to suppose, that he uould 
easily defeat and disperse a reduced and dispiiiled enemy. In this 
manner, Switzerland, against which the Aulic Council had formerly 
knocked their heads in vain, would, so to speak, be strangled be- 
tween the Austrian masses, Kray and Melaa luj.'ging violently at 
each end of tlie siring; and the steeples of Puns, though still a 
long way olF, would nevertheless appeiir visible on the horizon. 

This plan was altogether liypotiietical. Now the principles of 
war are so plain and simple, that they can be easily comprehended 
by the lowest degree of military intelligence. It is by no means 
difficult, therefore, to construct an e^tremely chibnrate, and un- 
eiceptionable hypothetical plan of campaign. With an excellent 
map before him, indeed, and a volume of General Jomini's Aj't of 
"War at his elbow, an ensign of six months standing may clialit out, 
on a given theatre, successive systems of operations, which will 
appear absolutely faultless to the theoretically disposed military 
mitid. On such a theatre, he may skilfully assail, and satisfactorily 
defeat and antiiliilalc all the armies of his Russian Maje*ty^tliat is 
to say, Inpothetically. But what, if your hypothesis do not occur f 
What if events precisely the contrary of your hypothesis do occur P 
Why then it will be necessary for your commander-in-chief, in the 
midst of uproar and confusion, in the midst of dire disasters it may 
he, instantly to divest his mind of a number of ideas, which have 
possibly become Used there by a long course of thought and study. 
Nay, he will not only have to do this, but he must immediately con- 
ceive auollier plan of operations iu accordance with the unforeseen 



18G5.J 



CAHFAIQM OP MARENOO. 



tratisftclions which are now occurring so ragjidty sroiiTid liim. Hia 
presence will tie required nt (lifferi-DL [ininla of the thealre of war 
ai the same moment, as the ent'my will be iiere, tliere, anil every- 
where. A hundred contradictory reports will reitch liiiii during (he 
splice of five miimli's, nnd Juriiig llie came space of time he will 
be harua.'eil by a number of npphcations, to each of wliich a decided 
answer must be reiurned. Verily your commaiider-in-cliief may 
consider himself fortunate, if, under such circumstances, he sitould 
eecBpe wilh his hfe, niid a sane mind. 

This is exactly what iiappeiied lo his Escellency, Field-Marshal 
the Daron von Mela*, in the first year of the present ceiilury. Tiiu 
Auiic Council having adopled their phn, nnd having modified and 
arr.inged it according to their pleasLire, iuslriicl«d him to ?ci/.e 
Genoa, to tuareh rapidly on Nice, and finally having cruised the 
Var, lo inva.le the sootli of France. Accordingly ihe Baron von 
Mtlas attcmpls — though in a somewhat careless manner as regards 
the safety of your excellency's communications — -to do this very 
tiling. Nor are his first attempts onsnccessful. The French line 
is speedily intersected, and General Muchet and the left wing, 
being tliua placed in a hopeless and forlorn situation, have to beal a 
relnat towards the Vur; which river, after sundry rude joathngs 
and dumurriiigs, Suchet and the left wing find it their interest to 
cross. On the other hand, Massena and tlie right wing, ligluing 
valiantly for fifteen days, but li.^'hting in vain, are at length over- 
powered by superior numbers, and driven into Genoa, wlicre they 
are closely besieged by General Ott and 25,000 men, detached to 
do this iiMportaut duly, and where famine and disease having 
reduced them to the last di-gree of misery and want, they shrill 
shortly cjipilulate. And now the Baron von Melas, elated by 
victory, and backing in the smiles of fortune, advanrcs to complete 
his taslv. Already lio treads the territories of the hostile Uepublic, 
from whom he has wrested the last foot of her Italian possessions, 
lie now enters the city of Nice in triumph, and the south of France 
compara'ively destitute of defenders, lies temptingly o]ien beforo 
him. Already he issues orders for the march of his conquering 
soldiers, when— lol as if by enchantment, an army of 15(1,000 
men is descending Upon your excellency's communiculiuns. 

As if by encliantiiient ! Wliat if your hypothesis du not occur? 
Ill which Case your ordinary general invariably finds himself in 
the abyss. So far was Napuleon from reducing the army 
of the Rliine, that at one time he had almost delcrniincd to rein- 
force, and take ihe command of it himself; but circumstaiicea 
occurred to change his determination, and he finally resolved to 
cross the Alps with the army of reserve. " Melas is in Alexandria," 
said he lo liis secretary, on the 17th of Marcli. " 111 Alexandria 
he lias his artillery, his magazines, his hospitals, his reserves. 
There he will remain until Genoa is l.-iken. Puesing the Alps here 
(at the Great St, Bernard), 1 shall fall u|)uii Melas aud cut off 



S8 



CAUPAtQN OF UAKKNOO. 



[Ja:». 



weary watctiings Uirough tlie liours of niglit. Ht'aUli and slreri^lti 
have ilepHrted, mid TodJ anct raiment are for ye but n pour inntlet. 
But liiist lliDu not a siiul, Oj pale student, in tiiat tliin and lanky 
body of tliiiio ? A aoul, indestructible, itumoital, wliicli will enable 
tlif e t'j triumph despite lliy thinness, and lliy lunkincw, tlij depiirled 
health, anil ihy wusled slrenKth. Docs not nalnre, thioui;h the 
spirit which is in thee, cry aloud, and urge thee forward upon thy 
path? Courage then, O emaciated man! Whatsoever ihou ha?t 
got to do, do it with all thy miijht, and ihou shnll yet, expanding 
into plump fatness, become a very kint; nniong»t uien. 

All tlie available forces of Frmce were apparently apseinbled on 
the Rhine and in Ligurjn, The arujy of the Hliine was commanded 
by General Aloreau, and auiounled lo the number of ldU,OUO men ; 
but Massena, whi> commflrid>-d in Lignria, liad no more than 
36,U0O men under arms. On these grounds then, the Aulic 
Council projectid their plan of operations. Aware that the warm 
climale of Italy would enable Melas to commence his march at 
a much earlier period than Kray in Germanv, they conjectured, that 
when vhe former sliould have penetrated into Provence, Ka|)oleon 
would find it necessary, having no oilier forces at iiis disposal, tu 
weaken the army of the Riiiue, in order lo reinforce Ma.«?ena. In 
which case, Kray, as^iumiiig the oGensive, would immediately ad- 
vance in his turn, and it was but natural to suppose, that he would 
easily defeat and disperse a reduced and dispijited enemy. In this 
manner, Switzerland, against which the Aulic Council had formerly 
knocked their heads in vain, would, so to speiik, be sirantiled be- 
tweoi the Austrian masses, Kray and Melaa luuging violently at 
caeli end of the airing; and the steeples of Paris, llniugh still a 
long way otT, would nevertheless appear visible im the horizon. 

This plan was altogether liyputlietical. Now llie principles of 
war are so plain and simple, that they can be ca^ly comprehended 
by the lowest degree of military intelligence. It is by no means 
dif^cult, therefore, to construct an extremely etiiborate, and un- 
wceptionabla hypothetical plan of campaign, Willi im excellent 
map before him, indeed, and n volume of General Jomini's jVrt of 
War at his elbow, an ensign of six months standing may clialk out, 
on a given theatre, successive systems of operations, which will 
appear absolutely faultless to the theoretically disposed military 
mind. On such a theatre, he m.iy skilfully assail, and satisfactorily 
defeat and anniliilale all the armies of his Russian Majesty — that is 
to say, hjpothetically. But what, if your hjjiolhesis do not occur f 
"What if evenis precisely the contrary of your hypothesis do occur? 
Why tlien it will be necessary for your commander-in-chief, in the 
midst of uproar and cunfusion, in the midst of dire disasters it may 
be, instantly to divest his mind of a number of ideas, which have 
possibly become fixed there by a long course of thought and study. 
Nay, he will not only have to do this, but he must immediately con- 
ceive anolher plan of operations in accoidance with the unforeseeu 



1865.J 



CAHPAION OP HAEBN'OO. 



SQ 



transactions wiiicb are now occurripg so rapidly sroiiiid bim, His 
presence will lie required at dilferprit points of the (li«ralre of war 
at tlie same momentj as tlic enemy will be here, there, and every- 
wliere. A Imndrfd coutradictory reports will reach him iluring the 
pp;ice of five miiiules, and during llie same space of lime lie will 
be harassed by a number of ap|ilicatioiis, to each of which a decided 
answer must be relurned. Verily your coininaiider-iii-chief may 
consider him.'^ell fnrtunate, if, under such circumstances] he should 
eEcape with his lite, and a sane mind. 

This is exactly what happened to his Excellency, Field-Marahnl 
the Raroii von Melas, in the first year of the present century. The 
Aulic Council baving udoptcd their pLn, and having modidcid and 
arnngej it according to their plGasure, iuslructcd him to seize 
Genoa, lo march rapidly on Nice, and linally having crossed the 
Var, to invade the south of France. Accordingly the Banm von 
Mclas attt-mpts — though in a somewhat careless Bianoer as regards 
the safety of your excellency's cominunicalions— to do this very 
thing. Nor are his first sttemi)ts unsuccessful. The French line 
is speedily inlersecled, and General Suchct and the left win?, 
being thus placed in a hopeless and forlorn situation, have to beat a 
retreiit towards the Var; wliicli river, after sundry rude jostlings 
and demurrings, Sucliet and tlie left wing Giid il their interest to 
cross. On llie other hand, Massena and the right wing, fightinjf 
Vttliiintly for tifleen days, but fi_:;hting in vain, are at lengLli over- 
powered bv superior numbers, and drivi'n into Genoa, where they 
are closely besieged by General Ott and 25,000 men, detached to 
do this importiint duly, and where famine and disease haviug 
reduced them In tlie List degree of misery and want, they sliuil 
shortly C'lpitulate. And now ihc Baron von Melas, elated by 
victory, and basking in the smiles of fortune, advances to complete 
bis task. Already he treads tlie territories of the hostile Republic, 
Craiii whom he has wrested ibe last foot of her llaUan possessions, 
lie now enters the city of Nice in triumph, and the south of France 
oompara:ively destitute of defenders, lies temptingly open before 
him. Already be issups orders for the march of his conquerinjj 
soldiers, when — lo! as if by enchantment, on array of 60,000 
men is dcscendiug upon your excellency's commuuiculiaiis. 

As if by enchantment 1 What if your hy|)otliesis do not occur? 
In which case your ordinary general invariably finds iiimsL'Lf ia 
the abyss. So far was Napoleon from reducing the army 
of the Rhine, that at one time lie had almost determined to rein- 
force, and take the conimand of it himselfj but circumstances 
occurred to change his determination, and he linally resolved to 
cross the Alps with the army of reserve. " Melas is in Alexandria." 
eaid he lo his secretary, on the 17th of March. "In Ahxundria 
he has bis artillery, his magazines, bis hospitals, his reserves. 
There he will remain until Genoa is taken. Passing the Alps here 
(at the Great St. Bernard), 1 sliall fall upon Melas and cut olT 



44 



OSWALD BA9TIX0S. 



[Jas. 



b^gnn to feel tlial heiirt cotifliiit, whifli he har] IiittieHo lo soino 
estciit vacci'CiIeil in stiUing. Did lie al'Ier ull stiil K<ve Hllcii ? He 
feared he did. Did lie love Mury na j man should love tlie girl 
who is about to be his wife, and us Mary dpservpil ? Alus he lind 
very venous misgiciiigs to the cunlrnry. He ciUed hi'iis-elf u loul, 
a drivclliii}^' meaii-sjiirited idiot, iinii nviny similtir imrd namef, for 
allowing any liiuugUls of one mIiu hiid so easily for^'Otlcti him, to 
obtrude tliemsclvL-s. He jirotesti'd imnlly lo Isiiii.'elf thai Mory 
was cimrmiiig, amiuble, good, atitl abuvL- nil, loved liiiii. He re- 
pealed over a<id over n;;Din thiit he wiis a moat fortuimte man. It 
¥tna of no use praelisiii^ these Bt-ir-deccptioiis. Ellen's imnge, as he 
last SAW her, nould present itself, hikI wlirther she di'scrved lii« love 
or iiiit, slie had it. He knew he ought tn congratulate bimaclf on 
tmving won Mury ; but, in short, he could not. Sometimes he 
almost lesolvfd, cost what il might, to break off the marriago. 
Then he abused hinisclf for ever cutitempliitiiig snch cruel r.isc^ility, 
Btid determined that wiiateier effort it might cost hira, whatever 
f:nn he miglit sufftr, lie would do his best to prevent Mary from sus- 
peelii'g hia secret. Surely, when tlie happiness, perhaps the life 
of »Q good, so alTectioniiie a girl is at slake, it woulJ be but a 
Venial offence against trulh, were he to pretend the love nbich he 
Could not then, but might perhaps afterwards, feei. As «e 
have said, the wedding was ijuiet in the extreme. The party 
consisted of, in addition lo the bride and bridegroom, only 
Captain and Mrs. Krankland. Thii ladies will ubo be seun- 
dulized lo learn that Mary's dross was nothing more tliiiii n 
simple walking costume. A'Kt church, they relumed to lunch 
at the Fruuklunds, and tlien drove quietly off in a ph:ieton to 
the little cottage mentioned in our Ijst eliopler as Imving been lent 
them lor tlii'ir honey week. How Mnry did grudfjo the shortness 
of llieir seclusion. She was fully eonvincfd that she was the object 
of envy to evfry uumarricd lady in tlie pbce, and thanked God a 
dozen limes a day for having granted her so goud, so noble a 
kusband. Oswald was true lo his resolution of striving to the 
utmost to m.'ke M.irv'a life bri;iht and hnjipy. Indeed the task 
was not hard. She w.is one of those trusting spirit*, who tiuspect 
notliing in those they love, and give the object of their adoniliun 
credit for returning ihe fe.diu;;s which tliev themsidves are con- 
scious ol pofst-sing in such strenijth. Sometimes Oswald yielded 
to the quiet fa^cinulion of his bride, but when, as occasionally 
happened, nhe gave vent lo her love and happiness in a wealth of 
endearing words and can-sw", he felt a pang that almost made him 
L hile her. To conceal this eHiect of her denionslnitive affection, he 
f redoubled \i\i own terms of endearment, and Mary, wishing to 
believe him, did so. 

Poor girl, her wedded bliss was not destined to endure for long. 
The very day following their return to ihe Franklauds, the English 
mail ariivedj aud with it a whole pde of uewspapers for Captain 



1305.] 



O-IWALD HASTlNOa. 



15 



Frnnltl;mil. Iilly Inrninj* these over as tlie. party was titling to- 
geilicr ii) the dfawing-rooiu, Oswald siidilenly ilirt'W down tllc |)ii|ier 
he was re.iiliiig, niitl exclaiming " Goiifl Got! I" suilileiily left the 
rijurri wich a fflce u9 white asa sheet, in grent al.inn, Mary, who 
had received no oiiswer to her (inxious eiiqniry "f to wliiil wns tlie 
matter, Imstily sv-ized tlie p.iper which her husband had hi-eii read- 
ing. She limited diligently, but cnuld find nothing nt all likely to 
have excited Oswald's emotion but the fallowing passng", wliicb, with 
a womuii'g in*linct, she conjectured mu't have been the o?ie. She 
knew, moreover, that 0.'*«:ald's nutive place w:is Puddleconibe, and, 
with a sadikned heart, fell, convinced that slie was about lo torn 
over a leaf in the reciird nf his past life, which would cast a buneful 
shiidow over her own. Tlie pnragr.iph ran as follows: " We are 
Buthorized lo conlradict a repor', wliich on what we deemed good 
authority recently appeared in this paprr. We are given to uiider- 
stiind that there's no trnth in the rnmonr which stated that the 
Honourable Captain de Morelon vas about to be united in marriage 
to tiie beautiful daugliler of John Kirkman, Esq., of Hastings House, 
Puddlecorabe, Shire. 

Yes, she knew it all al a glance, but to confirm lier BUspicions, 
atie whispered an ea^er question to Mrs. Frankland. The latter 
would have dissimulated if she could, hut Mary's enquiries were 
too direct, too much to the point to be evaded, and she was obliged 
to confesa that Oswald iiad once loved, and been engaged to Mi^s 
Kirktran. 

" It's all over now, my dear, so ynu need not distress yoor^elf. 
It could not have been that whicli anilnled him ju't now; it must 
bave been something else. Perhaps lie's ill, poor fellow." 

"Oh, dear, I hope not. but I'll go and see," said M^iry, who, if 
the truth were known, wouhl have been but too glud lo find that 
mere illm-^s of bi>dv, provided it was not very serious, was her 
husband'H only ailment. 

She found her husband walking up and down his dressing- room 
in a must agilated slate of mind. On seeing her, he endeavoured 
to appear caliri, but witho'it success. 

"Oswald, darling, you are unbappT- It's no use trying to hide 
it from uie, I know you are. Tell your wile what your sorrow i«. 
Perhaps she cum comfort yon ; at all events tell her, for we must 
have no secrets between u^, dear husband." 

" It's nothing, dear Mary, at lea-'t nothing you can liel|) me in. 
You only dislress me by your kindness. Don't ask me. I shall be 
all right soun " 

"Oswald, dear Oswald, you know how drarly I iove ynu. and 
what misery it would cause me In know that your heart was not 
wiiolly mine, yel anything i* better tliaii suspense, out! 1 would 
sooner know for cettoin that anollier girl held my place in your 
allectjons than to go on doubling you. God know^ that 1 love 
jou as uiucli as ever wife hived, yet a man cannot always com- 



ii 



OSWALD HASTINGS. 



[jAIf. 



manil liis feelingB, and if nnolher holds my place in your heart 
tell m?, [ would sooner learn the vorst at once than pine in duubt 
and distrust. Answer me truly. Did jou not otice love Miss 
Kirkmnn, and was not that paragraph in the paper the cou>e of 
jour agitation." 

Oswald hung his head more touched by her and and gentle tone, 
than he would have been by the most vehement reproaches. She 
looked earnestly in his faee, and getting no reply, exclaimed in 
n snd de?pairinf; voice which made his heart bleed, 

"Oh, Oswald, JOU do not answer me. Indeed you need not, for 
I see, nla?, that inv guess is true I You loved her, you love her 
still, and you never loved me, hut only married rae out oft'ompassion. 
Ah, why did you do so T better far would it have been if I had 
nursed my love in secret, than lo have avowed it only to awake thus 
terribly from my drv&m of happiness. I ought, 1 suppoae, tn talk 
about my pride, but true, deep, love overcomea all pride, and I can 
only mourn my sad fate in silence, and if the Almiglily pleases, with 
patience." 

As s!»e spoke, her eyes seemed gradually to dissolve, her figure 
drooped, and a soft rain of tears fell to the ground. No re- 
proach, no anger was apparent in her face, only a wistful loving 
sadness which was inexpressibly touching, Oswald felt (ouched 
to the heart, and casting for the moment all thought of his own 
sorrow on one side, endeavoured in a shame.faced guilty manner 
to alleviate hers. 

" You are partly right, partly wrong, dear Mary. It is true I did 
love Miss Kirkman most deeply ; and to he one day her husband was 
the aim of my life. You see I deal frankly with yon. When cir- 
cumalances tlirew us together, I ofien found myt^elf thinking of 
you instead of her, yet I knew she came tirst. Al last I saw a 
paragraph in the paper saying she was engaged. That nearly 
maddened me; then that morning when Marsden came, it seemed 
as if fate was deiermined lo unite us, and I yielded. I always huve 
been very fond of you, I tlioiii;ht even that I loved you as you 
deserved, and but for that aceur-ed ]ia|ier which came this morn- 
ing, I ihink that Miss Kirkman's image would have faded 
away; but now the past and its feelings spring up again in spite 
of myself, and I am helpless. Mary, my poor dear Mary, you 

deserve a better lot, hut 1 . Good Heavens ! what a miserable 

wretch I am, don't let us apeak of what has happened. Perhaps 
it is a brief madness and will pass away; anyhow in spite of it all, 

I do love yon, Mary ! I do know what a treasure my wife is ! and 

^^ft please God I will make you hnppy yet ; but have pily, have patience, 
^^m Miiry, with your miserable husb.ind, God knows I want pily I" 
W So saying, he seized Mary's hand, pressed it hurriedly to Ins lips, 

I and rushing out of the room spent the rest of the d;iy wanndering 
I about in the neighbouring busli, a jirey to a madileuiiig remnr!<e 
■ of which the Bubjecl was now Ellen, now Mjiry. M.iry's siule was 



IS65.] 



OB<rAt.D HASnN09. 



47 



scarcely less pitiable, though in hergriefremorsehad no part. Lock- I 
ing the door of her room, she threwlRTselfontliebed, and with her ' 
face buried in the pillow, wept till,| ulteriy exliausted, slie fell into 
a profound dreamless sleep, Mrs. t'ranklniid tliought it be»t to 
leave her alone, but ot last becoming alarmed, knocked at the door 
and insisted on being let in. Aroused at the soo'id, Mary awoke 
once more to her micery. Mrs. Fronkland was quite alirnied at 
the haggard appearance of the sorrow slricken^bride, ani not being 
able to think of any comfort to adininisler, llitew herself into Mary's I 
arms and wept with her frietid. When their composure was a 
Utile restored, Mrs. Prankiand Iried. bntinvoin, to persuade Mary 
to come down and have some luncheon. 

"At ali events, Mary darling, k-l me brini; you np some broth, 
Tou will be ill if you don't lake something, I'm sure you will." I 

Shaking her head sadly, she replied : 1 

"How kind yon are; but [ really couldn't take anything, I 
should choke if 1 were to try, I'm sure." 

" Make tiie altempt at all events, dear, if it's only for roj sake 
jou really must, (here's a good girl; I shall bring it up ut ell I 
events." I 

" Well, to please you, 111 try ; bul please don't let Captain Frank- 
land know about what baa happeued, say I've gut a head-ache or 
anvlhing you like." 

The brolh was accordingly brought up, but not even to gratify 
her kind hostess, could Mary mnna^e to swallow more ihan a 
mouthful. In order, however, to persuade her thai she had 
finished it, the rest was thrown out of the window. 

Mary took no notice of the flisfht of time, her thoughts were 
too absorbing; for towards evening she became suRicienlly cahn 
to reflect on her position, and the course of action she should pur- 
sue. She determined, after much reflection, that it would be best 
that Oswald and she should for the present be man and wife only 
in name. To live together on the old terms, would she felt, be 
but torlure to both. She would try hard, and she knew he 
would second her cITiifts, to win his love, but the past must be buriid 
in oblivion. Henceforth they must meet but in public, and for 
the future occupy separate rooms. With lime, a change might 
come over his feelings, and the consciousness that he had no riijlit 
to her love might make him prize it. It would be most distressing, 
and it n>ight excite remark, to order a bed to be made up fur 
Oswald in his dressing;- room, but ii must be done. Aeeordin-jlv, 
when Mrs. Krniikland next came lo her, bringing with womanly 
thought fulness that grand female panacea for all griefs— a cup of 
tea, she remnrked with averted head and blushing cheek that she 
did not feel very well, and would be glad if a separate bed could be 
made up for Oswald. 

Mrs. Frankland i.nderstnod, and asking no questions, i^Tn-sisti. ] 
ihal it should be done. How Mofj ViW^ei. Vi« v^ V*.^ \A%.<^\«t ' 



4B 



OSWALD nJlSTISOS, 



[J AS. 



tlie tact iflie c1i.«played. Through nil the stnrra of fpeliiig wliich she 
had liad underf^one slie n^ver once reproaclipd Oswald. 

" Poor feilow, I doii't blame liun. He 13 more to be piliorl 

even ihaii I am, for to Ilia sufferiniia remorso is added. Yet 
bo tvttcd from kindtiep?, I know he did. He ia so good, w) ti-inler. 
hearted and compiissionate. Poor, ponr fellow, how wicked of 
those newspapers to sny what they did. I Bonder if shp loves him 
as much as I do. Oh, it' he would only love me as I love liiin 
still, for I do love him in spile of all, how happy we sliuuM be !" 

Thus soliloquising, she knelt down at the be<Uidcto pray llmt the 
blow might be softened lo both of tliem, and that be at all events 
might nut stiffer so very much. She rose much comfoHed, and 
proceeded lo see that ihe fire in his room burnt briuhiiy. mid tli-it 
evcrjliiing was eomforiable for him. With wife-like thoii^htful- 
iiesB she, with her own bands, pnt his dressing gown on n chair, ond 
his slippers and niglit gown by ihe fire so that they mi;^iit be iiired. 
She also caused a tray wilb some supper to be placed on the 
table. These preparations made, she sat down in his arm-chair to 
wail wearily for lier husband's arrivnl. 

After many hours of wntchitig, of longing, yet dreai'ing to m^et 
him again, he came at last. He started on seeing Mary, and stilL 
more when his eye fell on the chniige in the arrangcmeiita of the 
room. She did not give him time to speak, but quietly taking liis 
hat from his hand said, 

" Oswald, 1 have been thinking a great dcul since this morning 
and 1 don't reproach you, Mj feelini^B nre the same aa ever, but 
I think it wiil be better for both of us if for the future we cease 
to be husband and wife, and inslead are merely friciids." 

" Let il be a.s yon like, my poor girl. You alone have a right to 
dictate the terms on which we shall live." 

"Good night, Oswald, and may God grant you comfort." 

Sb snyini( she quietly withdrew to her own room, leaving 
Oswald in admiration of her gcnile, yet dignified behaviour 1 He 
WBSSiill more louched nlien he saw how careful she h.nd been to 
provide lor hi* comfort Such whs the slate of bis feelings at thnt 
nioraeiit, thai for a siiii;lc instant he felt h.ilf-iiiciiiied to follow his 
wifeands'iy llial it had bren but a momentary delusion, and that 
in rcidity he loved but her. Ere, however, he had time to act on 
this impulse, ihe recollection of Ellen swept acros* his mind, wither- 
ing up all gentle tlioughls, as thoroughly as the simoom withers np 
all green herb.ige with vihicli it comes in contact. In his despuir 
he almList cnrseil the fair, loving girl, who li.id been Ihe inuoeent 
caU'^e, which had err'Cted an insurmountable barrier between him 
and Etlen. Then wii h rapid inconsistency he wouhi inveigh 
against himself for such childish, such uiijn-'t, such cruel wralb, 
and would swear that as far as lay in his power, the blow sliouhl be felt 
by liiin alone. We are glad to be able lo say that this phase of 
feeling was ihe one which ultiniiitely prevailed, and weary with his 



1865.] 



OSWALD H^lSTlSGB. 



49 



>Blk, irnrjiout bjso many einotiona, lie Fell asleep, his last waking 
exercise of thouglit being to iiivuke a blessing on her v/Uo luvnd 
Lim so geiieruuslj and wtll, 

Tbuir life from thnt due began, as Mnrj bad delermipied il should, 
alresb. They upver met save before others, but thej n-ere waiitiug 
ill iioTie uFlbe little iitteriliane and kindnesses which the world 
ex|K'Cl9 to tike pbce belwern nenly-iimrried [leople. To (lie 
cii,*uiii ohserver ihey were ft model couple, bul to those who looked 
more closely, tiirrewas evideriliy a sad mystery. The very exacti- 
tude and poiieliliousiiess of iheir conduct towards each other 
showed thai, sotuethi.ig was wrong. None of those little endearing 
I'Hiks and geslurcs which even the most reservi-d lovers — provided 
ihey are really lovers — uncunaiiousiy pructicc towards e^ich other 
were exchanged by them. She never with bride-like pride hung 
upon his words when tonviTsiug with uUkts, be never Was seen 
(fazing with egnli7tical exultutioii on the benutiful lace of her to 
uhom his devotion was due. There was a remarkable dilTerence, 
liowpver, between them, when they fjiieied they were unobserved, 
tilie would often steel looks of sad but ardent alfcclion at him, 
wiiile he, when unrestriiined, was ordinarily plunged in deep abstrac- 
tion, and nervously averted his eyes from hers. 

Captain and Mrs. Frnnkland were fully alive to this wretched 
Ktnte of affairs, and grieved much over it. They felt, however, 
thai they were helpless, and wisely avoided interference. Day after 
day pnssed away in this fashion without any signs of amendment. 
No cavaliere serMente could have been more alleulive than Oswald, 
no model lirilisb husband more punctual in walking and driving 
with his wife; to the world they were a uniied, happy pair; but the 
world only jmlged by tlieir actions. It did not Iciiow, as did ihe 
Franklands, that a cimker was in the hearts of each, that they felt 
mole awkward when together than tlie most ancongeuial acquain- 
taiicea, that not a word of love passed between them, Ibat tlieir 
conversation was of the most bald description, and that their feelings 
and prospects were subjects never mentioned by either. Often and 
often did Oswald strive against the deadness of heart which be felt 
was so cruel au clfence to her, who had given him the abundant 
wealth of a young girl's firut love. He strove hard to banish the 
past from his mind, and to subject bis ati'ection to his duty. Onoo' 
or twice he caught a pleading glance from Mary, a glance which 
was furtively given and hastily withdrawn. His heart smote hinf 
for the obduracy with which he received these unintentional appeals j 
but conscience, with compussion combined, though all powcrlul in 
most things arc powerless where the affections are concerned. He 
could not love her. In course of time, however, the influences we 
hitve named, assisted by propinquity to her who loved liim, and 
absence from her whom he loved, began insensibly to produce aii 
effect. But the process was slow and scarcely iiuliccd by liimsolf. 
It might in time have ripened into fruit, but il was ollicrMise 

U. S. M^G. No. Wi, Jan. IM>5. r. 



50 



OSWALD HASTISGa. 



[J-»N. 



destined, and ultimntely took its place iothe long pninful CBtologue 
of "what uiiglil liave bren." 

This part of out tale h not so pleosant thai ve. Bhould seek to 
linger over it, indeed the interest of ihe melancholy flndle ?wallow3 
up atiy which might attach to tlie minor events whith precp<led it. 
Slander tnkea its rise in Uie merest triHea, but ils course, dispro- 
portioitnlely to its origin, is loni; and active in ite conrse. We have 
related how the idle and malicious — Ihey generally work togerhcr 
— bad shot their poisoned sliiifts against Mary's fnir fame. Her 
mnrriuge by adding envy to idleness and uiicharilableness added 
strenjith to the venom. Tiie reader will perhaps say, "why envy P 
surely Osviald was no such great eatch after all." True, but in 
the colonies where great matches are not lo be made, and the 
lield of matrimony in general is limited, and where marriage is 
possible nn means which would be deemed quite insulliciF-nt. at 
home, bachelors are indtvitlunlly much more sought after, and a man 
holds relatively a far hijihei po.-iiion in tlie market. To carrv otf the 
bpst liioking from ainotigst a limited number of marriageable men, 
was considered at Fort Brown bv all the mothers who had d.mglitera 
on tlieir promotion, and by those sweet and nITrclionnte young 
ladies themselves, as a very high crime and inisdemeiinciur ; one, 
in fact, to be avenged to the uttermost. A pretty young bride 
in such places, is an obji'ct of grent attraction to both single and 
married men. The former say, " oh, there la no danger with a married 
woman of being asked one's intentions," and tlie latier excuse their 
attentions on the score of civility to a frieiid'a wife. Both classes 
flocked round Mary, who though amiable to all, encouraged no one, 
con se{| lien tly, the spinsters united with llie matrons in CHlliiig lier 
"a nasty, wicked, designing, abandoned woman, my dear, tlint'a 
what she is ;" sneered at lior for being " agenlleniiin's lady," and 
hated her with leminine vigour. They were not slow to manifi'st 
their feelings. They refused to call on her, avoidt^d her at the 
hand-stand, stared al her when they met her in their rides, drives, or 
walks, sent for their husbands and caviiliers when tlie latter were 
speaking to her ; and some even went so far as to hold their dresses 
up when passing, for fear their immaeulnte robes should be sullied 
by contact with one whose unpardonable crime was that she was 
more attractive than them. The reserve and perfect propriety of 
her conduct availed nothing save to gain for her the additional 
epithet of " artful." Oswald was furious al their behaviour, but 
could do nothing. You cnn't call out ladies, and the ladies were 
the only ofl'endeis, as is usually the ease ; for meu, either from in- 
difference or genuine charily, are much leas ready to believe and 
speak ill of their neighbours than women. 

If the result of this treatment made 0^wH]d indignant, on Mary 
it bad a much worse effect. With a heart nlready bleeding from 
the wounds inflicted on it by Oswald's love for another, she was 
peculiarly alive to sympathy, especially open to uukindness. It waa 



1H65.] 



OSWALD ITABTINGS. 



SI 



the lost straw winch broke the camel's back nf her endurance, and 
nflcr a faint strugi^le she Boccumbed. Her health had been 
eeriously impaireil bv the biirdsinijs s!ie had undergone in her 
escape from the KnHirs, mucli more indeed than jhe had perceived 
at the lime. Her lather's death, Miirsdeii's cruel behaviour, and 
the discovery of Oswahl's love fur Ellen had cnu?cd a series of 
mental disttesses which slowly but surely acted on the body. When 
to l.liis mas added the scorn and slander of her own sex, she, 
uncompensated by the eonsciousne.ia of her husband's love, fell 
seriously ill. With astonishing ropidity, every symptom of a rapid 
decline set in and in a few days the doctors pronounced her case 
hopelcB. Oswald was frnntic ; a tliousaud timea a-day, lie called 
himself her inurderp.r, and in his bilter ngouy even cursed the day 
when he had first seen Ellen. To add to his grief, lie was really 
he^nnning to Iofg Mary. Her gcnile behaviour, her patient 
endurance of her illness, her magnanimous forbearance towartls 
himself, all came crowding tlirougli his mind, and he confessed to 
hiiiistsif that he was unworthy of such an angel. The thought of 
losing her just as the happiness of his married life seemed about to 
begin, fanned the spark of love inio a dame, and at the same time 
maddened him with remorse. Bitterly did he cjudemn himself lo 
her, warmly did he pour out his tale of love iuto her dying ears and 
beg lier to live for hia sake. 

Far the first time since the day so fatal lo her married life did a 
smile of perfect peace and happiness shine upon lier fiice. Never in all 
the vigour of health had she looked so lovely, as with soft, lov 
voice, and eyes melting with tenderness, she replied, 

" Dear Oswahi, so you do love me no*. Tliaiiks, my own, for the 
blessed words, but 1 do not think I would live if I could. Now I 
am content to die, for your love goes with me. If I were to recover 
— which 1 feel is impossible — you might change again. Should 
you see Ellen you might once more regret having married me, and I 
could not anpport that. Now it ia different. If you do see her and love 
heragain, and I am permitted fo know it, it will not grieve me ; for 
your love for the dead wife, who loved you, oh, so fondly, will be 
quite distinct from the affection you will bear to the living otie, 
and I shall not feel lliat 1 have a rival. The love of the past will be 
tranal'erred from earth to heaveu, aud will not iuterfere with that 
for liie living." 

A few dajs after this conversation, she peacefully passed away, 
happy in lite conviction that she had at last won lier husband's 
love. 

CHAPTER XIII. J 

Furlbcr Promolion and return to EnglBDd. 

Mary had scarcely been laid in lier grave, when the news spread 
throughout the slaiion that a brgc force was about to take the 
Held, and that (he 155th was one ot the retrinienls de^tinid lor this 

e2 " 



51 



OSWALD il^RTIVna. 



[Jan. 



duty. The broken-lieflrled widower rewived tlie mtelligence with 
llie utmost sat is fac lion, AnjUiiiig was preferable lo remaining in 
a pince wUero everything reminded him of her wliora he had lost. 
Fi>r grief, there are no remciiii-s like change of ecenn, and plrnty of 
physical ext-rtion. This Oswnld intuitively felt, and at once re- 
iigned his appointment as eilra aide-de-cvimp, in the liope that 
lie might as a regimental oiEcer, not only have more downright bard 
work lo distract his thoughts, but also a greater chance of falling in 
BCtion, and tboa sooner joining liis angel wife. 

The ciuipnign that followed, whs severe and somewhat disnKtrons 
lo the Uritisli arms. If the KaHir would only have been good 
enough to have fought like civilized beings, a due ntlenlion tu the 
prece|jt3 of the &M exercise would have been probnbly sufficient 
tti have fUected their defeat. Unfortunately, they were ignorant 
savagpp, unacquainted with pipe-clay, heedless of red tape, contemp- 
tuous of both touch and dressing, and only anxious lo kill as many of 
theirenemies as they cuuld with the least possible risk to tliemaelves. 
The consequence of these circuifistances, and the difficult nature of 
tbe country was, tliat we suffered great loss without inflicting much 
in return. The lalent ferocity of liuuian miture whs strongly escited 
amongst our men, both by tlie fruitless loss they sustained, and ihe 
barb;irous conduct of ihe enemy, who were nccaslomed lo put to 
death with the most frightful tortures every luckless individmd who 
fell into their hands. The fury of ttie soldiers was somewhat 
(Encouraged by a speech made by an officer of rank. He said liiat 
in such a war, it was all nuiisenae to talk of humanity, and that no 
mercy ought to be shown to the Kaffir women and children, lie 
argued that the whule race were no better than wild beasts, and us 
such should bo (rented. 

" You don't spare a wolf," he used to observe, " because it is a 
female or a cob." 

When such speeches were made by their superiors, it may easily 
be guessed what was the conduct of the soldiers. When not 
restrained by their officers, tliey made no prisoners, and of those who 
were taken alive, few reaclied the prison dep6t. While being marched 
along under a guard, one of the escnrt would touch a Kntfir on tbe 
arm, and say, " run, Johnny, run Johnny." The Kaffir would at 
first stare stupidly about, and then, misled by the apparent humanity 
of the soldier, would start off at a run. Before he had gone twenty 
yards, the unhappy savage would fall, pierced by half a dozen 
bullets, the guard afterwards excusing themselves by saying that 
the prisoner was shot while in the act of escujii'ig. 

In this harrassing warfare, the loSth hud their full shore of 
hardships and loss, Oswald, however, though exposing himself in 
the most reckless manner, escaped un^cratched, while liia brother 
officers fell around him continually, slain by British powder and 
shot lired from Uirmingham muskets, which bad been sold by the 
unprincipled colonial traders, for wiiose protection, among others, the 
\v..r was being carried on. 



Iii65.] 



OSWALD UASTIXOa. 



53 



la a few months, after leaving Fort Brown, Oswald became 
lieiileiiant, wilbuul purcliasi', vice a'l officer killed in acliun, uiid 
the ndjutant having obtaiiieJ his compuny, OiS«nld was apiioiiiled 
in liis place. As a mounted officer lie was a consjjicuous mark fur 
tlie enemy, and in llie Qrst subspqiieut eiigiigi>uicnt received a bad 
tvound from a ball in the shoulder. Stmt back to the dcp6t at 
Fort Brown, lie took no further pari in the cnajpaign, which, under 
a new commander-in-chief, was al leuglh brought to a successful 
terminaliiin. The war ended, several regiments were sent back 
to Enghind, and amongst others the 155Lh. 

Oswald was surprised at, and rulher ashamed of the stale of his 
reelinf,'s during the voyage home. The tlion.nht of Ellen, of where 
she was, of whether she was married, and of tlie chance of meeting 
her cuulJ not be driven from his mind. He strove hard lu inter< 
pose the image of Mary as an impassible barrier between him and 
his first love, but he could noi. It seemed lo him so faithless lu 
supply Che place of his loving, gentle, dead wife with another. Ho 
reproached himself for callousness, he tried to reason himself into 
constancy, still Ellen would haunt hi>n. As we have said before, 
he found that the affect iona cannot be coiitroled by duty, seniimint, 
or wish, and Ellen once more rei;jTied undisputed mistress uf his 
heart. In fa^l, after much lhouL;ht and careful analysis of liis feel- 
ings, he discovered that he had never at any lime censed to love her, 
Anger, pique, and compa>&ion had urged him to marry Mary; and 
remorse, her sufferings, gentleness, clmrras and devution lo hira 
had (ricked him intu a sort of spurious love, which hud been added 
lo, without taking the place of. Ins luve for Ellen. It was the conllict 
of feeliitg, coupled with remorse for Mary's sufferings, which had 
caused liim to feel so broken-hearted at her death. Time, oecupa- 
tiuQ, and the extitement of war, had, lo a certain exleot, wij)ed out 
the pain connected with his unhappy marriage, and he began to look 
on his wedded life rather as a sad episode, than au actual part of 
bis existence. 

As he neared the shores of En;^land, he became more and more 
ansioua as lo whether he should see Ellen unmarried, and still 
atlached to him. During the day he was lull of hope, but with tbe 
gloom of night he became raelancholj and despondent. At length 
the vessel arrived al Plyrnoutii, at which place tliey received orders to 
disembark, and take up their quarters. For several days, Oswald, 
as adjutant, was loo busy to leave the barrack-yard, Siive t,n dtity. 
At length he found time to walk out, and the very tirst people he 
saw, was a staff-officer, acccompniiicd by a lady, drivirifj towards the 
country iii a vtry handsome mail phaeton, Wliile yet al a distance, 
something in her appearance reminded him of Ellen. Her veil 
being, however, down, and her body being wrapped in a thick ftir 
mantle, he could not make lier out very clearly. Just as she gol 
oppot'ite liim, the wmd took hi:r hat, and blew it almost to Os<Kifi'J^% 
feet. Picking it up, ho proceeds:! U W'b\\V \Ki\\v^t'sa.^^'<*«*»'4. 



S4 



OSWALD BASTINGS. 



[Jam. 



his eyes, he bohdd a f\^\i^ which turned liim quite sick and fnint. 
It woB Ellen lierselfj vfho on seeiiif^ wiio had reiitlpred lipr the 
service, became 6rsl white, niid ihpii red aa a r<ise. For an iiislaiit 
neither spoke, but renmiued stnrin^ at each other wilh eyes, in 
which surprise and pain struggled for tin; uiiislery. Tlie genlleuiBii 
Bppeured overnhi lined with nsluiiijhiiitiil, till Kllen, recovering her 
Bflf- possess! on, said with a eicklj' smile, as she held out her hand lo 
Oswald. 

"Is it really you, Mr. Hastings? I am so gladio see you again. 
Pra^ let me introduce you to my husband. Major Falconer. Mr. 
Hastings is an old friend and neif;hbour of ours, Charles." 

"Ail, indeed J very gliid to make your acquaintance, Mr. Hast- 
ings," said M^jor Falconer, wilh nnylhing but a pleasant expres^ioii 
pf counfenance "Wc shall be late for onr drive, Nelly, I'm 
afraid, if we don't go on. Ouod morning, Mr. Ha;^tings; glad to 
hare met you," 

Oswald, who had hardly been able to utter a word, took the 
hint, and touching his cap, walked away, feeling that the sun of bis 
life was now indeed set. 

HencefLirth, Oswald was an altered man. From being quiet, 
reserved, and not over fond of society, he became f;oy, rattling, and 
tho most persevering nttendnnl at balls and parties of any body in 
the regiment. For nil tliat, he never neglected his military duty, 
which was, if possible, more strictly performed ihaii ever. Young, 
good-looking, and an excellent wallzer, ht was ever welcome as a 
useful man to lill up a dinner-party, or the list tif dancing men, 
who arc as necessary for a ball as tlie candles or w.iilers. If, how- 
ever, in his reckless gaietv, he ever tried to bo more than an 
available guest, he received unmislakable proofs from waty mnmnias 
and wide-awske papas, that he had mistaken the foutinff on which 
he was admitted into their society. Dear Emily, or darling Fanny 
might dance four times with tiie booby heir of Sir Canny Mac- 
(J3»ky, or the himdfome, but debauched Lord Filz Bullion — they 
might even go so far as to give a ribbon or a glove to these dis- 
tinguished young desirables ; but their delicacy and sense of propriety 
were at once called in question if they showed the slightest pre- 
ference for the handsome, gcutleman-like, clever, gallant, but poor 
young adjutant, It is true that Ensign MacCanny was a fool, 
mean, and of a high-cheek bone, red-haired tyjie of beauty, but 
then was not his father a baronet; and Lord Fjtz Bullion had 
been, it is irue, the hero of a particularly heartless seduction 
case, and had lie not been " a peer's eldest son," as he was in tlie 
habit of proclaiming himself, would hove been considered vulgar; 
but then he was the eldest son of a peer, and a very rich peer too, 
and the society of Plymouth was — well, we'll call it very clmritable. 
And they were quite right in our opinion, for high birth covers a 
multitude of sins, and a nobleman may commit acts and wear a 
coat which would disgrace another [lereon. Of what use is it, we 



ISflS.] 



OSWALD 11AST1N03. 



65 



sboulct like lo Viiow, to be n "swell," if as ranch in the way of 
oiipeiirance, murality and manners is expecled from one, as from an 
onliriiirj individual, One man may Bleul a liorse, B'liile another 
mm not even look over a hedge at tlie covt-ti-d quailru|]ed. Plain 
Mr. Liiveneli seduces his orpluin daughter's (^iiverJies?, and not 
being utterly devoid of good feeling, subseqnenlly repenla of his 
ill deed, and inHrnes her. " Shocking mnii. Abanduued Honmn," siij 
tin; wife of llie lieverend Church Rales unci the rest of the neigh- 
bours. We must cut her. To do otherwise would be to offer a 
premium to immorHlily. "The daughters, ]»nor ihiiig", will sutler; 
we are sorry lor them, but we must consider our churactera and 
position." Shortly after, the Marquis of Cotswuld induces the 
diiughter of Lis friend, Lurd Careless, lo come and solace his idle 
moments without the little preliminary ceremony of ring anJ parson. 
The young lady's brother objects, however, lo this nefilect of les 
convenances, and threatens vengeance if, to use a homely phrase, 
his sister is not made a honest woman of, that is lo sny, if the 
noble ]>oaclier does not condone his past oU'ences by taking out a 
license. Marriage now ensues, but of course Mrs. Church liatea 
and their friends act up lo their professions, niele out the same 
niensures to the Marchioness of Colswoh! thiit they did to poor Mrs. 
Lovpwell. Not a bit of it. The Marchioness cun not, of course, be 

E resented at court, and bishops object to ranking her acqunintnrLce, 
ut the rest of society is above such vulgar puritaiiism. Matrons 
of unblemished repulaiious — that is (o say no bleinishea have ever 
been brought to light, accompanied by their young and innocent 
—or ignorant, which is it — daughters ? flock lo Culswold Hull, and 
with universal acclaim, pronounces it lo be tiie most charming 
country house they know. All honour to them for their discrimi- 
nating charity. Perhaps they bear in mind the text that sajs, "he 
that is without sin among you let him 6rst east a stone at her." 

To return lo our hero. He liioroughly recognized Ids social 
position, but instead of humiliation, oidy leit scorn. He con- 
sidered that there was a sort of tacit social contract between 
him and his entertainers. He received tiieir hospilality and in return 
gave his services as a super.— to use a tlieatricnl expression — in 
a social comedy which was daily performed before crowded au- 
diences in different Iiouses in Piyu)outh, He considered that tliere 
was no obligatiun on either aide. He would not have been asked 
had liis presence not been a convenience, and he would not have 
Bccepled the invitations had it not sidled him. He never lost nn 
opporlunily of showing people that he considered t!ie obligation 
was mutual, and gave several hard hits lo those ludies who pre- 
sumed on their posilion to indulge in fasliiunable impertinences. 
Por the reasons we have given above, llie bachelurs of the regiment, 
whether eligibles or del ri mentals, were overwhelmed with invitations, 
but the case was ditferent with the married ofiicers, who could be 
of little or no use in the pirpetual marriage a.vi<;\\ow'«'wia-'««''wvat 



80 



OSWALD HASTINGS. 



[Jax. 



earrieil on. Amoni; tlinse Uius neKl^cleil, were Cuplfiiii and Mrs. 
Fniiikland. One erpning at a large ball givpn by oiio of tlie 
great people of ihf town, to whicli iHc KruiiklHtids were not invited, 
Oawaid took an opportunity of asking tlie liostesa why liiey were 
not there. 

" We (loii't know them. Tlie fact i*, Mr. llnstingj, we muVe it 
a rule not to c.\\\ on (he oiFiwrs' wives unless tlirj have been 
Bpceialiy introduced lo us. You know — Joii'i he oll'endi'd — llint 
one never knows who ihey may be. Officers do murry audi vi-ry 
strange people pomcliinea." 

" I think yoii are quite tightj Mrs. Tentoes. Officer?, like olher 
people, do marry very strange persons ; and then the lifi- tbey lead 
unfits them for rrfinrd Biiciety. Fancy being intimate with women 
who h'lve p'ssed half tlicir live:* in barracks, and go about from one 
quBrter to nnotlier in ihe lop of a bjiggage waggon with a band- 
box on one side and a parrot in a cage on tlie otlior. Ah, it would 
never do. No* with civilians, tliere is never any diflieully in 
finding ont what their wives have been." 

Mrs, Tentoes got very red it tliesp remarks, for il was well 
known lh.it siie lind been a dancer al a provincial theatre, and had 
been pieke^l up by the rii'h government cnntractor, Mr. 'rentoc:=, 
who while on a visit had been attracted by lier ibealrical graces. 
She never was impertinent to Oswald after that. 

In spite of his recklesaiiess, Oswald's lipart was alill (oo sure 
to permit him to indulge in any flirtations. If nothing else, the 
preience of Ellen whom he could not avoid freqnenlly meeting 
would have prevenled him. Had he been suffering from wounded 
v.inity, the sight of her would have induced htm lo show by Ins 
attentions to olhc-r women that he had never really cared about her, 
but in his case il was a wounded heart, not woundi^d vanity whicli 
rendered him so reckless. He was gay and disiaipated, not for ihe 
sake of parading his indifference, but in order lo drowu thouglit. 
With a woman's clear-sight ednees t^llen perceived his moiives, and 
by the kindness of her manner, whenever ihey were onavoidiibiy 
thrown together, tried to soothe Ihe pain wliich fate, and nol 
she, had juilicled. Her husband was not suflicientiy magnanimous 
to iinilatc her example. He was inwarJly jealous of his wife's 
life and could not bring himself to be othernti^e than coldly civil to 
the man who had been the hero of it, for Ellen who truly loved 
her hnsbaml, who was also much attached to her, had told liitn 
everything. 

We have omitted to mention that on his arrival in England 
Oswald had received two letters from his family. One written by 
Edith informed him that she was now the wife of (be rector of a 
good Cumberland liv'ng, and was as happv as a woman coidd be. 
Her husband, the Eev. James Sutton had been curate of the parish 
where she was living as governess, and interested by her romantic 
?tory as well as attracted by her bcautyand gcnlleness, had wooed 



1865.] 



O^VALD HASTIXOS. 



57 



and won Iier to tlip f;rpul (li^nust of llip young Inilj of (lie bou^e, i 
wlio Ii.kI TD.irkcil liiin for Iter prej, 

"Arlful, jiri'siimirig girl, wliiit bii«iriMS linil slie to aeccfit the 
atleiilionf ot a mmi sm (iii|icriMr t»i her In positiuii. Really il's loo 
bad, wliat will tlit wdHU oume to tioxt, Why we sliull be iiavjiig 
my iiirtid Susiin miirryint? itext. Smniils have no busiiie-a lo I 
marry, pntliiig one to siicli inronvenieuce in replacing tliein too." | 
Tlie other letter wns friiu his UrulluT, llie 'olicilor, who now tijat 
Osuaiil h!id bejjun to rife in tbe woild, thou;^ht it might prove ' 
c'invenieni to lie on guoil (iTius will) htm in eve he miglit attniti 
still higher rank. Besides liia brother oIlBcers would give some 
foia Mo their dull and rathi^r vuliinr jiartie)'. The con^etjuence of 
these nfloctiona wiis, ihtil Oswald rcrtivcd a very alTettioMate leltii 
or coiigrnluliiticin on hi^ proniotion, accninpimied by a wurm iiivila- . 
tioii to consider the house in Russell Sipiare hta home wlienuvcr 
he came to London. Oswald estimated these advances at their | 
true value, and merely sent a civil repiv to the effect that when 
he did come to London he should certaiutj do himself the honour 
of calling. Business at length look him to town, and in accord- 
ance with his promise, lie weut to Russell Square. Ilia brother 
was nut. but Mrs. John Hastings hnvinjr in vtiia endeiivoured lo 
persuade Oswald lo lake up bis abode with tlnm, pnsai-d hiiu lo | 
come and dine that evening. 

"You will meet your sister and h^-r husband. They are coming 
up by the train which arrives at King's Cross at six, and are to 
dine here ihia'cveuing." 

The teinplation was so grrat lliat it overruled any scruples 
caused by Jol)n'she,irtless conduct to liia father, and Oswald gladly 
promised compliance. 

" Von muin'i bti surprised at anything odd, you may remark 
in John's behavinur. He has been sppculaiing a good deal in the 
funds IjLtely, and li;is once or twice lost a lilUe mt-ney, not much 
lindeed, but yet qoilc enough to make him very nervous and pi r- 
'euade him that he is iilmnst a imned man. A nasty dis-^enling , 
laiMisler has got hold oT him too, and ?o worked on him, that be- 
tween money and religion, I aonielimes think he is going mad, 
he ha? surli strange delusions you can't think." 

Thi>> inti'lli^^ence sent Oswald away in a very sad frtiine of mind. | 
Biidly as Jidin had behaved lo the wlu'le fuinily, siill he seemed 
disposed lo atone for it now, and, moreover, Oswald had too few 
relations left to be able to dispense with bis alTecliun, late 
ns it had been in coming. The debght of seeing his si>!er ngain 
soflened his heart, and inclined him to be nmiuble towards the whole | 
world. 

Precisely at half piist seven he entered the dtawiiitr-room at | 
Russell S<iuare, and the nixt instant was clasped in his sister's I 
ormc, wlio wns so overjoyed lo meet him again, that not till re- 
minded by lier huBbmid, a gciitlcman-liltc ^l>;•avnl^R.v^.-\a'^^■wtl-i>s^s«.■i,l 



fiS 



OSWALD lUSTJNOS. 



[Jas. 



miin of iibout eight-aiid-iwenly, she quite forgot to irilroduce Os- 
wald 1o his rievi brollier. Joliii cnme in rutlicr lale, giving as his 
excuse llmt lie lind been kept rather Inte in liie city. He received 
his guests wild more cordialily than lliey had expected, but both 
Elion mid Oswald were struck by his aged, nervous mid cureworn 
appearmice. They hnd liltle time fur observitiion, as dinner was 
just then announced. Tlmt meiii wiis preceded by a long grace, 
wiiieh Juhn insisted notwithstanding Mr. Sutloii'a presence in 
saying lijmself. With closed eyes — in order tliat his atteniion might 
not be diverted by the sight of the disliea we imagine — lie onglit also 
to have lield a hatiiikerchief to his nose to prevent the smell of the 
food fromreaetiiiig it — and wilh a hand stretched out ns if lie was cal- 
culating angles or bidding; Sulnn depart, he poured forth a lung 
rliai'sody. It was more like a sermon than a grace, and from its 
tenor one would have imagined that the speaker was on familiar 
terms with the angels, and read the Heaveuly Morning Post every 
day. Osuvald and his H$ter had so niatiy things to soy lo each 
other after their long sepantion, that none of the rest of the party 
bad much opportunity <■[ talking. 

When, however, the desert wua placed on the table, John took 
advaiitajte of a pau-e to join in the conversation, 

"Well, Oswald and Kdith I arn glad to sec you again. It's 
B long lime since we la»t met, ami time has brought changes lo most 
of u», I trust we are all altered for the belter. Ah, well, well, all 
flesh isgrus', growing lo-dny, cut down to-morrow. I hope we none 
of us lose sight of thiit solemn fact, t dmi't., 1 can till you. When 
you la^t saw me, I was a sellish worldling, intent only on M.imnion, 
now 1 seek for better things, the old man is dead within me, and 
1 see tiie world as it is. Ah, brother, I've bad much trouble, lost 
heaps of money. In fact, God only knows whether I shall not 
after u!l end my days in the workhouse. Depend upim it, one 
should only busy oiipsi-U' with Okie's heriMfier, for this is a wicked 
world and full of of lie.is. Seas, I tell you Hens." 

As he uttered these hist words, his voice was raised almcist lo a 
scri'am, his eyes glittered, and he began lo hunt about for the 
little insects he hud mentioned, like a monkey at the Zoological 
Gardens— exclaiming as he did so, " t'le;is, lleas, they are a punish* 
Tuent for my sins, for my sins ! Oh, Lord, deliver me I" 

At the first mention of llcas, Oswald, his sister, and her husband 
stared, end then such is the power of imagination, began to scratch 
their arms, hands, and legs as energetically as did their host. 
Mrs. Hasling9 put an end to the ludicrous, yet painful, scene 
by saying, 

" My dear, we had better go up stairs," aitd then turning to her 
astonished visitors, cxchnmed in a whisper, 

" Don't mind liim, it's a delusion he has, though he never was 
so bad before, in company at least." 

She told them afterwards, that so strong a hold had Ibis fancy 



1865.] 



OSWALD HASTINGS. 



59 



got over her IiusbimJ, tliat lie was continually opselliiig tlie whole 
house, in order lo Iwve tlie flours WHshed Diid carpets beulen, and 
that he Sjieut a r^guhir lortunc in Persian vermin powiler, a box of 
which he tilwnvs carried about with him. Slie added that on 
eiitrniig a cnb, a railway carriage, or an omnibus, lie iuvjriably 
look out a pinch and sprinkled it on the floor to the great asloiilsb' 
ment. of all tlie oilier passeni^ers. 

During the reat of the eveninj; John remained silrnl and 
mocidy. Neither were ihe rest ol tlie party much inclined for 
convers-ition after the pitinful scene which hail liikeii phice, so they 
all went home early. OaWidd arconipanicd the Suttons to tlieir 
lodgings in Seymour Strepl, and then discharging the cab, proceeded 
to w.ilk to his own in Kyder Street. As he furned tiie corner of 
Berkeley Square into Hay Hill he saw, nb(Jiit twenty yards in front, 
an ehlerly geut.lemaii walking quietly up tlie slnet, while about a 
yard belijnd the latter were two ill-looking rulTmns. The neit instant 
they rushed up, and while one of iliem gurutted the old genlle- 
luan, the otiier proceedeil to rifle his puckeis. Oswidd rushed up 
at once, aa noiselessly as possible, and calchiiigtlie ruffian who was 
holding his victim in a murderous grasp, a violent blow on the 
temples, briioght him senseless to ihe ground. He iiud next to 
encrjunler ruftiaii number two, who, producing a hfe- preserver, 
slruik heavily at Osw.dd's head. Tlie blow was parlly intercepted 
by the latter'a liaiiil, purily deadened by the hat, but ncvcrtlielesa 
nearly brought hiin to the ground. It was not, however, siiRicirnlly 
severe to prevent Oswald from closing with his as?aiUnt and a des- 
perate struggle ensued, Oswald h.id been brought up in a county 
where h resiling wiis much culliv.iled, and his knowledge of the art 
proved useful lo him on tin's occasion. Dizzy as he whs from the blov? 
on his head, he insiinclively put hia science into practice, and after 
K sharp tussle brou^'lit his adve?sary heavily to the ground. 
Kneeling on his chest, aith both his hands on the robber's throat, 
he IhrcMletied to strangle him if he ventured to move, and shouted 
loudly for assistance. His cries fur assistance soon brouglit a 
policeman and one or two grntlemen to the spot, and the two 
ruffiiina were at once seized. The one wiio had been knocked dowQ 
by Oswald, iiad recovered his senses, and was on the point of 
running off when he was tripped up by a young officer of the 
Guiird^, who, on his way Iioiue, had been attracted by the outcry. 
The rubbers disposed of, Oswald turned to liie old gentleman, who 
had received a severe shock from the ill-usage he had met with, but 
had become sufficiently restored lo enquire Oswald's name and 
address, and to beg him to complete his kindness by accorapanying 
him in a cab lo his lodgings in tlie Albuny. Htiving done this, and 
handed him over to the care of his servant and a doctor, he took 
Lis leave promising, at the old gcntlemau's earnest request, to call 
again next tnorniug. 



eo 



A TOUU IH CANADA 



[Jan. 



A TOUR IN CANADA AND THE NOilTUERN STATES. 

The month of May had nearly run its course anme fourteen 
years ago, and the navigation ol the great North Atncrieun waterii 
had just been reported open for iht aea^ion, when a miin-of-wur, 
with [lai-t of an Infantry regiment on board, ap|>i'arL-d off the 
mnuth of the St. Lawrence, and signalled a pilot who happened 
to be in sight. 

This Jean Cartier of the ninctt-eiith century did not respond to 
the signal thus made, in the "Aye, aye, air" style, to «hich 
captains of the Royal Navy are accustouied, nay, he even seemed 
inclined to edge oS to a merchant ship then visible iu the distance. 
A few short words on the qtiarler-ilcck were followed by the bootn 
of a gun, and then the bowling and S|ila£hing of u shot alon;; the 
water quickly put an end to the dirtation between the bold pdot 
and the merchantman, and brought the former on the deck of Her 
Majesty's ship, cup in hand. 

The strange went licr- beaten biped, neither Frenchman nor 
Englishman, with whom we made acquaintance in this unceremo- 
nious fashion, was accompanied by a trapper from the wild island 
of Ariticosti, seeking a pusaage to Montreal, in order to dispose of 
a stock of skins, the produce ot his wititer toil. 

Aa soon as the pilot had made his bow he dived below, and in a 
few minutes was fast asleep in a berth, and we saw no more ofhiui 
until he was wanted fur the wheel more than tweuty-!our hours 
al'tcrwards. The trapper had his eye to business in another way, and 
seeing an opening to trade with parlies who were not likely to be 
Bs good judges of furs as those he would have to deal with at 
Montreal, he very soou discovered that some of his furs wi,uld be 
&11 the better for an airing io the sun. Among other line 
skins in this fellow's collection, I remeuiber some of the black 
fox, a fur used in the state robes of the Emperor of Russia, and, I 
believe, one of the most valuable furs in the world, 

The cool fresh breeze blowing at this time over the immense 
expanse of water in the eatiiiiL-y ot the St. Lawrence, is still cold 
and keen in memory; to some of us it was extremely rtfresbing 
and Bgri'cable : at the same lime, us it was a breeze of that in- 
sinuating quality which penetrates to the bones, searching out ihe 
most intiuiteeimal particle of rheumatism, and we had only left the 
tropics nineteen days before, it was rather too keen for some of 
the party. 

Aa we advanced up the river, vessels of every description eroivd- 
ing alt sail, each eager to be the Hr«t to reach Quebec with its 
freight, gave gretit animation to the scene and ali'orded us much 
amusement; and Dot only did the vessels above the horizon thus 
minister tu our entertainment, even those below the horizon per- 
formed a kind of phantasmagoria which excited both our wonder 



AHD TBB WfHrTHUEV STATES. 



and delight. Vessels positively mvisHtlc to u9, being reflected 
by a mirage in the air, bo tbtit wc coitid distinctly make out 
tlieir size and form on the edge of the horizon, When only one 
reflection was tlms produced the vessel o]>|ieared inverted, the hull 
being ujiwarda ; bat in very many instances there wiis a second 
relleclion, by tThich the vessel was rii;hted, and a false horizon 
produced which made it extremely dilHcult to disiiiiguisb the 
phantom ships from those actually and materially within the scope 
of the horizon. 

The appearance of Quebec as the traveller approaches from ihe 
north is very imposing; but it has been often and well de-cribcd, 
I have, therefore, merely to notice in passing that the descriptions 
vhieb I have met with of this fini' point on the St. Lawrence hardly 
lay sulBcient stress on the beautiful effect of the sun shining on 
the tin [jlalea which are nsed in this part of Canada for covering 
the roofs of public bnildings, churches and spires, as well as the 
houses generally, and even here and there as a casing for the 
whole front of a house. If silver was used instead of tin, such a 
lavish use of the precious metal would no doubt confer on Quebec 
a world-wide celebrity, but it could not add to the glittering silvery 
appearance which the city now presents at a little distance in a 
bright sunshine. 

On arrival at Montreal, we were at once hurried across the river 
and put upon a railway at La Prairie, on the opposite shore, for 
conveyance to St, Johns, on the Richelieu river, and fmm St. 
Johns we were sent in boats eoroe miles np the river in the diii^c* 
tion of Lake Champlain to a small mad island, called Isle anx 
Noix, in the middle of the Hicbelieu, near the frontier of the 
United States. 

From the proiimity of Isle aux Noix to the territory of the 
United States, it niiffbt be a post of some importance in time of 
war. Ill time of peace, except for a short period in the year, 
when some woodcock and pigeon make their appearance, no- 
thing can be more dreary and dull than an officer's life at 
this place. The whole extent of the island in its extreme 
length is only three-quarters of a mile, and the breadth is 
about half a mile, and in the winter great part of it is under 
wilier. A contractor's tioiit from St. Johns brings up rations every 
day, and letters, if there are any, and conslitittes almost the only 
link by which the di^nizens of this ^ipot seem to be connected with 
the rest of the world. St. Johns, the nearest place of any size is 
twelve milcH distiint, and is itself only an apology for a town. A 
Yankee steamer passes the Fort of Isle aiix Nuix daily on its pas- 
sage hetnei-n Whitehall, on Lnke CliamplHin in the States, and 
St. Johns ill Canada, the only event besides the arrival of the con- 
tractor's boat which serves to mark the course of time. The river 
sbounds with small perch, and they mwy be taken by the bas.UvL 
with a piece of string ami a crooked \w\, W^ nXw-^ Mt ■e*iV*'.«S2a- 
Uie trouble of pulling out u1 \.\ie <N%\jex. 



62 



A TOUB IM CANADA 



[Jan. 



After remaining a short time at Isle aux Noix, 1 was sent to La 
Prairie, on the bank of tlie St. Lawrence, opposite to Montn-al. 
The little miserahle French village which gives ita name tu the 
place, ia more than a mile from the barracks, and has not even the 
merit of being picturesque, and the adjnccuC country is bleak and 
lerel, but upon the whole it was a relief to escape from the con- 
finement of Isle aux Noix. A steamer crosses two or three times 
a day from Montreal, and a bridge of ice forms over the river in 
the winter, affording good sleighing, bo that there is excellent 
communication between the two places, except for a lew weeks in 
the spring and fall, when neither boats nor sleighs can pass. 
Amongst the different schemes to which we had recourse to kill 
time, there was no more exciting amusement than spearing fish on 
the St. Lawrence by torch light. 

The people, or "habitans" as they are called, in this district, 
are chieHy French; their costume is generally a grey suit of 
homespun, with a sash of red or some gny colours, and a fur cap 
in winter. Nothing like downright poverty is to be met with, at 
the same time there are few symptoms of progress or improve- 
ment. The country ditfets miiteriallv from the western parts of 
Canada in being tolerably well cleared of stumps; hut in other 
respects, evei'ything about the farms of the habitans gives one the 
idea of its being in the same state in which it wa< a century ago. 

Aa soon as I could lind an opportunity, I obtained a month's 
leave, and started for an excursion with my friend, Captain Godfrey 

. The only point upon which we had quite made up our 

minds at starting was that we must do Niagara before we returned. 
The roQte by which we should get there and back we left to be 
determined by circumstances. 

The first move we made, was to get to St. Johns on the Richelieu, 
where we embarked in the Yankee boat for Whitehall, on Lake 
Champlain. Everything on hoard this boat we found extremely 
neat and clean, and all their arrangements were conducted with 
great regularity. We were summoned by a bell to the captain's 
office, where that functionary, more like a dancing master than a 
»on of Neptune, prei=ided at the desk habited in a light fitting 
Buperline, swallow-tailed, black coat, a figured satin waistcoat, 
handsome shirt pin and watch chain, and polished leather boots. 
Having paid our fares, and received the numbers of our berths, we 
were at liberty to enjoy such scenery aa presented itself in our 
progress. On passing our old quarters at Ule aux Noix, I cannot 
say I felt much mclination to revisit them. The usual group was 
collected on the wharf gaeing at the steamer aa it passed. 

At Rouses' Point our attention was directed to tlie remains of a 
fort commenced by the Yankees, but afterwards abandoned on 
finding that the site was not in their territory. We then passed 
the scene of our disasters in the last war at Flattsburg, The tall 
talk about Macomb and Macdonough in which some of our fellow 



1865.J 



AND THE NORTHERN SC.\TE9. 



63 



passengers here indulged, was rather amusing to us outsidera. The 
Lake aud adjoJuirts scenery at this point form a pleaaiug picture, 
and further on at Port Kent and Burlington the country becomes 
still more picturesque. On board this boat we made acqiiaintance 
with an American gentleman from Philadelphia, of the Quaker 
persuasion, in vhora we found a most intelligent and agreeable 
companion. On mentioning to him that we meditated visiting 
Ticonderoga, Lake George, and Saratoga, he told u^ he hail just 
travelled that way, and had been much pleased; he expatiated 
particularly on the beauty of the little islands in Lake George, 
comparing them to Sower-pots ailoat, he was also in raptures 
about the pleasure of bathing in the Lake, describing the wiiter as 
so clear that when standing upright he had distinctly seen even his 
toe-nails. The general hour of dinner in the country hotels and 
steam boats being one o'clock, we had a very substantial tea. The 
only dish on the table unlike anything I had ever seen before was 
a species of buttered toast, the butter was melted and whipped up 
and spread an inch thick, giving the dish the appearance of sponge 
cake sliced with custard poured over it. 

After being detained for some hours by a fog, we reached 
Ticonderoga early in the morning, and amused ourselves with an 
examination of the ruins of the old fort, the scene of many contests, 
now presenting only a charred, confused heap of stones, pieces uE 
wall, and half filled up ditches. According to a Yankee story, 
Colonel Ethan Allen, of Vermont, who surprised Ticonderoga in 
1775, on bein^ asked by the British commandant, " In whose 
name and by whom the surrender was demanded ?" replied, " In 
the name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress." 

Our new Quaker friend, Mr, Gillespie, in consequence of our 
conversation with him in the steam boat, and the pleasing 
recolteetions of Lake George which had been thus called 
up, had changed his route, and instead of landing at White- 
hall, as he originally intended, he determined to follow our fortunes 
and revisit the flower pots imbedded in the liquid mirror. After 
our ramble and some dinner at a prettilv situated roral inn, 
we ail started in an antiquated, grotesque looking vehicle, in- 
tended to hold nine persons, and called the "stage." In this 
conveyance we had to travel a distance of four miles across a 
mountainous country to a wharf on the Lake shore, where we 
found the steamer which was to convey ua to Coldwell. The 
journey was rather a tedious one, although two half drunken 
Vankees outside did all they could to enliven us with " Jim Crow" 
and other such melodies. Lake George is quite a little enchant- 
ment ; hut Mr. Gillespie did not do justice to the miniature islands 
with which the Lake abounds in comparing them lo flower pots, fur 
there ia nothing formal about them, even the smallest being ex- 
tremely elegant and picturesque, although made up of nothing 
more than a liny shrub or tree, with a bit of tonW ^Wo«&^ ■tRf*««S>. 
with moss. 



61 



A TOUB IN OANADA 



[Jan. 



As we approQclicd Caldwell at the further end of the Lake a 
violent tUuiiclersturiii, in fact, s milcl htirricHiie tlirew a (^luiiiny 
graiidi.-iir over the fine scenery with which we were surrouiidetl, 
which excited raptures among a coIltie of Germans, who wure our 
fellow passengers ; one of them was so lost in aduiiriition that he 
missed his foot at tlie landing place at Caldwell, and slipping over- 
board WU8 drenched most thoroughly. 

As soon as hrfrakfast was over next moraing, I set out In make a 
sketch on the bank of the Lake, while Mr. Gillespie went to balhe. 
Alter I had bt-gun my sketch, a Yankee, who lived Iti a coitiige within 
a stone's throw of where I waselanding, broiigbt out a chair. lie 
did not offer it as one person would offer another a sent in l^ngland, 
but putting it down close to me, he said, " I guessed tliis man 
would be tired standing, an I brought out a chair." The speech 
had a quaint sound; but if the man had learnt manners in the 
Faubourg St. Germain, he could not have acted with more genuine 
politeness of heart. When Mr. Gillespie returned from his dip. he 
told us he had seen his toe nails. We all then went together to 
see ihe remains of a Port, to which a melancholy celdjrity is 
attached from its hting the place where Colonel Muuro and about 
1000 men were massacred by the ludiuna. 

In the afternoon we hired a vehicle, something of the anti- 
quated build of the stage, hut on a smaller scale, and traversing 
B very hilly, sandy road, reached Saratoga, the great watering- 
place where American fashionuhles disport themselves in llie seu- 
snn. On tbe road we sto|iped at b place called Glens Fidls, where 
the Hudson, or North River, tumbles over a ledge of rock 900 
feet in length. Tbe scenery round these Fallj is certainly pic- 
ture.'que, but we did not think it remarkably striking. A new 
bridge was in course of construction wbde we were there, and 
the overseer of the works told us, that " when he ujoved the 
props, he guessed tbe bridge would sink an inch, be should not 
be disuppuinttd if it sank two." 

On each side ofthe ruad to Saratoga, we observed many fnnna 
and fields of buck'Ubeut, potatoes, Indian coin and pumpkins, 
the two latter generally growing together. Here and there a 
peep of tbe lludBou is obtained threading its way through the 
valleys. 

Our Gi-Tman compHnions in the steam-boat on Lake George 
told us ibut tbi/y had spent a day at Saratoga, and that it whs 
the most comfortablest day tbey had passed, " dat se men 
seemed to have uotliing to do but lo sit in se piazza of ^e hotel 
wid der legs in se air." 

Nut less tiian three or four thousand visitors arc congregated 
at tbe Springs of Saratoga in the season ; but the place bears no 
rL-aembl»nce to Chehenham, or any of our watering-places. There 
may have huun impi'ovetm tits lately, but ul tbe Imie I allude to, 
there were no well laid out streets, or private dwellings or lodg. 



1805.] 



AHD THB KORTHWIS STiTM. 




ing-honseB; the place consisted of a cluster or twelve proJigioiiB 
hotels. At some of tbem, as many aa 500 people sit dnwn to tbe 
table-d'hote in the season. When we were there, allhoiigh the 
weather was delicious, it was not the fashionabte seasoiij and the 
whole number of visilors did not amount to one hundred, in con- 
sequence of which most of the hotels were, in a manner, shut up, 
and the place had rather a desolate appearnnce. 

The material used in these iniirense hotels, as well as in ihe 
construction of many buildings of coWsal proportions in the 
United States is merely wood, but so skilful sre the yiinkecs in 
the art of sprinkhiig wooden columns with sand, and tinting them 
stone colour, that it is often didicult to believe that the stiipeii- 
doua, HOmctimes handsome, edifices which are to be met with 
are not reallv built of stone. The prevailiug style of archilectuve 
is very peculiar, an enormous portico reaching to the top story, 
and covering great part of the front, is a favourite appendage ; 
sometimes a composite order, bordering on the grotesque, is 
adopted, a ground floor in the Grecian style with a gothic upper 
stoi'y, decorated with a few Turkish minarets, and the whole sur- 
mounted with an English church spire. 

At the places we visited, we usually found breakfast served 
between seven and eight, a very short time was consumed either 
nt that or any other meal, but the time so set apart was entirely 
devoted to business, very little conversation being carried on 
except between meals. Water appeared to be the usual beverage, 
we saw very little wine or beer called for at the table, but a great 
deal of tippling does, no doubt, go on in that part of an Ameri- 
can hotel which ia called the bar, a place like a shop with a 
counter and de^ik, and all the paraphernalia of a gin shop, such 
as coloured bottles of beautifully transparent poison, tumblers of 
segars, Stc. Attached to these places arc always some loafers as 
they are culled, idle fellows who do notliing but busy themselves 
with other people's aSaira, and get drink from any one who will 
give it to them. 

In making our way to SaratogB, it was our iiileution to steer the 
most direct course from there to Niagara, but our agreeable friend 
from Philadelphia used all his powers of persuasion to induce ns 
to run down the iludsoa and sec New York, and aa be promised 
to conduct us, we yielded to his wish, for he was so well-informed 
oil every point connected with the history, geography and statia^ 
ties of his country, that we found his society most entertaining 
and instructive, independent of the fascination altaching to it 
from the amiable delightful character of the man. 

From Saratoga, therefore, we proceeded by railway to Troy on 
the Hudson. The rails on this route are carried through the 
middle of the principal street of a town called Waterford. On 
arriving at the hank of the river oppositeto Troy, the enginea cast 
off these trains, and the passenger cars and luggage are iJ.'Mt«.-& 

U. S. ^UQ. No. 4.3*, Jak. 1K65. "• 



over a long bridge by teams into the city of Troy, and each pas- 
Bciiger gets out at the door of the hotel at which he wiahes to 
Kojijiim. 

There are aojne haDdsoitie squares and churches at Troy, and 
the appearance of the city altogether is quite equal to that of 
any similar sized town iu England : the shade of trees in the 
streets and the number of red houses with green jalousies, inter- 
mingled with houses of mauy other colours as well as the irregu- 
larity in the height and size of the houses, gives this place a very 
picturesque effect. 

Here we prepared for our trip to New Yorkj by consigniog 
the bulk of our iuggnge to the care of the landlord, merely taking 
a few light articles with us, as wc had just had experience enough 
to see that Iuggnge in the States is a perpetual nuisance. 

Leaving Troy in a small steamer, we were transhipped to another 
on reaching Albany, where the depth of water admits of vessels of a 
large class coming np to the whurf. Albnny is a large and flourish' 
idg place, the capital of the Sute of New York, and between it 
and Troy, or between the Trojans and Albanians as the inhabit- 
ants call themselves, there is great commercial rivalry. Our new 
Steamer bore no comparison to the Lake Champlain boat in point 
of cleanliness and general arrangement, and 1 should imagine it 
had a reputation for bad and insufficient living, for there was a 
general sci-amble when feeding time arrived. A sort ot round 
house or cupola on deck covered the stair of descent to the 
cabin; the door of this cupola was locked at an curly hour, or tlie 
waiters and stewards would no doubt have been swept away iu the 
attempt to lay the breakfast. The crowd which collected round 
this cupola as soon aa tlie door was locked, very much resembled 
thecrowdofenthusiastsandothers who throng the doors of a Ihcatrc 
when some favourite star is about to appear. AVhen the doors 
were opened, tlie rush was like an avalanche. We thought we 
were well placed before the doors opened, but so wonderfully expe- 
ditious were some of the leailing citizens in their movements, that 
by the time we got to the top of the stair descending to the cabin, 
we could see plates piled up with viands of the most heterogeneous 
kind, and the maxillary process of many a fellow passenger in full 
operation, undisturbed by the dreadful confusion and riot which 
prevailed around. By the time that we got seats, there was little 
left but the crumbs of what had been at first only a very bad 
breakfast. While we were on board this boat we met Mr, Buch- 
anan, the English consul of New York, he was much pleased with 
our friend Mr. Gillespie, and in the course of conversation said 
to him ! " You are not a Yankee." " Yes I am," was Mr. Gilles- 
pie's reply, for he was very proud of his country. " I am sure yoa 
are not a Yankee of the third generation," rejoined the other. In 
this guess Mr. Buchanan proved to he correct. He then observed 
with an air of exultation : " Ob, 1 knew quite well that with those 



1805.] 



AITD TH8 NORTBB&M STATE3. 



fi7 



shoulders and that chest of yours, you were not a Yaultec of the 
third generation, I can always tetl a Yankee of the tbirJ genera- 
tion by the shape of his back." He then exiilained to us in a 
Bcieolific way that from the extreme dryness of the climate in 
certain latitudes in America, an effect is produeed on the cnpillary 
vessels of the human system, in consequence of which the third 
and auccecding generations may always be distinguished by their 
having hacks like the lid of a fiddle case. "There," he said, 
pointing to a Yankee sitting near us on a camp stool, " Look at 
that back." We could not help Sdjiting at the aptness of the 
eimite. 

Wc visited all that waa worth seeing at New York and Slaten 
Island. On the public bmldinits in New York no expense has been 
spared, the marble piltai-s used in the construction of some of them 
having been brought from Italy. At Staten Island wc were much 
struck with the Pavilion Hotel which is all built of wood, but re- 
sembles a small town more than an liotel, those who are fastidious 
about apartments having only to order an entire house for them- 
selves. While walking through New York, ve parsed a gallery of 
picturee of American victories, wc saw that Mr Gillespie had a great 
desire to see them, but did not like to propose to go in from de- 
Lcacy to our feelings, we soon relieved bis mind by raying we should 
like very much to see them. The pictures were of a very large size 
painted by a Frenchman, and as artistic works in the battle-piece 
branch of the art really possessed very considerable merit, but in 
composition the artist had certainly regarded historic truth as 
quite a secoudary consideration : of this the picture of the surren- 
der of York Town moy serve as an example. The whipping of the 
Britishers on that occasion being far too important an event to be 
omitted in a national collection, and there being no poetry in such 
a lame proceeding as signing terms of capitulation, the artist, to do 
justice to bis subject, bad thrown in a spirited group of bis own 
composition, in which Washington having just scaled the rampart 
is standing on the top of the parapet grasping Cornwallis tirmly 
by the collar, and brandishing a drawn sword over the Marquis' 
aufortunate head. 

( To be continued.) 



THE ADMIRALTY ON NAVAL At'FaURS. 



During the last month those who phiy a conspicuous, nltliongh 
not a leading, part on the minisiTial stnge have been unusually elo- ■ 
quent. The son and successor of the great Peil has indulged his 
eoiisiituents at Tamwortli wilh a sliijht iu^iglit into Irish Alfairs, 
and liaii shown llieui tlut he cnn be n good Secretary for Ireland 
as well as a proper representative of an tlix^SaV Nawi^Ni^. '^Stv, 



08 



THB ADMIRALTY ON KAVAI. APPAIBS, 



' 



Bruce has dcscantetl on the advnntnges of educntion in general, ajiJ 
on tlie waj' in which those advantages are made the most of by 
those who are ut present charged with that important Department 
of Government. Mr. Layaril has told liis coiislituenta in the Metro- 
politan borough of Souihwark hnw deterraiued his chief, the Earl 
RusseJt, is to adhere to his policy of nou -intervention, and to 
continue to do anything to maintain peace without sacrificing; the 
interests and honour of the country. And Lord Clarence Paget, 
as Secretary, with Mr. Childfrs, as Civil Lord, of the Admiralty 
have paid the free and independent electors of Deal and Pontefract 
their uauqI annual visit, and have claimed their approv.il of the 
manner in which Her Majesty's Government have conducted affairs 
both at home and abroad. 

While, however, the two representatives of the Admiralty touched 
on the general policy of the Government, they naturally dwelt more 
particularly on the business connected with that branch of tlie 
Bervice to which they are more c^ppoiaily attached, and the public 
have thus had the opportunity of learning the real state of afiaira 
on several of the principal questions relating to the Navy which 
have arisen since Parliament was prorogued, and the long vacation 
commenced. This practice of meeting the electors, and of discussing 
politics has now become much more general than it was in former 
years. It has its advantages and its disadvantages, but on the 
whole we think the balance is in favour of the farmer, especially 
wheu, as in the present case, those holding high official positions 
ore enabled to dispel some of the delusions which have got abroad 
with regard to such important matters as tiie manning of the Nnvy, 
or the construction of Her Majesty's Ships. 

Por reasons into which it is not necessary now to enter, the 
commissioning and fitting out of the fljg-ship of the Commander- 
in Cliief in the Mediterranean has formed the subject of attack from 
a quarter which has, as a rule, supported and approved the nnvid 
administration of the Duke of Somerset and his colIeagueB. The 
attack commenced at about the same time as it was announced 
that the first experimental turret-ship had been put out of com- 
mission, and had been attached as a tender to the Gunnery Instruc- 
tion ship at Porlsmoulh. As usual, all kinds of bad motives were 
attributed to the Board of Admiralty for paying off the " Hoyal 
Sovereign," opposition to the inventor of the turret-system, a 
desire to encourage and support the chief constructor at the expense 
of other designers of iron-clods, and the scarcity of seamen to man 
the three decker, were amongst the principal reasons given for 
making Captain Coles' ves»el a tender to the Excellent. We con- 
fess that we were rather surprised and disappointed when we saw 
it authoritotivcly announced that there was a dearth of seamen 
at the Home ports, and that, in order to complete the complement 
of ouiy one liner, it was necessary to pay off a slii|) of a novel 
description, constructed at immense expense, aud recently cum 



1S65.3 THE ADMIEALTT ON NAVAL AF/AIH9. ^9 1 

misaioneil, as well as to wait the arrival of the " Morlborougli" I 

from Malta. We begon to tliiiik (bat tbis was but a poor I 

return for ail the trouble which had been taken, and all the money I 

which had been expended, during the last ten years, in establisbing I 

a statidiiig Navj. I 

It has frequently befn our duty to point ont the errors of the I 

present Board of Admiralty^ and when we saw that injury wiia 1 

likely Lo accrue to the service from any plans propounded or adopted I 

by the authorilies at Whitehall, we have not hesitated lo raise I 

our voice against them : but we have, on the other band, I 

given our cordial support to such Bcheinea as appeared to us to I 

be for tile real good of the Navy : and on the great questions of I 

placing the Navy on a more permanent tooling, of creating reliable I 

and large reserves, and of improviug the condition of the men, we 1 

have usually expressed our concurrence with the plans promulgated I 

by the Duke of Somerset and Lord Clarence Paget. The objects I 

they have had in view were ao universally admitted lo be good, and I 

the way in which the Lords Coraraissioners sought to alUin those ] 

objects were so generally supporled by the service, that we were | 

ill tbis respect merely following in the wake of those whose feelings , I 

we are sup]»ofed to represent. ■ I 

To enable a correct opinion to bo formed of the present as com- 
pared with the past state of the manning department of the Navy, I 
it is necessary to go back to the time when our finest ships com- I 
inanded by our most popular Captains were lying idle at their I 
harbour moorings for want of crews, not of good well trained, I 
experienced seamen, but of seamen of any kind. Or if we want to I 
be reminded of the difference between " what was" and " what is," I 
we have only lo call to our recollection the period when it was I 
impossible to man even a frigate withiti a moderate time, and when I 
it was alisolutely necessary to ofl'er a hberni bounty for a class of I 
.people of whom most Captains were ashamed to have any on their I 
Mliip's booka. Now we do not pretend lo assert that ihe present j 
condition of affairs is to be attributed entirely to the policy of | 
those who now rule at Whitehall, for we cannot forget that to Sir 1 
LJohn Fukingtou and his colleagues the credit is due for having I 
raulhorizcd the construction of Ihe lirsl, if not the finest, iron-clad, ' 
and for having appointed the Koyal Commission on manning 
the Navy^but we do venture to assert that very much of the existing , 
satisfactory stnl* of things is to be attributed to the tact and ability | 
displayed by the present First Lord and those associated with him. I 
We cannot therefore be surprised at the tone in which both Mr. I 
Childers and Lord Clarence Paget addressed their constituents I 
lust month. I 
As the duties of the Junior Lord of the Admiralty consist princi- I 
pally in superintending the Account ant- General's department, and | 
Ihe financial arrangements of the Navy, it is natural ttiat M.-s. I 
Childers should iudulge to a coimdwvfeW c'*.\.'e\\\."wi'feVaiiv'iV>Ks.,^i».?v-i>a.I 



7(r 



THE ADUIKALTT ON NATAL ArFAIRK. 



[Jan. 



Mt. Gladstone is supposed to be one of tfie rising stars in tlie 
ministerial Brmament, it is not to bo wondered nt that both he and 
the Secretary of the AdmirsUy should speak with well deserved 
approbation of the way in which the Chancellor of the Exchequer 
hus managed to reduce the taiation of the country, and yet not to 
curtail the large expenditure necessary to maintain the army and 
navy in a state of efficieuc?. In 1H5S-9 the entire expeuditure was 
£C5,300.UOU; in 1863-4 it was £68,000,000 ; in other vrords, it 
had iuoreased during the intervening tiva years £3,700,00(1 a year, 
or at the rate of one per cent per anuuni. In the first period the 
gross amount of our impart and export trade was -£258,000,000, in 
18G3 it was X346,000,000, being an increase of ^80,000,000 ; so 
that while the increased taxation of the countrj' was only one per 
Cunt, the foreign trade of llie countiy had increased between seven 
and eight per cent. Asniu, the amount of deposits in the savinga 
banks which was in 1S5S.9 about ^37,500,000 sterling, had 
risen in 1863-4 to £44,000,000, being an increase of nearly 2^ 
per cent. Moreover since the year 1860 the country haa been 
relieved of something hke £11,000,000 oF taxes, there have been 
taken off from food and clothing about £5,000,000 sterling per 
annum; another million and a quarter has been remitted by the 
abulition of the duty on paper; and Ihe Income Tax has been 
reduced by no less a sum than £4,000,000, while other duties have 
been taken off to the extent of more than half a million. 

All this prosperity in the gentrnl well-being of the conntry, and 
especially all this increase in the avenues of trade bears (indirectly, 
it is true, but still bears) on the relative condition of those 
cngiiged in professions like the Army and Navy. The increase 
which haa taken place in the pay of officers and others in both 
brandies of the Seri'ice is considerable, and the estimates hiive to 
bear a heavier burden under the head of wages than they did some 
ten, or even five, years ago; but the remuneration now given to 
all engaged in the Service of the Crown, whether on shore 
or aHoHt, whether in the Naval, Military, or Civil branches, 
is not much more than it was formerly, or at any rale does not 
bear a proportion to the advance made iu all ciassea of society, as 
regards income, comforts, luxuries, or necessaries. Something haa 
been done by the present Board of Admiralty to remedy the evil, 
we ought pf'riiaps to say that much has been done by them in this 
direction ; but a great deal has yet to be done before the pay of 
officers in the Navy or the Army is sufficient to enable them to 
live in the same manner as others moving in t!ie same circle. 

But to return to the addresses recently made at Deal and at 
I'onlefract. At tins lime of the year every one is cspecling lo hear 
on what basis the Estimates are to be formed, whether for a reduc- 
tion or an increase in the number of seamen, Marines, and artihcere 
to be employed in the fleet and in the dock-yards. Lord Clarence 
Paget did not say much which will enlighten us on these points. 



1S65.] 



THE AOMIBALTI ON SAVAL A?FAtRa. 



71 



He did, tiowever, tell ub that while " the Estimates wbich will 
be aubmilted to Parliament for the mBintenaiice of Her Majesty's 
Navy will be formed with tlie utmost regard to economy, Mr. 
Cobden'fl views aa to great and sweeping reductions will not be 
enterlaiiied j" and he added, " more parliculorly jou will ex|ject a 
considerable increase in the votes for the docks and basins of tins 
country." We have for so many years been strenuous advocates of 
an increase in the accommodation po8»es»ed by the Crown for 
fitting, equipping, building, and repairing ships belonging to Her 
Majesty's Navy, that we rejoice to learn tliere is a prospect of 
our views on tins important question being carried out. The com- 
mittees which sat last season, and of which the Secretary of the 
Admiralty was the chairman, expressed much more decided opinions 
on tills subject than usually emanate from Committees of the Houae 
of CoinraoMS, " The evidence is unanimous," they said, " that the 
accommodation at Portsmouth is inadequate for the ordinary re- 
quirements of the Navy even in time of peace; your committee 
have, therefore, come to the conclusion that ndditional doek and 
biisih accommodation at Portsmouth is required." As regards 
Devonport they reported " the want of dock and basin accommoda- 
tion leads to delay, unnecessary expense, and inferiority of work- 
manship ; and your Committee are of opinion that a third basin at 
Devonport, equal in extent to the present north basin, and at 
least two additional first class docks are amongst the works which 
are required." With reference to Ireland, the report went on to 
aay, " your Committee feel the force of the advantage to the fleet of 
a first class dock in so western a port as Cork, and they advise the 
immediute construction of a first class dock in some convenient site 
in that harbour, and also an arrangcnipnl, if practicable, to deepen 
one of the existing private docks for occasional naval requirements." 
They also recommend the construction of docks at Malta, at 
Bermuda, and at other foreign stations, and they stated that 
"although jour Committee are not prepared to give their recom- 
mendation for extensive alterations beyond what is immediately 
pressing, they cannot conceal their opinion that much expenditure 
will be required, from time to time, in order to preserve the naval 
position of this counliy." 

Indirectly connected with this subject of dock and basin ac- 
commodation, is another which has occupied considerable public 
attention during the past month. At Malta there are at present 
two docks in her Majesty's naval-yard, which, by removing the centre 
caisson, form one double dock, which is not, however, capable of 
receiving the largest class of ships. The provision of proper docks 
at that island has nevertheless become almost imlispensiible, in 
consequence of the conversion of the navy into a steam-navy. As 
most of our readers, who have been any time at sen, wdl remember, 
it was the practice to heave ships down on careening wharves when, 
in want o[ repair; but this expediei.\t is wtjlK^QiVi'V\.'*\-«-'^^ '=^***^ 



re 



THE ADHIItALTT ON NAVAt APPAIB9. 



[Jaw. 



of stenm vessels, as theit machinery would be damHged b; the 
operation; and coDseqiieiiLly on etaliona were tliere nro no docks 
of sufficient size, it is necpssary lo send tbem lioine whenever Iheir 
boUoma require to be eitlicr cleaned or re[)iiirei). During Ibeir 
absence from tbcir stntions, the cost of wages, victuals, coals, and of 
wear and tear, is a dead lo?s, and this loss will be of constant re- 
currence in the case of iron ships, as it is necessary to dock them, 
for the mere purpose of cleaning their bottoms, at least four or five 
times in the course of the ordinary duration of a commission. One 
of the considerations, therefore, in sending a large wooden or iron ship 
lo the Mediterranean to receive the flag of the commander-in-chief, 
is the power of docking her at Malta ; and as there are no means of 
doing this at present, it seems more desirable, both on the score of 
FCimomy and efficiency, that the Admiral's ship should have a 
copjjer instead of an iron bottom. There appear, however, to be 
other, and equally cogent reasons for sending the " Victoria" lo 
the Mediterranean. Mr. Childers tells us what some of these are. 
We will give tliem in his own words: "The reason for now send- 
ing the Victoria as the flsgsliip of the present Commander-in-Chief 
of the Medilerranenn fleet, was not merely that the Admiral might 
have a stalely residence, as if living in a three-decker was something 
more noble than living in a smaller vessel, but it was that the 
Commander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean had intrusted to him the 
whole mnnicipal business of the fleets scattered about the Medi- 
terranean, It was necessary that he should have a large stalT, and 
that under his immed'at« eye he should carry on its operations. 
He was not slopping at any one particular place. One day he 
miffht be at Malta, another at Gibrallar, and at other times in 
ditferent parts of the Mediterranean, and the staff must accompany 
him; and all supernnmersries, both oflicers and men, were always 
sent to the ship of the Commander-in-Chief, in order that they 
might be draughted o(f lo dilferenl ships which might require them. 
This was an arrangement of the greatest use, and one wliich the 
Admiralty would not ibiiik of changing needlessly and without 
evident necessity. The only thing in favour of putting the Com- 
mander-in-Chief in an armoured ship, would be perhaps that, if 
really there was a war, he might he the (irst in going into battle. 
The Admiralty certainly thought, however, there was no immediate 
pioppect of a great war in the Mediterranean, and the question was 
whether or not they weie lo put their Admiral in the Mediterranean, 
as Ihey had put their A-dmiral of the Channel Fleet, in a wooden ship, 
ill nbicb he could carry on Ihe administration of the Mediterranean 
fleet, and lo which the supernumeraries could be sent out from Eng- 
land. It was more convenient to do that than to look forward to 
the prospects of a war, wliich he hoped at this time was very far 
distant." 

Lord Clarence Paget goes more into the professional merits of 
the question, and while he couflrms his colleague's statement of the 



1S85.] 



THE ADUmALTY ON HATAL APFAIKS. 



73 



rensons which induced the Admiralty to send out the Victoria in- 
stead of the Warrior, or the Black Prince, or other of the iron 
giants, he adds tliat where tliere are such large bodies of super- 
uumt-raries eoTistantly being attached to the (lag-ship, it is necessary 
to have a large, roomy, well -ventilated vessel, in wliich they can be 
stowed without being hable, as they might be in an armour-plated 
frigate, to be sent to the hospital. 

Apirt, liowever, from the necessity for having a ship of the 
Yicloria class as the flag-ship on the most important naval station 
abroad, and from the impossibility of keeping a large iron-clad 
frigate in serviceable eondiiioti from wniit of the power of placing 
her in dock, it must not be forgotten that the navies of the world 
are not yet composed entirely of armonr-plated ships, but that, on 
the contrary, they consist principally of vessels constructed of wood, 
and that until the bulk of nieu-of-war are budt of metal, it cannot 
be said that a hne-of-battle ship is altogether useless, or woi^e than 
useless. In case of a war with France, or any other large naval 
power, we think that it would be found that England would not 
consider her wooden-built vessels altogether useless, and trust 
entirely to those which are made of iron. No doubt the latter 
would have to hear the "brunt of the battle," and it would be 
absurd to attempt to place the " Victoria," or the " Revenge," along- 
side the " Solfi-rino," or " Magenta ;" but no admiral, who had his 
ships well in hand, or understood the art of maoceuvring a fleet, 
would allow the iron monsters of the enemy to quietly take 
possession of his unprotected vessels, but by allowing "iron to meet 
iron," he would let the remainder of the work be done by " wood 
against wood," In other words, the armour-plated ships would 
assume the position formerly occupied by large line-of-battle ships, 
and they in their turn would take the place of third or fourth rates, 
and heavy frigates. "Whatever may be the value of iron as compared 
with oak in the constnictiou of vessels of war, it cannot be denied 
that a navy composed of iron-clads and wooden liners is stronger 
(the number of each description on both sides being equal) than a 
navy composed of iron-clads only. The theory which has been 
recently promulgated, and which Lord Clarence Paget and ilr. 
Childers have both successfully combated, will hold good some few 
years hence, when wooden ships will form the exception instead of 
the rule. At present, however, such a theory is unsound and 
cannot be maintained. 

We are accustomed to travel so fust, and to see things around 
us change so quickly, that we are sometimes led or templed into the 
belief llmt to " wish," or to " decide on having" is to " obtain." We 
are also so accustomed to find it necessary to recoiislruct our 
Navy that immediately any new idea of building is discovered, and 
the firs.t specimen of the fresh plan is produced, we talk and argue 
as though all the ships afloat are to be immediately mode. <a 
correspond, or, worse still, tU«l iVvtrj aw Ma»Jsss». '^tii^'a. Vsv^^ 



u 



TUB ADMIRALTI OX NAVAL AFFAIRS. 



[Jan. 



that theae revolulionR are broiiglil about ftrn<]unlly. When ptcom 
was introduced, aoilhig shiijs ilid forthwith become obsolete, — whfn 
paddle-wheel vesspis were found to be iesa auiled for warlike pur- 
poses than " screws," lliose of the former dtscriplioii were not at 
once "put on the shelf;" nor will wooden Jine-of-battle ships be 
reallj valueless until they are superseded in foreign navies, as well 
ss in our own, by those which can resist shot and shell. Instead 
of being disappointed at ibese results, we, who have to contribute to- 
wards the seventy millions of taxes raised by theCliancellor of the 
Exchequer, ought to congratulate ourselves that great changes like 
tliese are not allowed to take place "suddenly on an instant." 
IVerc such to be the case, we should probably find ourselves " side 
bv side" wilh our demented cousins on the other aide of the 
Atlantic, whose rate of public expenditure is something like 
^2,OUO,000 a-day. And tliis brings us to a part of the speech 
of the Secretary to the Admiralty iu which he alluded to some of 
the statements made by Mr. Cobdeu, at the end of November, to 
his conslittjents ut Rochdale. 

Accordingto the great apostle of Free trade, the Americans have 
been enabled to laugh lo scorn all the prediclions of our writers 
on finance, and to deceive and disappoint the whole of Kurope, 
because they have never allowed their Government to make a war 
expenditure in time of peace. Thry were spending for the purposes 
of their Government from fifteen lo seventeen millions sterling par 
annum when the war broke out, and the savings then made have 
enabled tlicm to go through this terrible strain. Mr. Cobden 
forgets to look at the whole slate of the case. He forgets 
that nearly the whole of the fifteen or seventeen millions spent for 
national purposes was not money wasted or thrown away, but that 
it relun)ed to the people by whom it was paid. lie also forgets 
that had the American Government been lu possession of a con- 
siderable naval force when the Southern Slates first seceded, ihey 
would not have had to pay sucb exorbitant sums for the ships, 
and men, and stores they have now been compelled suddenly lo 
provide. Although they have not a House of Lords, which, Mr. 
Cobden tells us, "becomes more excited than the House of 
Commons whenever iliere is anything likely to lead to an excuse 
for mihtary or naval expeuditure," they have a Senate which 
supports the Congress in voting sums for tiie maintenance and 
increase of the fleet, which we should be almost paralyzed to hear 
mentioned with reference to the Navy of Great Britain, From 
Mr, Lincuin's Presidential Message delivered to Congress on iho 
6th of December, we learn "that the total expenditure of tiie Navy 
Department of every description, including the cost of the immeuse 
squadrons that have been called into existence from tlie 4th of 
March, 18(il, to the 1st November, 1864, are .:*! 2-18,617,262, 35c." 
and he goes on to say, " Your favourable consideration is re- 
quested to the various recommendations of the Secretary of the 



1865.] 



TSE ADMIBALTY ON »AVAL APPAIBS. 



7S 



Navy, cspeciaUj in regard to a navy yard and suitable establish- 
ment for the constcuclion and repairs of iron vessels, and the 
mncliinery niid armour oil out ships, lo wlucli reference vaa made 
in my iaat annual Message." 

Tlio President has thus confirmed the Statements made again 
and asrniii by his Secretary of the Navy, who ns far back as 
December, 1862, told Congress tlial hod tbe Governnaeut been 
prepared with the proper means of building and repairing ships, 
much of the delny which had embarrassed naval operations might 
have been avoided, and who censured the very policy which the 
Member for Rochdale had so freqiientlv advocated. " Successive Ad- 
ministrations, with a view to the appearance of economy and a show 
of small expenditure, restricted tlie e^imnlea for supplies to nniourits 
barely sufficient to keep its few ships afloat. A special appropria- 
tion annually for the purpose of accumulating a stock of material 
must always be advantageous to the Government. In that way the 
navy can be best and most economically supplied, can make 
better purchases, and have more time to examine and test the 
deliveries." 

Had Mr. Gideon WiUes been the Secretary of the Admiralty of 
the most Conservative Administration England ever had, he coutd 
not have expressed himself in strongc-r or more sensible terms, 
nor could he have urged more forcibly than he did in the following 
December {lS6iJ), the neccssily of forming establishments for the 
construction of armour-plated ships, *' 1 again, therefore, earnestly 
invoke the attention of Congress to the manifest and inauspicious 
fact that our Government has made no sufi&cient provision in 
its public establishments for the existing requirements of naval 
warfare." 

With oEficial reports like these staring him in the face, we hope 
that Mr. Cobden will not be rash enough to quote his American 
friends as authorities for not keeping up proper eslnblisbments, 

Therfl is one more topic upon which both Mr. Childers and 
Lord Clarence Paget dwelt, to which we must briefly refer before 
we close our remarks on Naval Affairs. We allude to tbe " lloyal 
Sovereign." In a former number of the United Service Magazine, 
we proved how unnecessary was the excitement which was then 
being created with regard to this experimentnl ship, and how un- 
founded were the imputations attempted to be thrown on the Ad- 
miralty in respect to her. The correctness of our observations is 
shown in the speeches debvered by the Secretary and Junior Lord 
of the Admirally at Deal and Ponf^fract. Mr. Childers in alluding 
to the principle advocated by Captain Coles, whom he correctly 
described as a distinguished and imlustrious (he might hnve added, 
a clever and persevering) Naval OiTicer, said " that system of ship- 
building had been very successful and the lloyal Suvereign was 
an admirable model of it," and that what the Admiralty had decided 
to do witli her was this, "she was attached aa» Vi3i^«aVi'^Mt.'^"*»^ 



76 



THB ADKUULTT OH HAVAL AITAiaS. 



[Jaw. 



nery ship at Porlsmouth, she was now being altered in certain 
respects, whicli alterations would lake some time to complete, and 
in the spring ^he would be tinally atlacljeJ as a tender to the 
Excellent, and trials of gunnery under the peculiar coiidilions of 
lier turret would be carried out." Lord Clarence Pugel'a espla- 
nntion was even more full and complete. After denvirig that there 
ia any prejudice entertained at the Admiralty against tlie turret- 
system and that the principle is a great success, he staled all the 
e ire urn stances connected with the "Hoyal Sovereign" since ahe was 
commissioned. " Her own Captain," his Lordship said, "reported 
that although the turret- system, in his opinion and the opinion of 
all on board, worked most salisractorily, nevertheless, as the Royal 
Sovereign is not what we call an efficient cruising ship for 
sea-going, tlie utmost which can be expected of her is that sho 
should be available for the protection of our coast ; and that, in an 
emergency, she might be sent to the Mediterranean. Under these 
circumstances, the Admiralty thought it would be unwise to keep 
ber in commission as a sea-going ship, inasmuch as it was evident 
that she could not fulGI all the conditions of a sea-going ship. But, 
with an earnest desire and determination to carry out fully the 
CKperiments in tins system, we arc now making various modilico- 
tioiis in matters of detail. Undoubtedly, some accidents bave 
occurred to the ship. Her hawsc-holea were damaged, and in 
various other respects she required lengthened repairs in the dock- 
yard. It will be necessary, loo, that her gun carriages should ba 
of iron instead of wood. These things will cause some delay ; but, 
I repeat, the public may rest assured that it ia the earnest wish of 
the Admiralty to give that sliip a full and fair trial. She is atiached 
to our Gunnery Instruction -ship, and the moment ahe is ready for 
sea she will undergo the faircat trials." 

We have no doubt in our own minds but ihst the result of those 
trials will prove favourable to the invention of Captain Coles, 
who we hope will not have occasion hereafter to cry " save me from 
ray friends." He ia fully able to "battle the watch," with any 
Board of Admirahy, however badly disposi'd they may be towards 
him and his plans, but, after the statements publicly made by two 
of its members, he must feel assured that in the present Board he 
has staunch supporters who will not hesitate to demand whatever 
HUpplies may be necessary to have his plans fully and fairly tested. 
Mr. Childers, we believe, merely asserted the bare fact when he 
slated " What the Admiralty really wished to do was to see to the 
future ; to spare no exertion to keep the navy of Kngland efficient ; 
to keep up England's place among the nations ; not to let her be 
behindhand with the onward discoveries of the age; and to 
combine with thorough efficiency a sound and judicious economy." 




1865.] 



PaOM HOSPENTHAI, TO METTirNOEH. 



TROM HOSPENTHAL TO MEYBINGEN— A SWISS 
SKETCH. 

There are certain tilings when seen for the first time in onr 
livesj which leave a deep and ubiding impression on the mind. 
"We may read descriptions of lliem in books and be familiar with 
them from our earhest years, but they never quite come up to the 
reality. Tliey may be pictured in the mind's eye in such colours 
as suit the cireumBtancea of the occasion, but when brought aide by 
aide with the thing itsflfj they seem to melt away like the " baseless 
fabric of a dream." Such were my feelings when, descending the 
Forca pass, the mighty glncier of the Rhone, was suddenly 
opened out to my view iu all its iiilent, solemn grandeur, lying like 
a giant in his snow-white shroud. M.iny persons arc disappointed 
with the first view of these gigantic monuments of nature, but in 
the present instance, a slight fall of snow the day before, had 
thrown a while mantle over everything, so that the usual muddy 
appearance of the lilione glacier had given place to one of dazzling 
whiteness. 

The following pages are not intended to elucidate anything new 
regarding glaciers or of their uses in the economy of nature. Those 
who are interested in these matters are referred to the able works 
of Professor Forbes and Professor Tyndall. But if the reader will 
have the patience to accompany me on paper for the neit few 
minutes, I will do my best to be his guide over one of the most 
interesting excursions in this most interesting country. The title 
of this sketch might have been ' winter and summer," for in two 
days the traveller passes from the one to the other, namely, snow 
and ice to heat and sunshine. Early one morning in July last, 
when the bleak winds whistled winti'rly round the hotel Meyerhof, 
at the ancient conventual village of Hospeuthal (which you know is 
situated near the summit of the St. Gothaid route into Italy) and 
after having hastily despatched a cup of hot coffee, I set off, 
accompanied by a guide to cross the Furca pass to the hospice of 
the Grimael, The rain descended in fitful gusts wliich might have 
deterred many from making the pass, but knowing that fortune smiles 
upon the brave, I was deierniined to try it in the hopes of better 
weather. For a considerable distance we traversed a dreary and 
desolate track in the pelting rain, until we ai'conded to the summit 
of the Furca, 8150 feet above the level of the sea, on which is 
situated a little inn for the accommodation of travellers, with not a 
trace of vegetation to cheer the eye except the bright red rhododen- 
dron, or aipirie rose, peeping out here and there between the snow 
drifts. In these high regions a thick and penelrniing mist hung 
over everything, and the inn, where we were to halt for one mid-day 
meal, was not to be discerned until we reached the place itself. 
On knocking for admittance, the creoky doQc ww, dYssitJi.>i\ ■< 



T8 



PBOM BOEFENTnAL TO HEYRINGEN. 



[Jsv. 



Bleepy-looking menial, a lad about flTteen, who ushered as into a 
smalt room wilh a low ccilingj where we were quickly served with 
some very tolerable roast beef, potatoes, aud cheese. A short time 
here sufficed for rest and restoring the apirlls of the inner man, 
we at once set off to descend to the glacier of the Rhone, 
which we reached without any mishap about four o'clock, p.m. 
Nothing can eiceed the wdd picturesque grandeur of the scene now 
before os. The gkcier seemed like a great giant takmg liis repose 
be.twecii the two mountains, both of them not less than ten 
thousand feet high. Solitude held her dominion here. To walk 
on ice fields iii the month of July is au event in one's life, so I 
could not resist the novelty. This vast collection of ice is the 
source of the Rhone, fit cradle in truth for so noble a stream I aiid 
within an area of a few miles are the sources of five important rivers, 
namely the Rhine, Rhone, Rtuss, the Ticino, and the Aar. Close to 
the glacier is an inn, for the acGommoilatioii of travellers who wi'^h t« 
stay the night here instead of at the Grimsel i but I did nut avail 
myself of it, preferring to examine the ice fields, a strange sight to 
those who have never seen ihem before. It has nothing of the 
clear blue colonr, which is so conspicuous a feature at Rosenlaui, or 
at Grindelwald, having a rather dingy appearance, owing to the 
moraine as it called, but I think it makes up for it by its 
stupendous size and commanding position. It fills up the ravine 
between two high mountains, and slopes down into the valley like a 
frozen sea. It is full of crevasses, several hundred feet in depth, 
and often covered over with a deceptive thin bridge of snow, which 
gives way with the weight of the traveller. Hence the greatest 
caution is necessary in crossing tiiem, and when there is a large 
party, it is usual to be tied together with a stout rope sufficiently 
strong to bear the dead weight of a sudden fall of at least tea 
stone. In crossing glaciers, or snow slopes, this rope should 
never be dispensed with, and when this is the case few serioua 
accidents can happen. A green veil is also useful, as the repur- 
cussion of the sunbeams reflected by the snow is injurious to tlie 
eyes, and frequi'nlly occasions temporary blindness and great pain 
in the face. My guide, an nclive and intelligent man, a native 
of Hospenthal, brightened up as I proposed that we should try the 
ice, and by this time J was glad to find that the weather had cleared 
up. The sun shone out in fitful gleams, alternating with floating 
clouds of mist, which swept up the valley of the Rhone. It was 
afternoon, and the slanting rays of the declining sun, tinging all 
around with a bright purple ci.lour, illumined the snow in a 
wonderful manner. It would, indeed, be presumptuous in ma to 
enter into any details of my experiences on the ice. Those who arc 
interested in such subjects should peruse "Peaks, Pitsses, and 
Glaciers," by Members of the Alpine Club, in which deeply 
interesling volume, they will find food sufficient to feed, nay 
inflame, their spirit of adventure. But I cannot resist the 



opportunity of making a few cursory remarks for the information 
of tiiose wlio ' sit at home ' aad know nothing about them. A 
glacier is a stream of solid ice varying in thickness from 300 to fiOO 
and even BOO feet. There are crevassea in the glacier of the Aar 
700 feet deep, and in that of Grinddwald a plumb line fails to 
reach a de|)th of 500 feel; and it was here some years ago that a 
Swisa clergyman was precipitated into a hole more than 700 feet 
deep ! Ttiis server to give some faint idea of their immense siza 
and dangerous character. And now a word or two ag to their 
formation. Murnij says, "The snow which falls on the summits 
and plateaux of tlic High Alps is nt first a dry and loose powder. 
The action of tiie sun gradually converts this into a granular mase, 
as the minute particles are oggregafed together into irregular 
roundish grains. In this state the entire mnss appears wlitte and 
opaque, but the separate grains are trorisparent. In ihe course of 
successive years tlieae become a compact mass," Professor Forbes' 
interesting works on glacier formations ought to be in the hands 
of every one who wish to- study the subject, and much valuable 
information is to be gleaned from them. It would, therefore, bo 
supertluous in me to add any of my own observations. One thing, 
however, I may remark, which is, how comes it that the melting of 
glaciers and their continued downward movement ia not more 
rapid than what it is ? At llosenlaui, for instance, the heal at mid- 
day was so intense, that 1 was obhged, while standing on the ice, to 
hold op an umbrella, strange as it may appear, to keep olf ihe rays 
ofthe. sun. The thermometer stood at 75° Fahr, and yet the ice, 
with all this heat radiating upon it, was as dry os possible. Again, 
the downward movement, 

" The glacier's cold and restless mass 

Moves onward day by day." 

MANrHEP. 

must be much more rapid than what is generally supposed. 
Professor Tyndall calculates it is about 30 inches a-day in summer, 
16 in winter. Whether this applies to Rosenlaui, I know not, but 
some peasants told me it was much more rapid. I myself can 
testify that a crevasse closes up in a few hours. However, mncb 
would depend on the steepness of the glacier. The Alpine Journal 
for September last contains a highly-intereslitig paper in regard 
to the relics of the guides who were lost on Mount Blanc in ISiO, 
and which were only discoverved last year. The remains of these 
unfortuimte men traversed QJ miles in 43 years, which would give a 
daily movement of 2t in. and onc-lirth. My experiences were confined 
to merely the glaciers of the lllione, Rosenlaui, and Grindclwald — 
upper and lower — and, therefore, are only mengre and devoid of 
interest to those wbo are veterans in the ice regions of the Alps, 
but I may mention, in regard to n lourist's equipment, what great 
beuelil is derived from wearing kneecaps in case of a fall. They 
can be titled on with little ot no inconvenience, and wt <i^ ■^'ali^. 



MOH HOSPESTHAL TO MEmiNOBK. 




protection. Having iiivesligated all I wished lo do at the Illione 
glacier, I, at once, resumed my journey over to tlie Grimael- Tlie 
Buuimit of this pass is 7530 Teet above (he level of liie sea, and 
exliibits some really grand specimens of Alpine scenery. 1 walked 
over it in about two boura, passing near tile Todten Se«, or lake of 
the dead, so called, as being the burial place of those travellers vbo 
perish in the snow. 

The descent to the Hospice was difficult, added to wKich, the 
mist ag.iin came on, and we could scarcely distinguish a yard 
before us. It was, moreover, neorly dark, and the cold so great 
that it seemed to freeze our bones. At last after a long weary 
walk through slushy mud and melting snow, we were cheered by 
seeing, far beneath in the vallev, lights glimmering from the little 
windows of (he Hospice. They looked lurid through the damp 
inist, like gas-lamps on & ?t'ovember day in London. But tlie/ 
were indeed cheering landmarks to weary travellers, wet and 
cold as we were. At lost we reached the door, and were quickly 
installed in a bedroom, where a change of clothes proved very 
refreshing. I may mention, enpassanl, that the landlord provides 
— at a small charge— the temporary loan of a suit of clothes to 
those travellers requiring them ! 

In the salle d manger a stove blazed out, shedding light 
and heat around, while we discovered sundry tourists seated 
here and there, looking tired and sleepy ; some half asleep, some 
snoring lustily on the wooden benches, A more dreary room, I 
think, I never saw. The small wirniows set deep in the recesses, 
scarcely let in a ray of light. They looked very sugg-'slive of 
avalanches! All looked so large, grim, and massive; just one of 
those places where deeds of darkness could be put into executiou. 
It is in such a place wliere adventurous travellers may be 
seen in complele Alpine costume of snow boots, axes, ropes, 
Alpine-slocks, and the like. I met several agreeable companions, 
and conversed with them the whole evening, listening with great 
interest to their exploits in crossing the Kggischhoon and the 
Strahleck. We dined all together at a seven o'clock table d'hote, on 
the toughest viands I ever encountered. But who has the heart to 
grumble at having poor fare at the Grimsel ? We did not sit up 
late — there being no inducement to do so^for Ihe dining-room 
was dark and cheerless, so that nine, p.m. found most of us in bed ; 
queer little beds they were, like bejlhs on board of a ship. A short 
description of the mditary events, which look place near the Ilospica 
will not be out of place. The building itself was formerly n 
conventual institution, being originally intended to afford gratui- 
tous shelter and relief to travellers. "In August, I?99, the 
Grimsel became the scene of the most remarkable skirmishes 
in the campaigo. T!ie Austriaiis were encamped upon the 
Grimsel with the view of preventing the French from penetrating 
into the valley of the Rhone by means of that pass. They had 



IS Bo.] 



FaOU HOSPEKTUAL TO MBIKIKQEN. 



SI 



po^se^sion of tlie whole JecHvity from tlic suiumit of tlie pass to 
tiic [ju^pice, and aho of tlie plall'orm on wliich tlie Huspicc scmiJs. 
Tiieir force cuTisisted of rallier less lliHri loUO men. Tlie French 
Irunpi under General Gudin, consUliiifj ol about 36UO men, 
wtre poiitwd in the Obt-rliasli vulley in the neijjhboarliood of 
GiKtiiiien. Tlie Anslrinn cominanrler, Colonel Slruuch, naliirally 
rL-liuil upon the slrengili of his puaiitofi, which h;i(l noi only the 
ailvaiitflge of a great declivity, but of the numerous nurrow tissures 
in the rucks, which uii^lit be defended by a few men, protected 
by the upright mavises of ^rutiite, ugniu^t a lar^e army. The 
French generul also considered the position to be impreguuhle to 
an attack iik front, and was therefore placed in a siiuation of great 
anxiely by receiving positive orders from Massenu, wbo had tlieu 
the chief cuinmand of the French army in Swilzerlaiul, to force the 
pass of the Giinisel on the 14tli of August. Be sumuioiied ha 
officers logel her in liie night uf the 13lb ; and us the conaultiiljona 
look, place at the ha^nlel of Guttnnen, it nas no secret to what 
point ihey were directed. While ihey were going on, the hkudlorJ, 
whose na;iie was I'ahner, boasted (o some guests in the outir room, 
ttnit if be chose he could deliver Gudin from his perplexity, and 
show him a path by which ho could get to the rear of the Austrian 
force, and ' break its back' (as be expressed it) witliout lo9> to tlie 
French. This language was reported to Gudin, who summoned 
the mail before bim, aud partly by threat.^, and partly by the 
promise that he should have the Riitricka boden [a small plot of 
ground formed by the alluvion of the Aar below the Giim.-el) for 
bis reward, induceil him to undertake the guidance of a deiacbment 
of Fiench troops by the p;ith tu which he Imd alluded. Tiie pu>3 
of the Giimsel consists of a depre^ed point of a mtiuntain tidge. 
Fahner's undertaking was to lead the French over and ^long lUe 
top of the Niigeli'a Gratti unseen by the Ausiri.iiis, and to bring 
them to the summit of the Grimsel, at a higher level tlian the 
Austrian position. The next morning early, Gudin confided about 
4(JU mt-u to the guidance of Fahner ; and at the same time be 
sent II small dttachinent over and round the Sidelhoin, who were 
also to descend from the higher parts of that mountain upon the 
Griuisc'l, and tlii're meet the parly guided by Fahner over the 
mountain on the opposild side. Gudin himself advanced h'ilIi 
the main body uf his troops up Ibe Obcrhasli valley to the phuform 
on which the Hospice now stands, and uttackcd the Au7.triim 
position in front with the churucteristic impetuosity uf French 
soldiers. 

The Austrian commander was convinced that the attnck could not 
succeed in tliis direction, but drevi* dowu ilie greater part of iiis 
force frnm the auminil i-f the Gritiisel, in order to rtpel it Willi 
effect, and some sharp tit^hliiig ensued. Suddenly, the Austriaiia 
were ahirmed by firing on the heights tu tlieir rear; and its eou- 
linuaiicc, together with the appearance of t'tt'^'iV 'aiJi.X\t\'*. \\i ■^^^:^^• 

U. S Mao. No. 4^4. Jan. Uea. 'i 



S2 rnOM HOSPKSTtlAL TO MKYRINGeN, [ 

fJirection, convinced them that an important attack was commenced 
ill a quiirler frum which lliej h'a*t eipecltd it. The appearance of 
tile enemy in their rL'ar, with numbers m unknown us llie mcuns by 
which ihey came liiere, induced tlie Aiislrians to waver; and the 
impetuous advance of Gudin, proihicfd fl panic, which ended in a 
disorderly 6ii;lit up the GriiuscI in the direciiou of Obergestelen, 
in the valley of the Rhone. On llie summit of the Gcimsel, how- 
ever, they agniii mi't with the enemy; for by this time the troops 
despatched by Gudin over the Sidcliiorn liad nejtrly readied tlicir 
dcstinBtion, and had ahuost effected tlieir junction with the party 
led by Fahner; so that the two eniU of tlie formidable serpent were 
nearly brousht together just as the flying Auslriaiis had reached 
tile lop of the pass. Tlie suldiers, finding themselves surrounded, 
are said to have beaten their smbrea and miiAels to pieces tipoii the 
pranite rocks; und this tnidiiiiin is countenanced by the fact that 
fragments of arms, evidently broken by violence, are still oc- 
Ciisionallv found on this verv spot. The number of the killed is 
supposed not to have exceeded 150, of which the French composed 
not more than a tilth part. The wounded Austriaiis were necessarily 
h'lt to their fate, the nature of the ground rendering it impossible 
for sncii of their compatiions as escaped to remove tliem, and the 
French troops passed directly over into the valley of the Khoiie. 
The landlord at the Hosjiice found a decayed musket lying by a 
skclclon under a rock, about twelve mouths ago, at some dijt-since 
from the scene of the skirmish. Fahner wholly failed to derive tlia 
reward of his service for which he had stipniiiled; his own govern- 
ment refusing lo mlify the enjjugemenl r<'specling the Riiterieh's- 
bodeo which General Gudin had made, lie died in 1820 ; his son 
was for some years a servant in the Hospice of the Giimsel," (J. D.) 
Such is a- brief account of one of ttie most uiemorable and sue* 
ci'ssful mnncetivres in that campaign. The traveller, as he passes 
alnng this wilJemess of ice and snow, can trace out with exactness 
all the locahiies 1 have just named. It is a scene worthy of Nuova- 
Zembla. 

The fitst thing I did on rising nest morning, was to hurry down 
to the slovc and thaw my bones, forthe cold, that [ had experienced 
in my draughty lillle bed-room during the night, had been intense. 
Early as it was, I found the stove besieged by sleepy-looking 
tourists kneeling down in fiont of it. Id catch all the heat possi^de. 
Some were busily buckling on Ibeir Alpine costume, and preparing 
fur their day's work, while others were taking breakfast in f^ilence 
and in haslc. It was a curinus sight as seen in the dim glimmer 
of the early morning. It looked more hke an expedition in the 
Atctic regions than anything else, and one could not help admiring 
the enthusiasm evinced by every one. But Alpine travel is very 
captivating; fatigue and danger are completely lost sight of in the 
excitement of scaling mountains and crossing snow-iields. We bad 
lioperl to have visile*! the glacier of the Aar from the Hospice, but 



I 



18C5.] 



PBOU HOSPENTUAI. TO MrVKINGeil, 



N3 



llie weather looked uriprornising, and the kle rain— so we were tuld 
— hnd wnde the ice quite Tiiifit for walking. Al tlie oppoiuted 
hour, 5 a.m., I li'ft [lie Uu?]jice en route for Meyringen, al|ii-ristock 
ill hand, mid dcscenilfd llirou^li the magiiiiieent scenery of the 
valley of the har, and rcnched tlie IJniidelt waterl'ail iti aboiU three 
hours rajiid walking. In parts, the path is verjf rugged and iu- 
eeciirp, the snow-cujiped ginnt;', ttm Sclirt'ckhorn (peak of (error), 
and the t'lnstrruarlmrn (prak of daiktiess), oversliadoBing it. We 
were (.daJ Lu re».t awiiile at Ilandek, so as lo visit the famuiis wnter- 
fnlf. It is one of the linrist in Snitzerland, having a clear fall of 
200 fe<!|. The rufh of water seems to slupify the senses. You are 
Inlied into a doi^ire to leap into the yawning gulf. From llandek, 
the path leaiis through Uutlanen — previously mentioned aa being 
tlin liead-(|uartfrs of ihe French general, Gudin — to Imhof, at 
which latter place we hailed for refre*liment. It is situated deep 
ill the valley, hemmed in by precipitous mountains. The heut here 
was overpowering. To give some idea of the change of teinper.!- 
lore from iht Grimsel, where it was \\f I'ahr., I may mention lliat 
the thermometer at Imhof registered 87° degrees. Nothing can 
exceed in grandeur the walk duwii to Iniliof on (lie sleep di'cliviliea 
overhanging the impetuous torrent of the Iliver Aar. The frag- 
rance of the Cembras — so well known to those who have traversed 
pine forests in Switzerland — pervaded the eariy morning air. At 
one time the pulh skirts the edge of the river; at another, llie 
traveller finds himself feeling hie way cautiously along, higli up on 
the narrow ledges, «ilh the torrent boiling and tumtding over the 
great rock^ hundreds of feet below him. To stop and louk donii, 
requires a clear head. We did so, sitting under a rock, so us lu be 
out of (he scorching rays of the sun. Tlie hiul here was intense. 
My guide, poor fellow, waa glad to lie down to sleep; and as we 
hoih reclined, enjoying the pleasant breeze as it murmured through 
the (ail iir trees, the scene c;died forcibly to one's mind that passage 
in tlie Psalms, " ihe siiaduw of a great rock in a weary land.' 

Those only mho have travelled during great heal, can apprectata 
llie wonderful force liiut these words possiss. For instance, when 
the traveller toils along over the rugged and dusty nsceut,' with 
a parched mouth, a trembling hand and sore feet, he sees per- 
chance a long wuy off, ihe shadow of a great rock. He now 
quickens his pace, and ere long reaches the desired resting |dace. 
Forthwith he tlings utf his knup^ack, takes a long drink front his 
liask, and, with liis Irusly alpi'iistoek nt his side, falls into a re- 
freshing sleep on the soft and pleasant grus". Midway between 
Outtiine-n and Imhof, I haiipeued to meet one such lourist, as I 
have described, so I joined him, and great was our jnutual gratifi- 
cation to speak in our own laiiguagc and lo compare notes. To 
meet a fellow traveller in this uncx|}eeted maimer is very pleasant. 
U has much Ihe same fcelmg as when yon meet a aU'.'j W^ w^v -^s. 
sen. On the tr.ickhss WHtcrs Uw mwmsx V»\\a ■«>«», iivvs^^*^*«^^- 



84 



FRuM HnSPESTHAI, TO METUINGBN. 



[Jan. 



able pleasure, the vessel tbat. crosses his course. Su it \» when 
Vou meet a fellow-traveller journeying like yourself, and when, 
after a long dial, you say good-bye, when you pursue y"ur way 
ttwl he pursues his, ami you see the last of each other behim! the 
clump of trees whieii conceals your view, you feet ns if you had 
lost a friend. The only plan to see Switzerland in perfection, n 
tn become a pedestrian. Those who creep along the vallies in 
diliijences and fjincv ihev see niitute, know nothing of tiie delights 
of exploring unfrequented bye ways, and of the sweet rest al tlie. 
end of a long day's toil. Toil in one sense it is, but it is largely 
mixed up with pleasure. Tlie beneficial effects of a pure and 
elastic air to tbe inouiilain traveller is qnite indescribable, lu the 
valleys be is pro^trnttd with tlie heat, lint K't him nscend the L{i|;li 
Alps, and then all his fiiii>!ue vanishes. The higher he ascends the' 
more buoyant are his sjurits, while the constant succession of in- 
teresting objects serves to captivate bis senses and thus prevent 
lii9*itudp. The road to Iinbof passes through orchards and hay 
fields, with picturesque chalets scattered liere and there. As you 
journey, the peasantry come out to see you and offer milk, while the 
little cbildreti run merrily after begging for centimes. It is a 
prelty and pastoral scene, such as leaves a lasting impression oti the 
mind. All looks so joyous and smiling under a cloudless sky and 
n summer sun. The rich verdure, the Imy-raakcrs at work, the 
lowing of the kine, the tinkling of the goals' bells, the liappy 
peaceful look of the people, form a picture which, if once seen, 
can never be forgotten. 

Having rested an hour at Imliof, we proceeded up tlie green 
valley of Hasli towards Meyringen, As you gain the summit of a 
Bteep eminence called Kirchet, a prospect meets the eye of t'le 
nmst indescribable beouly. In front lies the valley of Meyringen, 
while behind stretches the valley of Hasli, one of the most beautiful 
in SwiiKcrland. We reached Meyringen in ahont nine hours from 
the Grimsel, tlie distance being eiglileen miles. Although this may 
appear VI ry slow work, 1 muy be allowed lo. mention that it has 
been ascertained thut to clear two miles an hour requires very good 
Wiilking. All distances therefore are calculated by hours and not 
miles. We put up at the Hotel Siiuvage nt Meyringen. It is 
beautifully situ^ited. and, without exception, the most Swiss look- 
ing village in this beautiful country. It n-mindcd me must forcibly 
of Longfellow's graphic description of Acitdie in his poem of Evange- 
line. An ancient Iradilion exisis among Meyringenese that they 
are of Swedish ori;;in, and they ore confirmed in this by a similarity 
between the two languages. Everything is Swiss here, tlie houses, 
the people, ^'th the (jnaint costumes, now so seldom met with, 
and the primitive slate in nhicli lliey live. The Swiss women here 
are considered pretly, or rather less ugly than in the oilier Ciintnns. 
Tlie view from the back of the hotel is a most beautiful one. Ver- 
dure and vegetation in its rankest form, clothe the foreground 



lS6J.] FRoa hosp;:nthal to meybingks. 85 

redolent with awtet scented flowers. In the bRckgroand the Rhei. 
clieiibach waterfall is seen like a silver thread, and towering above 
all are the Dosenhorn and other lofty peaks with their 'diadems of 
sni)w.' And now my sketch must be drawn to a close. Beautiful 
Mevringen ! the bride of Switzerland. At five o'clock one dewy 
morning I left lier sleeping in that pleasant valley, and away I started 
on foot over the great Scheideck, twenty miles to Grindi'lwald. And 
as I ascended the opposite mountain, I involuntarily turned round 
to take a farewL-ll look of Hasli with its plensant bowers, its gMs- 
tening waterfalls, its shaded groves, whicli deck the beautiful 
village of Meyringen. James W. Betans. 



THE BRITISH ARMS IN NORTH CHINA AND JAPAN. 

There has been no naval action for many years, the account of 
which so stirs the blood as that fought by the fli.'et under Admiral 
Hope, and the defenders of the Taku forts, in China; indeed we 
doubt if there is any naval action on record in which the number of 
killed and wounded was greater in proportion than on board the 
"Plover" in this affair. In this unfortunate attempt to remove the 
barriers which prevented the passage of our vessels with the ambas- 
sadors up the Peiho, the Chinese showed themselves so bold, and 
80 skilful in directing the fire of their forts upon our gunboats, as to 
astonish everybody ; there being no precedent for such a vijjoroua 
resistance on their part. Admiral Hope had hoi?ted hia flag on 
board the "Plover," and about 2 o'clock on the 2Dth of June 
1859, he had his little fleet in position, and an attempt was forthwith 
begun to remove the baniers. This was the aignnl for the Chinese 
opening fire, which was so efficienl that in a short time four gun- 
boats were completely disabled. The Admiral had mounted the 
cookhouse, where he stood a conspicuous mark for the enemy's shot, 
and within half an hour after the commencement of the action he 
h.id seen the lieutenant who had commanded the vessel killed, and 
every man on board, with the exception of nine, killed or wounded. 
He himself had had the fleshy part of his thigh carried away by a 
round shot, yet, notwithstanding the agony which so frightful a 
wound .ronst have caused him, he remained at his post, and only 
moved from it when it became necessary for the " Plover" to drop 
down for more men, and then ho hoisted his flag on board the 
"Opossum," where he was soon wounded a second time. With 
the heroic spirit of a Nelson he continued to direct the action, 5up< 
porting himself on the cookhouse by holding [he mainstay. That 
being carried away by a shot from the forts, he was dsshe'd on the 
deck, his head being hurt, and his ribs fractured by the fall. He 
still refused to abandon his post, and when, through escesa of pain, 
he fainted, and was being rowed away insensihlevlaa VN-aSi. ^wi ^wksokx 



TtIB Sin UK ABU 3 



[Jah. 



1lh« 



|i(M>v«ml hM ««■«•** dian be insisted on being tnlcen on bonrJ the 
ltil|i n-v '^, "^il there he rciniiined, i'DiI ticiti tlie 

NoiiiiuiikI I . I >astt;d bv Ilia wounds. Alcanwtiile tbe 

t\iaUt )i:i orra gning nguiiii't us; nil t!ie gNiibouU were 

iMinil, .. <. . .omiiiaicrv Tatiial of the Anieric:in Navv, witb^ 
il<l mill fnvfuimiui fpirit whicli will loni^ be reincinbercd by as, 
anmtt to «ar u^islaDce, nt^ 8)inii)ii have liail no means of 
ttin luw gi wi of nutriiics lo tita place where tlir> were Innded 
nnpnn at Mormiu^ Ibc Forls; un iiiiluckv fnilure which 
'WVfokinrd a»d woii?ided out of 1100 men who itimle the 
m trnniniilF(l the episode lo the lu»t Chinese war, 
t tlUt tiiia-Tcimlsp mighl havu been averted, if the f;overa- 
thal country hail felt as much rrlucLatice to renew the 
_ m wns felt by our own. 

MCoaiit of the dubscqueiit operations in China as described 
iBi > woJef ate H7.ed volume writlen by Dr. Kcnnie \a one of the 
IMtf interrsling "e linve rend." The first place on Cliinese territory 
4f wbich we took pos't'C'wion was Chusan; no resLPtnncp was offered, 
tmt iIm- inlmbiliinl', and even the olRcieU showed them'clvfci nillier 
•4big ibou otherwise to assist a» — certainly not williuul a vii-w to 
Atir OWD prolii — the shopkeepers re-hoisted the siRnbonrds they 
imi pal away when we withdrew frotn ibe cily, and tlie familiar in- 
•cst(>*K>li9 of E. Afo^ea and Sons, oulh'lfnr!', frum Aldgnte Piuiip, 
mi Jim Crow, fanhionable tailor from Buckni»?ler'^, London, attain 
became visible. Tlie shrewdnrsa of ihe Chinese trader mid his 
ttsdiness to do business is remarkable ; the allies hail not been lonj; 
n the place before a sliop-winduw wus drcomtid wilb a plentiful 
Mpply of bat ribbons with the namps on ihciu in gilt letters of 
^tbe seventy Knrnpean war vessels then in China ; and an instance 
of their nplitudc to meet a demand by a cotresponHing ?upply is 
funiislied by I'lin-liiii who took advantage of [he demand for the 
ImiHTiid robcii obtained by the loot of llic Summer P.ilaee, lo send 
to ('.iiilnii for nil tile tlieatrical drrsses tliat could be got, which 
lie solil to our counli'jmcn at a very liandsome prolit. 

One of our first proceedings afiiT landing in China was lo organise 
a corps of Coolieti, and as from the increasing dilliculty of raising 
recruiia ul liomc, and the recommenilation of Chinese as substitutes 
I for service in India by many persons competent to form an opinion 
on their snltabilily lor thu purpose, it is possible that «c may 
eventually employ them there, it is worth while speaking of the 
manner in «iiich they behaved. The number wc engai;ed was 
<iuite sullicient to enable an opinion to be formed of their usefulness. 
To each regiment funr hundred wcro attached, who were superin- 
tended by o;iE officer, two pergcaiits, and tliirty vetiTatis selecled 
(ram the regiment. Their dress was merely a nankin shirl, with a 
distinguishing mark stamped on it, with very loose trousers, which 
IIP iha way lliey were in the habit of pulling up when on parade 
Tlie Britiili Anna iu Nurtb Chiua uiil Japan. Murray. 



1865.] 



IN NOKTIl OUINA ASD JAPAN. 



87 



or elsewhere, aud fanning Ihemselves viyorouBly, Wlien first eulirt«d 
it was fouml necessary lo look sharply alter lliem, in unler to 
prevent ihetn from deserting, wliicii tiicy did more willi llie view 
probably of Inking tlie boiirily a second time llinti to ost'n|ie serving', 
an iiifeience we miiy draiv from tin* Tact tlmt wlien llie " Assislniice 
was n recked, (a consequence as some nppear to have tliouglil of lier 
snilint; on a Fridiiy) altliongli lliere were more limn eight liundreil 
on board, onIj seven deserted. It was not from want of itigeiiuity 
either in finding a method of cecajie. Wlien a coolie Imd taken 
the bounty, it was natural that be should desire lo expend a porlion 
of it in ni.iking purch^ises, and n Eiiroppiin soldier was umally sent 
wilh liim to sec that Ue returned to his qusrlers. The crowds in 
Clilnese streets giizing at some open air exhibition urc iiumernuB, 
and it iiol unfrequenlTj- happened that while coolie and escort were 
staring at tlie peifurinance, t!ic former would quietly slip Ids iirni" 
out of l)t^ shilt and let it fall lo the ground, and then choiiL'ing his 
pusilion )t was next lo impossible tu disliiignit<h liiui Ironi Ins 
countrymen, who, in llie warm weather, were many of them in the 
same costume. At last it became cnstoinnry to bold them by their 
tails, but even this was nut always elVeclual, for one of theui nflcf 
leading iiis escort from one shop lo another ended hy enlering a 
shop, where lie bought some pepper, whieh he threw into Ihe Etigliih- 
man's eyes and llu-u made off. \Vhen the motive for desertion was 
past, however, they, tis we have already said proved iheniselvcs 
loyal servants ns Well lis exceedingly osefol ones. Their courage 
was tested in tlie attack on the 'i'uku Forts. The Fr.-ncli employed 
those they had eiibslcd in carrying the scaling ladders ii;i to ilie 
Torts, as Hiey did subsequently in Cochin China, hut we did not use 
lliem for this service, still wc sent them under fire to bring away 
the wounded, wliicli they did with grt'at willingness, shoaitig no 
signs of fear. So much for the coolies, wc must now return to 
our own troops. 

We all remember that our troops suffered severely from sickness, 
whicli at that lime was generally attributed to the climate, but we 
now have the mature opinion of Dr. Heniiie, that the climate had 
much less to do witli it limn the over-erowding on bo.ird the 
transports and in the tents. The latter were the ordinary bell 
tents, and into e^ch of these al least twice as many men were 
crowded as ought lo have been placed in ihcm witli a due regard 
for sanitary consid mil ions. Hep t esc n tat ions were made to ihe mdi- 
lary authorities on this point, but the reply was thut t!ie exigencies 
of the service would not admit of any reduction of ihe number 
in each tent. Add to this, that tlie only ventilation of Ihce 
tents was by raising the loose tlap which hangs from ihe canvas 
close to the ground, and which the aoldiera carefully lowered, and 
that they still further vitiated ibc air in t)iem by smoking; and 
there wilt be no reason to bo suiprised al the ttalemeiit that even 
in the pure dry air of one of the 8lutiui\a V^ie »d*.wt%a ■•w*. ^■«'\ 



SB 



THE BRITISH AH1I8 



fjAS. 



BBfBt, vliilp at anotlier wliere the men were in Hip linbit of revelling 
m unripe fruit, bhiI tlit- Blmost|iliere seemed likely lo proiloce acrioiia 
mort-alilv lliere waa scarcely any sicktiesp nt all, llmii^li tlia 
buildings in which llie men were qo^irtercti reeked willi lliu foulpst 
ndijurs. Coiisidi-rin^ how unanimous medical writers are in con- 
demning this form of lenl, snme alleralion oui.'!il certainly lo be 
made in them, than whieh nothing ia easier. Possibly some of the 
sickness among our men may have arisen from the condition of the 
meal served out lo tliem. Tlie cattle were so crowded on hoard 
the trnns|jcirts that a pe^hlenlial disease brnke out among them, 
which was so f/il*)l that in the case of one carpo out of two hundred 
ar\d lifly oxen shipped all but eighly-fivp perished within ten djiys, 
and thosi! landed inu»t have been labouring under the »arnc 
disease when ihej were alaughlered for the soldiers : and this was not 
an exeeptionnl case, for so great was the proportion of animals that 
died of (li.'ease, that it was estimated that every pound nf meat eaten 
cost ihe Government twelve shillings. The proof that the beef had 
a good deal to do with the i)revBlence of disease among our men 
is slill furlher established by the fact that the Sikhs who ate none 
of it, and multnu only once a-week, escaped almost entirely. It 
cannot bfi made too widely known tliat nolhing can be more 
itnprolitable than crowding animals into a transport ; disease id 
almost certain to be generated, and even if the voyage is so short 
that ihey have not time to die on board ship, and time is not 
given them to die a natural death after (hev have been hitided, 
they lose so much in weight that from a picnniary point of view 
aluue it would be better lo stow them less closely. 

Korlmiately the force which the allies liad in China was strong 
eitoiii;li to all'jw of a considerable mortalilv, and yet remain capable 
of effecting the objects of the expedilion. The tirst movement in 
tiie direction of the Taku Forts was to Pehtang. The country 
across which our army had to march was a great mud-flat, and 
thi'ir first night on shore was s])etit in this with no otlier covering 
tKan a blanket, and a waterproof sheet to every three men. So deep 
was the mud thtit officers and men were wading about in it witb 
their trousers rolled up and barefooted, and as the country all 
round was in the same condition, tliere was no choice but to eipcl 
the whole of the inhabitants of Pchtsng, numbering between twenty 
BUd thirty thousund, and quarter our troops in their houses. No 
resistance was oifereil, the Chinese troops in obcdiotice to the orders 
given them having abandoned the fort on our advance, not without 
making some rough arrangements in the way of eiplosive machines 
for daranging their successors. The advance from Pehtang to 
Binho was across a country equally bad, the artillery waggons 
had to be abandoned, and the guus were often embedded lo their 
axles, and it is safe to infer that had a few earthworks been thrown 
up here and there by the Chiuese, great damage might have been 
intlictcd on our troops befuie they reached and capturud Siidio, 



1865.] 



IN NOUTH CHINA AND ItFAIf. 



8'J 



wliicii was pffetted Willi very triflinp losti. Here again the Frencli 
soldiers aliowfd tlipm=elvei' os alprl. in looting as in figliling, and 
mannired lu get pusafssion of an immense quatilit^v of silk and 
fur dri-a^es. 

TiiDiii^li looting could iint be entirely prevented notwilliManding 
tlie orders issued, di'cipliiie was much betler prefiTved ihan amoni; 
our allies; the ]me. of our men lor painsliu, wliieli bears a stronK 
resemblance loHbisky, was luo slrou^, however, to prevent some 
of liiem indulging in ii to such an exce.'s as lo procure for them 
a flogging for drDiikenni^ss, or, as (he cooIi<-s expressed il, sam^hii- 
pigeon, A surgeon of the ^ilh, who was guilty of the same 
ofl'ence, fell wilh a private of the Hull's and a number of coolie" into 
tbe Imniis of Ibe Tartars, wluim be took for a party of Sikhs, and 
marched towards tliein instead of away from them. They were 
liberated by ibe Governor General of tlie province, and rejoined 
our army at Tangkoo, where the sergeiinl, who was an Irishman, 
told wonderful stories of what he had heard while among the 
enemy, and when asked by Sit Robert Nnpier bow he could uiider- 
Eland wbat I hey said, seeing that he did not know a word of 
Chinese, except the equivalent for "go on," used to urge the co<ilies 
to mend their pace, lie simplv answered; "Sure, sir, tliem fellows 
liave no saycrr-la at all at nil." The fact that witli the rxceptiiin 
of the private and a few of the coolies the rest of the party were 
letunied to us, would seem lo indicate that the brutal treittnient 
to which Mr. Bowley, Ciiptain Brab/mon, and tbe others whn 
subsequently fell into the bands of the enemy were subjected, arose 
from n fevingcful feeling excited by the sulferinijs of tlieit country- 
men who were expelled from I'ehtiing, in order th«t tlie allied troops 
might occupy tlu'ir dwellings, nut to speak of cruelties pprpi.lniled 
on some ot the unforlunute iiilnibitanls, which excited so inncb 
terror among them, that muny women drowned themselves to avoid 
a worse faie. It was from tins same sergeant tlint we received tlie 
statement Ibal privnte Moyse was put to death for refusing to 
IcOH'too before Saiig-ko-lin-sin, a statement so much at variance 
wiib his own treatment and that ol the Chinese who »ere witii him, 
who merely had tlieir tail? cut off, and were then returned to our 
service, that ii wns hardly «ortby of credit ; and Dr. Rennie saya 
that he since heard, on good oulhority, that two or three of the 
prisoners died from disease, and that none of them were put to 
de«th. 

Little time was lost in pushing on to Tangkoo, which was 
tflken after a sliarp cannonade agiiinsl llic forts, which was re- 
sponded to by the Chinese with equal warmth, though with little 
elfect, from tlieir aiming their gnus too high— the u'ual fault in 
their pmclice. Notwilhstanding the length and severity of our 
fire, very lew dead were fuuiid in the place, and from the fact that 
Dr. Reiniie went round the defences immediately afterwards without 
finding twenty dead bodies, it may be inferred LU^l. \\ iS^N^Mi*. 



90 



■tna BBITISU AKMS 



[Jan. 



■ 



miathief. So far our troop lind BiifTeretl bill liltle from figlilihp, 
but llie misi^riVs llit-v hiii! to uridi-rsii frum tlic mud, llirougli wliwli 
ihey had to marc)), were worpc lo brar lliau a sharp lit^lit. To 
aggnivute Ihem slill furlhrr, a suiMeii rise of the rHho itiiiintiitrd 
ihiit pnrtiou of llie cainp octanifd by (lie GOtii Hilli-ti, nnii so rujiiillv 
diiJ the ttiiter r)!<i^, timl but fur the a»9i»luiice reiidereil tiiem by u 
thouemiul men di'spni died hy Sir Juliii Michell for tlie purpose of 
siding ihem, thrir kits and am m unit ion wnulil have been tubmergod 
hefiirc llipy eoulil have made tlieir cai^niio from the place. 

Tlie next iimvenicnt was sgidiist llie Taku Porls', anfl'berewe 
hud tbe lirsl opporlunily of swirig llint whenever the Chincsie are 
well-oniicd snd drilled, ihcy will be able to success lull _v resist the 
attacks of any Europenti uatiuu. In ihecuiirse of the bombardment, 
tvi'ti of I heir maijazines were exploded by the shells of tlie allies, not- 
willistanding which tiiey conlinued their resistance wilh undiminished 
lesoliition, thoogh llie fkill of their gunners was very lar from 
being equni to their courage. Nor wus the display of iheir 
cnurage limited to a distant fire of artillery ; they resisted the 
elforts of tbe allies to itorm the fort with greal bravery, and a con- 
siderabie numbiT ol thera were biiyonetti-d after an entry bad been 
elTected. In the capliire of ibis fort, our lo:-s was somewhat heavy ; 
the lightini.' lasted three hours and a half; we had tnenlj-lwo 
officers wounded, seventeen men killed, and one hundred and sisty- 
two wounded. The t'rmicU lo^s whs two ofHcers kilkd, and eleven 
wounded, lilleen men killed, and one hundred and thirly wounded. 
Several of our olli-'ers dl^linglli^hed tliem-ulves f;reatly in this 
aff-itr. In the face of a sbower of bullels wbieh jionred iip'-ii them 
jnce.isunlly, Lieuienant Ilo^ers and u ]iart of hU men ^wnm the 
ditches, pulled up -1 porlion of ihe bamboo stakes which intervi'ued 
between (lieni and liic wail of tlic fort, and ^uccuedtd in establish- 
ing themselves at its foot. Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas followed 
with the storming tomiianies of the 07th, part of whom availed 
themselves of thi' means of crossicig provided by llie rreiieli, and 
in a abort time they had forced an entry into tlio fori. Lieu- 
tenant Itogers, and a French drummer named Fachard being the 
first who entered. F»r Ids gallant coridui'l in this all'air, Lieuienant 
Rogers receivBil the Vicloriu Cross, a^ did also Lieuienant K. 11. 
Lenon, Ensign J. \V. Chaplin, Lieutcnanl. N. Bursleiii, and privates 
J. McDuoi,'all and '\\ Lane. Sir Hubert Nopier, who cummatided 
tbe attack, arid who bad been tuflVring fmm the commencement 
from an intermittent fever, had two narrow escapes, one bullet 
smashed the glass he held in bis hand, ami anoilier ripped open 
hia boot. His aide-de-camp. Captain Broke, was abijojt equally 
fortunate, a bullet pusscd tlironuh his helmet, am! a second wounded 
him ill the tliii^b without kdling liim. BrigadiiT Reeves was 
anolher who dislnigni^lied himself, for though wounded in three 
places, lie remained in Iront until the fort was cajitured. 

It was lucky for us thai we had been so far successful before the 



1865.J IN NORTH CHINA AND JAPAN. 91 

rnir came on, for before we iiad captured llie whole of the fort?, it 
poured down in totrenls, and in a very short time that wliich hnd been 
a mud flat was converted into a lake of liquid mud from one toilirce 
feet in depth. Happily, negotiation sufficed to obtain possri-sion of 
the rest of the forts, so that there was no more nseiess bloodshed at 
this place.' Besides a I'lrge quantity of munition of war, five 
hundred guns, many of them bms*, fell into our hands. 

Judging from what Dr. Rennie says of the behaviour of the 
people they saw on their voyage up the Peiho lo Tien-isin, the 
Chinese have no feeling of nationality, in other words, they do not 
identify themselves with the »cls of their government. They seemed 
to thiuk that it was no affair of theirs that their government had 
thought fit to go to war with the barbarians, and that they were in 
no way concerned thereby, and nianilested no more dread of us 
than if our sliips of war had bpen trading junks ; their vessels con- 
tinued their course up the stream we were ascending without making 
any effort to get out of our way, or even manifesting surprise at 
the sight of such a number of foreign ve^^sels propelled by steam. 
Even the people who resided in the towns and villages we passed, 
though they shoFed an intelligent curiosity, ni^nifcsled nu fear, 
on the contrary, when a French gun-boat got aground, they laid 
hold of a hawser that was thrown out to them for the purpose, and 
pulled at it lustily, and so liiey did for us when one of ours got 
aground. There was no compulsion whatever in the case, it was 
an act of pure good-will, ami by their running along the bank 
beside the vessel after they had got it afloat, they showed their 
readiness to repeat the service if it were required. A furllier proof 
of the absence of any liostilo leelin;^ towards us was furnished by 
the quiet civility of the inhabitants of Tien-tsin after we had oc- 
cupied thai city. Whatever mny be said of the Cliiiiese, they are 
undoubtedly eminently civilised as a people, and they show this in 
their idea of justice, and in a variety of ways, and it is no fault' of 
theirs if their Government, from too exalted a notion of the strength 
of the nation they govern, have shown themselves arrogant towards 
foreigners ; in fact, tliey are rather too advanced in their ideas in 
some respects, and it appears carry out the Mallhusian doctrine that 
those wlio cuuie into the world when the population of a country ia 
ao numerous that ilsresources are only just adequate to its mainten- 
ance, should be told that nature had not provided the means for 
supporting them, and therefore they must depart out of it forthwith. 
True, Dr. Rentiie only speaks of the Baby Tower, near Shanghai, 
as a receptacle for dead babies, whose parents are too pour to bury 
them in the ordinary way, a mode of disposing of them not very 
different from that which exists in countries nearer to us than 
China, for we have seen as many as five at a time lying on a 
table in a church at Lisbon. But we have every reason lo believe 
that in China a good many of those who are thrown into the tower, 
even if dead before they are thrown in, do not dw, h^iNa vafc.-OT.ii. 



riSli AUMS 



[J-UJ. 



We hiTe Men a letter, from a member of n Eiirnpemi 

nd rvtablnlinl tUetr, cunlirming this'; a wumun on oiiu uc- 

■diull/ intisting ilmt i'l urklitiuti to relieving her uf her 

UliHt, tbcjr •Iwald pay her B>>ini-l!ilii|; for it, tliri'uteiiing when Ihry 

htlaMd Uial ihe wovld luke tt iiwuy and tlirow it in tlie lowir. It 

mo^ he qvite a in»(.-ikr, b'xcevcr, to sufipo^e th.il the Chinese are 

I'Sal Bfectmnate pap-nts; st pige 200 occurs an cxccetlinglj' irilere--'t- 

jvft Bnecilyti: id tllu^mtiou of ihis, "fiilnniiny to Ticn-Tsin," 

[nj* the anlbor, "liuct twomeii CHrrymg a sniull coffin, a te- 

Itpectabie^lookitig man, iralking a Iiltle wa> behind i[, came up, and 

ivUb an expression uf grief, puiuled to the cofEn anil theu lo 

f litm<clf, atid liulding op liis fingi-Ts, indiealed that ihe child was five 

I jreara old, then holding up liis liajid a little noy from the gronntl 

I to »bow iia heigiil, he burst into ti'iira, and coulinued Ina course 

hutat villi the coffin." There is more trne pathos in this little 

anecdote, to our ihinkin^, than in a hundred like tliot of Sterne's 

Unrij. 0;ber inleres'ing anecdotes illuslrative of Chinese manners 

tbouiid in the book. 

In wliat otlur country in the world would a case like the follow- 
. ing b»ve occurred. " Mr. Bruce meniioiiPil to me th»t shortly 
' afier the insolent reply (o tlic Briiisli nllitmiltiui from Pckin, 
Soocliov fell into the hiiiuis of the rebels. Imuicdiati'ly afterwards. 
Ho, the G'lVernor Gt'oernl of the Two-Kwung, a high Cliiiie<e 
I officinl whose name 1 forget, and Wu, the Tnulai of Shanghai called 
on Mr. liro'-e and tried to per.^u.Lde him to murcli troops against 
Suochow and reiake it, Mr. Bruce hinted to llirm that we were 
on llic eve of going to w.ir, and asked tlii-m how tln-j were lo get 
Ui out of 8oocl)uw fUjiposing we rtlook it for Ihcin. They nil 
three join pei I np from thfir aciils ami said they kmw op, and hud 
perfetjt confidence in u», and lh.it tlie eau?fi of all our misunder- 
slandtiig was that ihey did not know us at Pekiii." It has often 
been »:iid Ihul the Chinese ri'gard death wiih singular IiidilTcrence, 
and thul a mnn sentenced to deutii may procure a Hubsiitute for a 
few dollars. This, however, can only be p evious to the apprelien- 
»iuii of the real criminal by bribing a man to give himself up as the 
odendrr, or by connivance willi tlio governor of the prison after 
senience. A touching instance of the self-sacrifice of a Chinese 
Cuitiui i* reliited by Mr. liruce. The cullector of the land lai 
at a place near Ningpo tried to inllict a harder "squeeze" than 
usual ou the villagers, whereupon they turned out and beg-in to 
destroy the properly of t!te mandarin, who sent for some troops to put 
down the outbreak. To save the lives of his fellow-villagers, the 
leuder of the rioters offend, on condition of tlieir subscribing a 
sum of money sufficient for the support of his family and to erect 
a monument to hin memory, to dibvcr hi.uself up as a sacriTice for 
the coinmon.good; an offer which was accept ed by tbfin, and he 
accordingly gave hinisi'U up and was bi-hi-oded. Riibberiea of our 
troops by iheChiucse were probably leas frequent than the opposite; 



1865.] IN NORTH rHIHA AND JiPAN. S3 

Bnme nuiiisirig in^tniices however ore piven of Ihe^e. "Caplaui 
WillinHi", ill the iniildle of the niglit hesring a noise in his room, 
jum|iecl oul. of beil, ctruck a light and drew his s*ord, when a 
rubber popped out liia hi-ad from beneath the bed, mid with most 
perfect splf-|ios3e9aiori i;ave him tlie customary sslutntiun of chin- 
chin " Another fellow marie a hole in the ctiiinriey of Mr. Hem- 
mina's mom nnd abstmcled the charcoal fnim off (he lire, lo ibe 
intense bewilderment of his servant, wbo could not understand 
wliere it went to until the diacoverj of tiie bole was luiidc. Lieu- 
leniint Alpin lost snimthiiiar from off his fire more viiluHbh- than 
chiircoiil, namely his eoppcr ketile. lie wn!> lying iu bed looking 
at it when it suddeniy disappeared up tlie cliiinney. 

In a Btrauf'e and thicklj-populaled counlry like China there must 
have been so much to see that amusements were not so mut'h 
required by our army as ihey would have been elsewliere, nevert.helpss 
there was not alrogcther an absence of them. In Hie cold weather. 
Slid it is intensely cold in ihe winter in China, for bread was cut up 
by means of a saw, and the porter was served outin lumps instead of 
in caus, there was sleighing on the Peiho; hunting paper foxes 
driven through the air by the wind, and hawking, Tlie hawking 
however partook of the sport of eonrsing, for the game pursued 
was the hare, which was ridden after un'il the hawk suddenly de*- " 
cendeJ upon the unforlunate animal. (Juriously enough tlie man- 
lier in which Ihis sport is conducted, bears an exact rcpemhlance 
t.to that given in the accmnt of llie esperietici; of the English Zouave 
^■jn Alijeri^i, published in (his Magazine some monihs ago. 

A few words on the subji'Ct of the popul^ilion of (Jliina, atid we 
mosi follow our author to Jnpan. The populition of China hits 
always been a subject of dispute, the nuinoers given dill'ering po 
widely ihat every statement could only be reaarded as mire or less 
of a guess. Document*, di^coveretl in the Emperor's Fiiliice wincti 
was looted, stale tlie populalion of China proper to be -llS.tJUO.unu, 
and iiiclu{litig the oufljnii.' pnasessioiis 4 riO.U 1)0,0 till. 

That portion of Dr. lienuie's bonk which refers lo Japan is 
interesting nnd even valunble, as throning hght on the Japanese 
character, but it, like all oihirs that have been published, contains 
far less information than Ihe old work by Kempfer ; it is however 
einiiieiilly teadable from the inielligeiit power of ob'ervatinn posse^"- 
ed by the writer, and his light ciieerful style, and the ab-ence of 
inferences drawn from imperfrctly understood laets, which gave 
rise to so ninny errnneou* conclusions reapfcting Japanese oii.'toina 
nnd inaimersi when tue first accounts of recent times concerning 
this interesting piople renched England. The account be gives of 
the nature of the soil on which Yokohama is built, ami of the 
country surrou'tding it is of interest in tliwe days, when we are 
eudeavo'iririg by all the means in onr power to ateertniii the inHii- 
enre wliieii food, iiir, and wuier reppi'otively exercise on publ'C 
llfjiltli generally, and espeoiidl^ i" piMiliiring tiiat dreadful acay*-^ 



M 



TUB nRlTrBtl ARMS 



[Jan 




of our hxlinri armr — cluilrtn. The land on wliieh ttie town flanda 
w iwff of n rr^liiunri] artainp, and nccordiiig to tie (ipiuioii gcinrnlly 
neld of fucFi locilili[-4^ fi-ver mid ague onj^lit to abound lliere ; yrt 
fhJs ii not (he ca»p, llie irilinbjlanls are as lieiillhy as in plnfes 
• hrri- ilipre ia no siidi uiiiisma u« iniisl arise trnin Ihe land 
1 t', rtreni'tliened as il is by the exlialittions from llio liciijia 
Wcajing vegetable mattrr and liltli wliicli abound in tliat [>nrt 
<*• th» lovn nccujned by the Ja[iaiicae. ViMtutJous of ebnlrra are 
rare there as anytrbere, and this and bther observations 
w in widrlj' sennraled countries inducer biin to ihjiik ibiit 
, i» inyiferiflii* malady i* [jnidiiced in certnjn cun-tiUitions by tlie 
itlectrJcal condilion of ihe atmosphere. Sevprni iiiii'tnnces are 
[f »en in support of this vipir, bul tbey will not be Biifficunt to 
•oriTiiice anybody holding a different opinion. Wc are di^pooed 
" >'tnch more irei^ht to his advice with respect to llic oecuptilion 
"ur army in India, beliering as wp do thiit compelling llie men 
'nrn out, jtiH as Ihey have dropped into a aoninl Aeep, and I hni, 
"iR (hem lounge about and doze nearly the whole day. toolislleaa 
iWcti to kill lime, but pn-ferring, like the freed slave, to let it kill 
'.'■"••''j'l cantmt but lower his jtamina so as to tender him susceptililo 
"Hseaac. The auihor appears to hold the same opiniun tlmt we 
blTc PtpresH-d more th;in once on ihc subject of the employment 
of rnir tr<H>ps in ihe East, IJe does not think that mere ex^xisure 
to the sun wouM be injurious if the head were properly protected, 
nor do we, especially if Ihc skin be kept thoTOughly cleuu so na 
to allow Ihe perspiration lo pn^s oil freoly. He al*o take? occiisioii 
in speaking of hi* visit lo a Japanese barrack?, in ihe roonjs of 
which squads of men were learning the manual and plafotin eserci?p, 
to advoc.tle the introduction of the system inlo Indinn barracks, 
lo which he would al<o add "judging di-tance" practice, a very 
lico^ary eiierci«e in tlie^ie days when we use arras of precision only, 
which sre not very precise in their aim, however, in tliehund* of 
tomr of nnr troops. ]n s])eaking of one of the iiclious in China he 
.rittiiiti* an inntatice in which a body of Tartar cnvnlry, who were 
.ndtnf* mulinidess about lour hundred yatds off, received a 
Volley from our Kntields without one of them being damaged there- 
by. 

From the stntemcn's in the work before us we may i\Rme 
ample jistilicaiion fur the desfrtlction of the forls in the straits of 
tiimon'/taki; and we may be sure lliil there is no exaggeration in 
tbewi italemniU, for the opinion-i held bv Dr, Rerinie with respect 
lo th'- manner in which we ought lo jud^e and make allowance 
for the ililfi'rence of manners among Majlctus are those of a 
bnntjlilful clmiti.-in genllenion, and are tlierefore utterly devoid of 
iit nrrog.iut spirit which causes so many Europeans to regord 
'■ryiliing thnt i* not in accordiince with what they have been 
iistomed to ns matt'T for derision. Firing on foreign vessels of 
atevrr untioualilv wjs a mailer of freijuent ooenrrcncn, and it 




1H85.] IN NOSTR CHINA AND JAPAS. 65 

does not appear that the retaliation sometimes inflicted on their 
vessels or forts had any influence in cansing them to be more 
respectful when a subsequent opportunity of repealing the offence 
nccurred. The "Wjoming" damaged tliree of the Prince of 
Nflgato's vessels severely, and niorcover demanded and obtained 
10,000 dullara indemnity from the Tycoon; but (his did not 
prevent lliem from firing on the French gunboat, the " Taricrede," 
notwithstanding that it was supported by the " Semiramis." This 
time, however, they caught a Tartar, for the latter opened a Sre on 
the batteries with her rifled guns at a range of 3000 yards, which 
inflicted considerable damage. After which the admiral landed 180 
sailors, and 70 Zephirs, who attacked the fort in llie rear, drove 
out the Japanese, and spiked seven guns and burnt their carriages ; 
terminating the afl^air by an act not so justifiable, viz., setting 
fire to a neighbouring village; in which as it happened 
they had a narrow escape from being blown up, for on breakiiig 
open one of tiie largest of the bouses, probably with the intention of 
looting it, they found it filled with gunpowder, which twenty.five 
minutes afterwards blew up. Proceedings like the burning of this 
village are regaided with a more lenient eye in Prance than among 
us. On the report of the burning of Kagosima by our ships, 
reaching England, many estimable persons expressed the greatest 
horror and indignation against Admiral Kuper, and even these who 
were calm enough to reflect that it was highly improbable that an 
English officer would wantonly inflict so much suffering on an 
unoffending population were forced, in the absence of official 
information, to confine themselves to excuses to palliate the 
apparent crueltv. The official despatches explained this, but did 
not altogether do away with the impression that Admiral Kaper 
deserved some of the blame that had been cast upon him. We 
have now the tesiimony of an independent witness on the subject, 
which we shall quote entire. He says " On the news of the affair 
of Kagosima reaching Englnud, strong expressions of opinion were 
published conderanalory of the proceeding. The measures adopted 
by Admiral Kuper were alleged to have been characterised by 
nnnecei'sary ruthlessness. However much the destruction of 

froperty by the bombardment of Kagosima is to be deplored, this 
am sure of, that no one is likely to have felt regret at it more 
arutely than the gallant admiral himself. There are not three men 
in England actuated by kinder or more philanthropic feelings 
towartls the Japanese than Colonel Neale, Admiral Kuper, and Ins 
second in command. Captain Borlase. To assail Admiral Kuper as 
the agent personally responsible for the burning of Kagosima is, 
to say the least of it, unjust. Those acquainted with the nature, 
mode of construction and mafcrials of Japanese towns, will readilv 
understand that the very act of opening fire upon the batteries was 
inseparable from the burning of the town, esjwcially if there was 
niucli wind at the time. It was the (\iU «>\wS.'*J«it. ■i^-fc'v "O^t 



96 



TUB BKmsH ARM8 IX NCIBTH CHIKA AND JAPAN, 



[Jan. 



detraction by a couQagnition of Kagosimn would benn uiiiivuidali'^ 
consequence of ifie 8t|unilrDn firing on ilie bulli-riea, Oiai clnVily 
influ'-nced me in going to SaUumii's officers at Nugasuki, und in 
impressing ujjoii iheni (he eertnin fale lliut wouiil bcfull llic LuWit 
siuiulii the slii|}$ be fired at ns tlicy approached. It is miicb eaaier 
to censure the course of action taken at KFignairna ihun to show hnir, 
with due retjard to the honi>ur of the Bnliah flag, any utber could, 
under tlie circuinslances, have been adopted. Tlie Admiral, iu iLe 
lirst in.^tnnee, on having tlie uiatlu'r placed in hie huud», itdupted 
the mildest mrnsure of coercion tbat he could, nameW, the seizura 
of the sleamrM, When, however, the whole line of steamers 
fronting the luwn opened on his sijuadron, what woNld the people 
of England have said hud Admiral Kuper removed his ships from 
the range of Sat^uma's guns, and assigned aa his reason for not 
returning (he Hre, tlmt he could not do so Milhoul incurring themk 
of burning down the town?" 

Not only is the adinirnl partial to the Japanese, but the; 
appear to be equidly partial to him, especially the litllo \i'<j*, who 
whenever he took a walk in the country about Yukoliauia came 
running to him with enlomologic.il specimi-us which they had 
collected for him ut liis request. Contieeled with the favourite pursuit 
of the ndinirul, an ainu-iiig anecdote is related of a fonigner, who 
taking a ride aith a friend into the country, was followed by a 
nmober of boya who ebouled something in Japanese after him, 
which was translated to him as epithets of a very uncorajilimenlarjr 
nature, being in fact " Beetles and bogs!" From this he, not 
unnaturally, concluded that the Jajianese regarded foreigners with 
an onfavourable eye, until it wus explained to hiiu ihnl they merely 
meant to sny (hat they had insects to sell, a traffic which had 
arisen out of ihe demand fur such things by the admiral. 

Of caurse nobody who writes on the subject of Japan could 
avoid ri;f(-rring to some of the peculiarities iu the m.inners and 
amusements of the penple. Dr. Rennie merely ooufirms what has 
been already said on tlie snbject of bathing-houses ; he looked into 
one and saw a number of men and woincu scmt>bing and pouring 
p.iils or hot water ovir themselves; and on anoiher oec.ision, wlieii 
pa^tsing what looked like a tea-house and bulbing c^tubli^hment 
combined, and whih- looking in a stout gentleman, wlio had just 
finished his ablutions, " ni:ide his appearance in the refreshment room 
perfei.'tly naked, and sut dtiwn lo dry himself with a small cloth he 
had brought Willi hiui. As soon as he was scaleii a young and 
modest- looking giil ualked up (o him with a cup of tea on a tray, 
which he took wilh (he most perfect gravity, and wilh ef|Uiil 
decorum she retired and aupphed another cnslomer who had just 
a|i|jeMreil," St much for habit, IlJs descriplion of the " Ilappy 
Ucpa'ch" adds something to out knowledge con&rning the mode 
uf pe'forming [hid singular custom. The patient does not kill 
himself', he merely makes the ineisii)n in the abiluimn in i he «iiy 
in which it is taught tn all liitle boys in Jupaii as a part of their 
'ucation, and his head is llieti sttucV. uVi. 



16650 



1SC4-I865 



OT 



Before concluding our notice of Dr. llL-Qiiie's eiccediagly io- 

tercstin^ and Bmusing book, it will probably be tliouglU tliat as 
lie makes repealed reference to the pefforrnaiice of the Armslroiig 
gun, wti ought nut l.u be aileul: respeclin^ it. Briefly then be aaya, 
tliul it did not product.' titc effects iiiiributed to it in action. The 
report of it bivirig di-imourited guris nud inSicted otbrr dauinge at 
tile firing against tUe Taku Forts, lie denies on Ibe autUorltj of Ilia 
own obsi-rvdtion, and of the officer wlio coiiiinaiided the biittery of 
guns of wiiich (lie Armilroni; formed a part. Instead of dis- 
mountinij guns, &o., in the fort, the shots went completely over 
and fell right amo'ig a body of flying Turtars against whom they 
were not aimed. He also alludes to the girippiiig of the lead from 
Hie projeetiji's and other weaknesses in t)ie gun with which the 
coiiiroveri'y has made us fully acquainted. Taken aUogether, 
however, it amounts only to saying that the gun, when employed 
in the battle field for the tirst time, was not perfect ; but even some 
of the imperfecliona attributed to it appear to bo due rather to 
tboie who lired it than to the guu itself. 




1864-1865. 



The year which has just closed hat been nrh in eveula of high 
importance, botii pulitical and social. The lew last days of 1864 
clearly indicate that occurences of no common order are likely to 
happen in lbii5. 

Before we enter into more raitiutfl details of the events of the 
past twelve months, let us take a rapid, general, but searching 
aurvey of what has been done, how the affairs of the world now 
stand and what is looming in the future. 

The chief political feature in the policy of England during the 
last year has been the adoption by Earl Russell of the so-c«lled 
" non-intervention policy," Thus, Denmark has been despoiled of 
three duchies by the two great (ierman Powers, though England 
was bound to maintain the integrity of the Danish monarchy by the 
treaty of London of 1852. It is true that the other powers, 
who signed that treaty, were equ;tlly bound. It may be therefore 
admiUe.d as an accomplislied fact that tlie policy of 'non-interven- 
tion' has been generally adopted by all the Kurcipean Powers. In 
Bnglaiid it has received the sjinetiim of the nation, which regards 
anything preferable lo the calamities entailed by war ; but one grave 
misiBke was coTinnitti-d by the English Government, or rafhcr by 
our Minister of Foreign Affairs. Hopes were lield out to Dcnmurk, 
backed by the general expression of sympathy in her favour, that 
she might ultimately receive material support. When the Aurora 
under her gallant commander. Captain Mc. Clintuck, made her ap- 
pearance in the North Sea, grout was the exutlaliou at Co|)etiliD^ei,v. 

t".S.MAu.No.43I.JAN 1805. v- 



fs 



1804—1363. 



[Jak; 



The bopca of the Danes rose id propartion — liopos doomrtl to be 
deceived. Like Proinetlieus, DeiimarK now ties cliniried linn<l nnd 
faot «i(li ■ Prussian Vuiliire at one side and an Audtriuii Vulture 
■t the other, gnawing ut her cntraih. 

So vtrong was ihe .-yinpatliy expressed in all classes iu England, 
tlut the CoMservali»e party fancied it was n fine opporlunily to 
OTerthrow the Palmerelon minislrj. In the House of Lords a vote 
ofcen^Dre was proposed Uy the Karl of Mahnesbury (Lord Derby 
being ill) and in ihe Commons by Disraeli. The motion of the 
OppoHtion leader in the Lower House was thus worded : 

" That IIiT Mdjesly's government had failed in iheir avowed 
poHcj which was to uphold the integrity and indep'.'ndence of 
Denmark, and to represent to Her Majesty that by tlie ccurfe of 
their proceedings thejiist intluencc of tiiis country in the councils 
of Europe had been lowered and the securilies of peace thert-by 
diminished." 

The result of the debate in the House of Commons was a vote of 
a majority of IS in favour of the government. The ^eat organ of 
public opinion thus sums up the result of the debate.* 

"Another lesson that we may learn from these transaction", is the 
absolute necessJIy of a complete reform in our system of foreign 
diplomacy. It is quite cleur ihnt the strong objections taken to 
the maimer of iiitiTvention, spring mainly from a still sirouKer 
objection to intervention itself. The wish of the country clearly ia, 
first, that we should not hereafter involve England in war in order 
to adjust to our satisfaction the relations of foreign Stales; 
secondly, that we should abstain absolutely from all threats to 
which we arc not resolved to tjive the fullest execution ; thirdly, that 
ns wc are neither to tight or tlire;itcn except when our own interests 
are immediately concerned, we should content ourselves with the 
expression of our opinion when legitimately called upon as a 
European Power to express it, and avoid that hu?y, meddling 
diplomacy wliicli has become our inveterate habit, leaving to olliers 
more deeply interested or more di-poscd to 'fight for ideas' the 
task of suggestitig, entreating, c.ijoling, mediating, and concerting. 
In this respect we view the debate of last week as the ciinimence- 
roent of a new era. Public opinion has pronounced itself decisively, 
and we summon all slatesinen wlio would hold a prominent place in 
the councils of their country, to mark and to obey it." 

Parliament meets on ibe 7th of Febiuiiry next. The report ihnt 
our noble Premier purposed retiring into private life after dissolving 
Parliamnit, has been officially contradicted. Lord Palmerslon, 
though he hss accomplished his 80th year, will, we trust, still 
manage tlie helm of the vessel of Ihe stale for many years to come. 
As the generil elections approach, meetings of the Libend party are 
gradually taking place. We have already seen tliein at Eoclidale, 
Ilradfurd, and Maldou, hut no deSned programme has, as yet, been 
Jiiid down for a common line of action. 

■ Vide lirit Ifailcr in ilic Timn nf Jul; 11, 1BC4. 



1865.] 



1864— ISCo. 



99 



It is to be sincerely hoped llmt Puflitiment will be o(iened by & 
speecli from tlie tbfotie bj Our Mo?t Gracious Maji'^ly in persun, 
and not by commission, Tlie public anxiously look forward to 
beliolJ her MaJL-sty once more labing nn active |)iirL in liie all'air:!! of 
tlie Stale, wliicli sbe was wont to do uitli so much gr.ice and 
di^nily. 

Tlie distress in Lancashire, consetjufnt upon the CivU War in 
Americn, and wliich, at one time, llircutened to assume a very 
serious aspect, has iiappily greatly dimitiiilied, if it has not been 
entirely obviated. 

England, al the close of l8Gt, is at peace witli nil ihe world. 
The only dark spots ri;fcr to our ctilonics, more esptci^dly to the war 
a^Hiiift tUe Maoiic's in New Zealand, and the transportation (pitss- 
tion. Canada will eventually have to lake cure of itself. 

In a financial point of viewj the prosperity of England is most 
satisfactory. 

We have to mourn daring the last year the loss of some eminent 
men J amoni^st others the Earl of Carlisle, the Duke of Newcastle, 
Thackeray, Leech, and Roberts. The Ulltr three .ire irrepnrable 
iosaea to the world of literature and arl. 

France is still prosperous under the Imperial sway, But she 
has recently passed through a crisis, the imjiorlii-nce of which, we 
fancy, has been underrated in England. The so-called trial of " the 
lliirteen " for holding niertiui^s on electoral njiitterf, has been 
condemned by all liberid-minded men in I''rance, ami by Mmsc 
members of the French press who have sufficient moral courage still 
left tbem to express n candid o|<iiiion, as an altnck upon t!ia 
freedom of election. Berryer (our recent giies'.) and Jult-a Favre 
have not hesitated to declare it. Louis Philippe lost Ins throne 
because he endeiivourcd to prohibit political banquets. That oc- 
curred in 18 in. The riglit of holding meetings for political dla- 
cussioiis was derendcd with brilliant eloquence at th:it time by 
Duvergier de lluur.iniie, Uemusat, Dufaure, Mullevillc, and Odiloii 
Barrot. The latter commenced his speech with the following 
words, 

"It is sad, painful, hutniliLUing, to be obliged in 1848, seventeen 
years niter the revoluiion of July, to have to coniend against a 
government, the oU'spring of that revolution, for the possession of 
u right which we enjoyed under Charles X." 

Lamartine reproached the GDvernment for " placing the hand of 
the pulice on the mouth of the country," as the present Government 
places the hand of the military ujmn it. 

If we change the names of the speakers, we find ihe same seutj- 
meiUs uttered m iliffereiit words at the recent trial at Paris. 

Neverlhele*8, as already observed, the Empire holds ils sway. 
The fate of Coiitinentid liurope is, to a certain eslent, in tlie hands 
of the Emperor of the Prencli. Italy looks anxiously towards 
France, and 1804 closes with tlie transfer of the co.i;'A*t<it Vssic^ 



lOU 



1S61— 186S. 



[Jan. 



froiD Turin to Florence. Despite tlie terms oF the Coiivenlion of 
the I5th oF Seplember (IStfi}, tlie Ituliiius tirrolj bflieve that it 
is bul a step Lowarda ICome, aiid the retreat of the Aii»tri;tiia from 
TeoetU. 

llieR is ■ ^torni brewing on the banks oF ihfl Fd, the Minoio, and 
the I'iber, and the chair of the Holy-See is tottering at the capitul 
of Uie Seven Hills. 

French itrms have estnbli.>hed an empire in Mexico under 
Archduke Mnximilian of Austria, a snilor prince, of urbane maii- 
DCTs and generous iialure. As fnr as iie cnn trust the reports 
we receive from Meiico, the Empire will be 'consuliilaled,' and a 
more healthy state of thingn be eslabli^lied. The French troops are 
gradually returning, aud the war expenses are being paid in regular 
instalments to the French exchequer. 

When we say that France has got well out of this Mexican busi- 
ness it is the mildest criticism we can pass. 

The liberty oF the press in France is still a myth. Although 
Kmile de Ginirdin bus altecoptcd — and piiriially euccceded — in 
eonverlin;,' the Duke of Perjifiny— the Mirabeau of the Empire, to 
more liberal views, cummumquis still conlinue to full upon those 
unfortuniile journals wliicli dare to utter opinions contrary to 
Imperial aspirations. What a contrast to the freedom of the press 
in England I Hearken to Lord Palmersluu at Romsey only a few 
days since: 

In proposing a toast iti honour of the press, the noble Vis* 
count said : 

"The toast which I give you is "The Press." Permit me to 
say that we who live in a free couslitutional country, know that 
the pre^a is the true support of civil and religious liberty. With- 
out a free press", liberty of this kind would be but llceting; with 
a free press that can never be destroyed ; and I may say with 
regard to the free press of tliis country that it is deserving of the 
admiiattoii oF mankind for the ability with which it ia conducted, 
and for the high and exulted principle by which it is animated. 
The press of England does honour to the nation." 

In his address to his conslituejits at IJenl on the 2nd December 
last month, Inird Clarence Paget whilst alluding to the criticisms 
on the Navy in the London newspapers, observed: 

"No public man appreciates more highly than I do the blessings 
of a free press; audi hold that the independent and unfettered 
criticisms of our press are of inestimable benelil to us all. 1 think 
they keep us officials up lo the mark ; and, moieovcr, we are put 
in this position by them, viz; that we ought to do nothing with- 
out beirig prepared to show our reasons for the course we have 
taken." 

lliese words of Lords Palraerston and Paget have fallen upon 
the Editors of the Puiis journals almost as a reproach, They have 
the will hut not the eneigy to emancipate themselves. We make 
one honourable exception: Entile lie Girardin, 



1865.] 



1864.-1S66. 



101 



All the Pnfia papers give (aa n translation) the words we have 
qutjled. Tlie Gazette de France ?av9 : 

" We sincerely cotigratulale our English friends on henring poli- 
tici di.-icussfd bo freelj between I'leclors Hnd deputies, Biid not 
belieriiig that there js any danger to the Goverunieiit in being toid 
loudly [hruugh llie ehaniieU of rhe press those tilings winch would 
otherwise be oidy whispered 'n privacy and in rayi^terioua coriversa- 
lions." 

We tDust now turn lo the blue skies and sunuy lands of Ilnly. 
Italy is the point upon which the eyes of sll Europe are turned. 
That clast^ic ground promises again to becoiap the battle-Held of 
Italian independence and unity, Florence, the city of the Medici, 
illustrious in Literature and Art, the birth-place of so many great 
men has been solemnly declared the capital of Italy. One of the 
main reasons for the selection of Florence instead of Turin, Milan 
or Naples is strategical. 

We cannot do better than quote the opinion expressed in the 
recent debate in the Italian Senate by General Cialdini, a man whose 
patriotism is beyond a challenge. 

" We have, (said the General) an enemy permanently established 
in our country, intrenched in one of the most formidable military 
positions known. This enemy is powerful from the strength of 
his armies, his vigorous orgaTiization, his antique traditions. There 
ia no truce, no transaction with Lira possible, as long as he haa 
a foot in Italy. War is them/ore inevitable sooner or later, and 
war perhaps, is only a queslion of opportunity Cor him and us." 

After alluding to such an event as tlie death of the Emperor of 
the Frencii, and the probnble consequences ihat might ensue from 
so disastrous an occurrence. General Cialdini in distinct and em- 
phatic language staled his reasons why Florence should be selected 
as the capital of Italy instead of Turin. 

" I would fftin (said General Ciahliiii) demonstrate and make the 
Senate comprehend how and why a good general system of defence 
of the State, exacts by implication the removal of the capital beyond 
the Appeniiles, Italy has two thirds and more of her frontier 
washed by the sea. The other third is joined to the continent by 
the circle of the Alps. lu a sublime contrast at fclie foot of tliese 
gigantic and snowy .\lps stretch oat the vast fertile plains of Lom- 
burdy and Piedmont. The Appcnines, as if weary of the Mediter- 
rancfiD, bend back and cross over to the Adriatic, forming a great 
curtain between the seas, from Genoa to La Cattulica. After tliis 
rapid glance, let us reflect. In front of the A|ipciiine3 you have 
the vast and beautiful valley of the P(^, in which you Qnd the 
Austrian encamped in his strong ' Quadrilateral' and of which — I 
moan the valley of the Po — we can neither fortify nor defend the 
prtQcipal outlets, because they are not in our hand'. The valley 
of the P3, therefore, shows us un enemy solidly established in a 
house which has its door open to whoever chooses w «.>-*»ei- ^j*^ 



18«4— 1865. 



[.Taw. 



«juelwbBd«dr«ired tlmt the cajiilnl of the liingdom should 
mlkf of the PuP DL-liiii(l llio Appeiiiix-s joa htive a 
wmmied by llie ^en, siiil closed in by the Ajipeninea 
y of defence, witliimt an enemy, unless you choose 
■• Mcb the nrmy about lo be enlisted by the Court of 
can never be of a force to excite serious npprelien- 
I«t 09 hasten lo remove behind the Apjienines, not only 
*■ aycbl, but the arsenalfi, the depfite, the reserve*, nil our 
■■•■i^oi, all onr most vital interests; ihen let ihe passes of 
^» Afftninra be put iu a stnl* of defence. From Genoa 
^ I* Callolica the rond; across them are only seven or eight. 
^ (hoe roads offer gorges, defiles which oro real Tlier- 
■epfi^ where a few earth-vporks, a few guns', and n handful 
• brave men can arrest a whole array. Let us erect some 
■olid fortifications at La CaKolica to secure the flank, and 
H»en mulliply as far as possible the permanent and portable 
■Willi of passing from one bank of tlio Pfl to the other, 
•nil thus prepare the pos^sibility of useful, rapid, and decisive 
manoeuvres. Whenever this genenil sjsteni of defence of 
the ilale is carried out, ihe dcslinios of Ilnly can never 
^^cpend upon the uncertain issue of a battle. At our pleasure, and 
■Recording to circumstances, »e can retire behind the P6 and 
^■Beyond ihe Appenines to anait better days; or, if it suits us, if 
we are in n position to fight we may come down and try the fate 
of arms in the valley of the Vu. Tlie poliiical action of the Govern- 
ment will actjuire strenglli and power from the very soUdity of our 
military system ; whereas the want of a connected and strong mili- 
tary system does not allow our policy to take a bold flight, to 
follow a brave inspiration, without putting the State in tlie great- 

■' at peril, without compromising the country and the throne." 
I As regards Venice, the means of penetrating the Quail rihternl, 
and of directing a new war ngainst Austria General Cioldini did 
not deem it prudent or opportune to expliin tliem. 

"Italy, inert for many centuries, (sniil the general warming to Ins 
subject), has sprung up bounding with life, with napirations, with 
national ardour. The land of the dead has seen 30(),0()0 soldleis, 

»with 500 or 600 cannon start forth from her cemeteries I The land 
it the dead counts 200 battalions of mobilized national guards and 
an infinite number of volunteers, who in the hour of a supreme 
struggle would, 1 am sure, return to the side and vanguard of the 
army. The laud of the dead possesses fortresses, intrenched 
camps, a respectable fleet and counts 22 millions of iidiabitauts 
forming a single State. It was said a few years ago thnt Italians 
ilo not fight; those Itihans have dared several not inglorious 
campni^ns, both under the grey capotes of the soldiery and Ihe 
ed shirts of tlie volunteers. 
" By removing the capital to Florence we do not give up fighting 
the P/i ; wc shall descend into the valley of ihe Pfl whenever the 




1865.] 



ISa-l— 18G5. 



103 



march of the war requires it, wUeaever it ia necessary for the 
defence of tlie stale; bul with this differeiicp, that iiisleiid of 
totnirig our bucks upon the Alps wc shsli face them ; in case of a 
disasler, in case of n lost baltle, we shall not be pushed, prei^Bi'd, 
hemmed in by the Alps, drivcu ou the t'rtiicli frontier; we fhnll 
witiidrnw, iiislesid, behind the Appenines where we have a iprrilory 
of 900 kilometres, defensible incli by inch, in which woods, hills, 
mnisltes altenmle, in which theie nrc no enemies iiitrenciied, which 
js protected by the sea and closed by the Appenines, in which the 
^defence may be long, may become eternal," 

Generul Cialdini's speech had, doubtless, a considerable elTect 
upon the result of the vote in the Senate. On Friday, tlth December, 
by the large majority of 13-i against 17 the Bill for the trausfer of 
the Ca|)ilal of Italy from Turin to Florence passed the Senate, 
and the Convention of the ISlli September, ll^Cl, bus been 
accepted. 

It is supposed thai the Court and Legislature will be transferred 
to Florence within the next two montli* By the agreement with 
France the change is to he made within six months after the 
roval assent is givtn to the project of law; within two years from 
the day the King of Italy gives his sanction to the bill which iias 
just passed the Italian Cliambers, the French army is bound to 
quit the soil of Itidy and leave the Pope lo deal as best be can 
with his unruly subjects. 

The BfTuirs of the Minor Slates of the South of Europe may bo 
dealt with in a few words. 

Spain has gone through a series of ministerial crises in oon- 
sequence of a diversity of opinion respecting the advisability of 
abandoning San Domingo. Ueneral NarvacK, Diike of Valenlia 
still remains at the head of the ministry. 

Portugal is happy and contented under her youthful king. 
Lisbon hits been visited by a violent hurricane which has done 
considerable damage to property and shipping, but it pales before 
the torrilic cifects of the cyclones which have devastated Calcutta 
and other parls of India. 

Greece has also had her ministerial crisis. King George has 
taken the oaths to the Constitution and is deservedly popular. It 
may be added that the louian Islands, now annexed to Greece, 
have been nearly ruined since the dcpnrlnre of the English, and 
the Corliotes dee|ily lament their folly in acquiring independence. 

Tiie Ottoman Empire is makins; progress. 

From the stalenient of the finances of the Empire, prepared by 
Foad PasliB and sobmitled lo the Sultan, very important and 

Eermanent results seem to have been miintninid. Striking a balance 
etween revenue and expenditure) and including in the latter an 
item of eitraonlinary expenses amounting to 166,000 purses, ot 
751.,545 pounds sterling, there is a surplus for the current 
Iliiancial year, amouhtiuu to 4C,5U0 puraes, 2l.\.,atii •■jekix&s. 
sterling. 



1U 



1864— 1»65. 



[Jak. 



Tli« Exodus of [lie Circas:^ians and llieir liorrible BufTeriiigs have 
eidt«d Qoiversal st'iti|>a(h;, but do not oHect tlie inleinalionnl 
relalions willi other states. 

We miut now take a glance northwarJs. 

We have alrradv allnded to ihi; spulialioii of Denmark by 
Pnissin and Austria. Deiimnrk has lost the Duchies of Kchleswiff, 
H»l»lein and Lauenburg, bnt thej promise to become an apple 
of discord in Germany. The troops of the Gennfln Confede- 
ntioB have been ordered out — (here is no use mincing the terms 
— of the Duchies by tlic two great German Powers. The result is 
a split between them and the secondary stales of Germany headed 
by BnvBria, Tlie claims of the Duke of Augu?tunburg are still 
forem'sl in (he litid as the future sovereign of the Duchies; but 
Prussia has now put in a claim on her account on the strent^li of 
certain antiquated documents discovered in the Archives at Berlin. 
Should such claims be seriously eiiterlaiucdj it would simply imply 
that Denmark has been in the hands of usurpers since the dnys of 
Frederick I. Austria is more than a match for Prussia, and whilst 
these two worthies are quarrelling over tluir spoil, a Russian fox 
may perchance walk otf with the bnoty. 

AuElria is endeavouring In concihate her Hungarian and Oalician 
snbjects by making liberal concessions, and she lias certainly 
gained ground in public opinion. Her finances are in a bad state ; 
she would willingly make a reduction in her army were it not for 
the fear of Italy invading Venetia. 

The Prussians are not satisSed with their goveniment. Every 
thing 18 sacrificed to the army. The good burghers of Berlin have 
to loosen their purse-strings to provide fur the wauls of the privi- 
leged cInsB. 

Russia hns uot taken any active part in ihe Schleswig-Holstein 
question except iu giving a tacit support to ihe claims of the Duke 
of Oldenburg to whom she has ceded any reversionary claims of 
her own. The belrollial of the Princess Dagmnr, the younger 
sister of our Princess of Wales with the heir apparent to the tiirone 
of Russia, has somewhat modified the views of the Czar. In an 
oflicial despatch to the Russian Minister at Vienna, Prince 
GorlschakolV intimates lliat the Emperor will maiulain the inter- 
national cLiim iu virtue of which ChriKtiaD IX. reigns in 
Denmark. 

Russia, following the example of France, has announced a national 
loan of 400 millions of roublts, Moscow alone has ofl'ered to take 
SOO.OUU.OUO, which proves that the financial distress in llussiawas 
more apparent than real. As the loan emanates from the govern- 
ment which, at the same time, promises to devote a portion of it to 
the construction of railways througliout the empire, the public 
pbce full confidence in the guarantees offered. 

The emancipation of the Serfs has been carried out, and " Order 
rdgua at Warsaw." Ruesia has taken a bold step in abolishing no 



1865.J 



1864—1805. 



iQi 



lesa than 110 convents and monasteries to the great difgast of 
Pio9 IX. wlio thriaieiieil to send Ihe llussisn minister at. Rome his 
passport*. Sti weak is the Papucv, that even th;it once tfrrible edict, 
a papal bull, is laughed at. When we reinembi>r Cliat in (he days 
of PJnh|( Augustus a papal bull of excommoiiiciitiun closed every 
cliurch iti l;"taiice, prohibitt'd the buiiiil of the dead, the udmiiiistra- 
lion of the last sacrament, liie Hies of marriage, and placed an 
analhetna and a curse on both King and people ve mny truly take 
up the banner of proiiress anil excbiin — Excelsior. 

Sweden and Norway have also remained p8>sive. The rumours 
of a Sciindinavian Empire (includiitf^ Denmark) still prevails to a 
certain extent. If reidized, it miijlit prove a formidable bulwark 
against Germany in the north, 

Belgium under its veteinn king is happy and prosperous, end 
with the exception of tlie erection of a monument to the memorica 
of Counts Egmout and Horn, and the conclusion of commercial 
and copyright treuties, there ia litile to record from that peaceful 
land. 

The BBme may be said of Holland, Hanover, Saxony, Wiirtem- 
berg, Bavaria, and the oilier minor continental states. 

In America the terrible frutricidul war bi;lween North and 
South still couliduea with uTiabflteJ ferocity. Abraham Lincoln hua 
been re-elected for four jears and his Message is before us. With 
the exception of a semi-hoslile hint against Kngland, the President 
says very little except that the war is to be continued. No terms 
of peace are proposed, or of amnesty otTered to the Southern Con- 
federncy. Mr. Lincoln simply announces that bis policy is un- 
changed since he met Congress last. There is, howevi-r, one pnra- 
gruph in his Mes-age whicii has given great annoyance to the 
Emjieror of the French. We allude to the paragraph which refers 
lo Mexico. Mr, Lincoln sajs : 

"Mexico continues to be the theatre of a civil war, while our 
political relations with tlnit country have undergone no change. 
We have at the same time maiiitained neutrality between Ihe beili- 
gp rents." 

Not one word in recognition of the new Empire. The Emperor 
and Juarez arc placed on the same line as belligerents. 

The Secretary of the Treasury announces that the debt at the 
close of the fiscal year is estimated at something more than live 
hundred millions sterling! lie proposes increased taxation, new 
loans, and the sale of public domnin, particularly that part of it 
abounding in precious tind other metals. 

As regards the Report of the Secretary of the Navy, we cannot do 
belter timn quote from Mr. Lincoln's Message. He says: 

"The report of the Navy presents a comprehensive and satisfac- 
tory exhibit of the affairs of that departmi-nt, and of the naviit 
service. It is a subject of congratulation and laudable pride to our 
couulrymen that a navy of such vast proportions has been Qi-^j-w-axi. 



106 



1864-1865. 



[Jan. 




in so brief a period and comlucled witli so mucli efficiency and 

success. The general exliibit lT llie navy, includini; vessels uniler 
conptrugtion on ihe 1st December, 1864, shows a total of Ii71 
vesstlj, carrying 4,610 guns, and of MU,a96 Ions, bring nn actual 
increase during the year, over and above all los-*es hy sliip«Teek or 
in battle, of S8 vessels, 167 guns, and 1-2,4^7 tons, 

"The total number of men at this time in the navul service, 
including officers, is about 51,000. There have been captured by 
the navy during the year 324 vessels, anil the whole immber of 
naval captures since hostilities commenced 1,374, of wliicli 267 
were steamers. The gross procefids arising from the sale of 
condemned prize property tlius far reported amount to^l i, 396,^50 
die. A large amuutit of such proceeds is still under adjudication 
and yet lo be reported. 

"The total expenditure of the Navy Department of every descrip- 
tion, includioi! the cost of the immense squadrons that have been 
called into existence from the -Itli of March, 1861, to the 1st of 
Ntiveinher, 186 1, are 238, 64.7,^62 dol. 35 cents. 

aUSTMALIA AND NKW ZKALAND, 

We have briefly alluded to the war in Ni'W Zeidand, and to the 
convict (juestion. The lust news from New Zealand is not salis- 
facfory. The following extract from a private letler may be relied 
upon as perfectly authentic. It is dated Auckland September SOtii. 
The writer says : 

"As regards matters out here, this war seems dragging along in 
a most unsatisfactory manner, and 1 confess that the way lliinga 
are manngcd, appears to my humble comprehension simply ridi- 
culous. We have three powers perpetunlly at cross- purposes — the 
governor, the general, and ihe colonial mini-try. Can you imagine 
anything more ridiculous than keeping 20U Maories prisoners on a 
a hulk for nine months, and then towing them down, and setting 
them loose on a little island, t!ie private properly of Sir George 
Grey, distant thirty miles from Auekland. They staid there for a 
few weeks, being fed at Governtiient expense, and then boiled alto- 
gether, find are now building a pah on the lop oj a hill. They will 
cause more trouble; and besides tliis, thfre is the province of 
Taranaki to be settled, where the natives have never been wlnpped. 
It was there Ihe war commenced. It almost looks tliat the war 
will become one of extermination, or an abandonment of the 
colony." 

At the Liberiil demonstration at Maldon on llie 15th of Decem- 
ber last, Mr. Chichester iorlescue (Undir Secretary for the Colonies) 
gave «ome informalion respecting this New Zealand business. We 
quote his own words ; 

" He uished lie could announce to ihem that the War in New 
Zealand was at an end ; but that he was not able lo do. The Inst 
accounts from that colony was not quite so satisfactory as tbeir 
hopes bud leil them to expect. The snhmi.'sion of the natives bad 



1865.] 



1804— 1S(J5. 



107 



oiily as yet been pnrtlal, and it would evidenlly requite aiiollier 

campaign before peace could be restored. However, in spite of 
certain contrettmps and disappointmetits, all lie could learn from 
liie last mailj led him to believe that llie campaign recently 
be;;un, during what they knew was the summer Beasun at the anti- 
podes, would be the last campaign of a war which he sincerely 
Ihoue^ht would never be seen again. He knew that fears had been 
entertained by many good men in this country, that the Govern- 
ment of New Zealand had been inclined lo deal hard with the 
natives, and deprive them to an nnjusiifiablc degree of their land, 
or ptrbaps lo continue the war fur the sake of the gains to be 
derived from Imperial military ejipendilure in those islands. He 
confessed he did not believe in its being the desire of the Nev? Zea- 
land colonists to continue the war longer than could be helped. 
His knowledge of the great sacrifices they had made and were 
making, of the shedding of colonial blood, of thegpetidinp of colonial 
money, of the paralysis of colonial trade, convinced him that neither 
the colonial Government or the cidonial people would he inclined 
to continue the war a day lonjjer than could be avoided. He was 
also pure that ihc natives would not he tre.ited unjustly with respect 
to their lands. Precaution had been taken on that head, and most 
properly taken, by the Home Government, and especially by his 
right lion, friend Mr. Cardwcll, the present head of the Colonial- 
office, that the large powers of confiscation of native land which the 
Culonial Government had taken by their legislation should not be 
abused. Il was quite riglit that that should have been done. It 
was quite impossible that a Government representing one race in 
those islands, engaged in deadly conflict with another race, could 
view those matters with the calm and impartiid eye which the 
Irapciial Government was able to bring to bear upon il. There- 
fore, it was the duly of her Majesty's Government — a duly which 
they had performed — to take perfect security that no wrong should 
be done to that naiive race in the terras of peace. On the other 
hand, he must say he thought Ihnt that portion of the natives of 
New Zealand who bad been lo their own great loss and ours per- 
versely shedding their own blood, the blood of the colonist.',, and 
the blood of her Majesty's troops, should receive a severe lesson 
which might prevent them from adopting Hmilar conduct in the 
future. He believed that that was not only necessary and just, but 
was the best thing which could happen, both for us and for llicm; 
and that he ihouglit would be the praclical result in this case." 

Mr. Chichester Forte'cue then turned to the question of Iranspor- 
lalion lo Aupiralia. He declared that the Government had come 
to the risolution to abandon the transportation of ccnvlcis to Western 
Australia. The shipment of a certain number of ex-convicts back 
to England was the work of certain persons at Melbourne, and not 
of the Colonial Government. 

As regards the project of the great Confederatioa ot t-W&c^i^^ 



109 



li6i— 18SB. 



IJax. 



Pfuvineo of North Americi, llie Undcr-Seoretnry let drop Bome 
«Bl«d>lc inronBBiion. 

H« bdiewd it »» for the intprpsl of tbe colonists, and Tor that of 
the liamu race, thai an iiidr|>eiiileiit, self rfiiaiif, anil distinct 
Povcr ■honld arise up in Brilisli Norll) America; tlial tJie wbole 
pOpslalioB of tlial vast continent :>ltouM not all be moiililcij upon 
OM type, but thil tlie trreut Stale wliicli was nbout to be formed 
nodrr our Buopices, ihouM to all time liold ils own as a separate 
ind dtXinct comtnunity. No doubt the; ell knew— anil it wns well 
■n •bonld kiio* — Ibst tlie relations between that Union and the 
Bnliab Crown would rpnukin precisely as at present. The colonists 
WDnlcl continae under ilie ^sovereignty of the Queen, as they wished 
lo do, and all the relations that now exist between tlii» eountry and 
bflhreen the SoTer(.-i<>n and tlie colonies, would be unchanged. The 
only altemtion would be, that they would be belt<T able than they 
bad heretofore been to contribute towards ihcir own defence, and 
that, jnstend of being several minor provinces, they would form one 
ereat dependency of the Crown, the government of which would 
be an object worthy tbe ambition of the greatest of our pubhc men. 

OOtt NAVY. 

Theae ex -parliamentary utterances, as they are styled, keep the 
general public informed on mntlers of vital inijiortanee to the 
country. Thus in hla address to his constituents at Deal, Lord 
Clarence Paget gave some valuable iuformalioii respecting llm stale 
or oar navy. 

"It i» tiue," said Lord Pnget, " Ihat oor nnvnl expenditure haa 
been ?try considerably reduced, and 1 am ihankful for il, within 
Ihe lost two or three years; but out Navy Kstimaiushave amounted 
to no less than £.li,7:i\}flW sterling." Thnt, I believe, is tbe 
Ligheal amount that we have to vole. OiiresUinatea for the present 
yenr have been something like £10,750,000, showing a reductioa 
of £li,00(J,0UO, Now, why has this emirmons naval expenditure 
been necessury? I do not speak with disrespect towards any previous 
Government, but I tell vou ihnt in the year when we eainu into 
office our navy wiis not in a satial'aclory stnte. We had neither 
the number of ships nor the number of men which it was absolutely 
necessary that thia country should maintain to u|)hotd her position 
as a great Power. Well, tbe consequence of that has undoubtedly 
beeu a vast expenditure ; but we have now, as ibe re.*ults of out 
outlay, either budt or building, auJ in various stages of construc- 
tion, no fewer llian ;10 armour-plated ships. Now, when you talk 
of 30 aroioor-pluled ships, 1 don't know whether you realise what 
that reprtsenlsin money. Hut when 1 tell you that many ot those 
siiips cost nearer half a million than a quarter of a million each, 
it will give you some idea of what the expenditure incurred in 
coiislrucliugyour armour-plated fleet has been. You will remember 
perfectly well some four years ago we used to sutTer froai a clironic 
stale of panic. We used to hear that thia country was utterly 



1SS5.] 



1864—1865. 



109 



unfil to repel invasion, tliat we \}«A neillier sliips nor troops, and 

tlioi, in fsot, we were «t llie merev of nny nation which might 
choo-^e lo invade us or offer insult, to our Bag. Well, we never 
hear of these things novr; we never heat Englishmen now express 
any fear of invasion or of insult to our ilagj and I ask you 
whether I may not on tbat account claim your conlinaed oouSdence 
for Her Majesty's Governmeni." 

In conelnsion, it may be said that as far as England is coQCerned 
the year 18Ci closes well. VVc have had our usnal average of 
crime, and destitution. The capture and subsequent execution of 
Kranz Miiller, proves that thanks lo ihose wonderful inveniiotis of 
the genius of man, the application of the power of steam and tlia 
electric telegraph, Justice can put hrr hand upon a criminal across 
the Atianlic. 

From India, China, and Japan, we have little to record that ia 
not already a matter of history. The Persian Gulf Telegraph has 
been acnomplished, and the Great Eastern is now taking in the 
coil for the Atlantic submarine line. In fact, on all sides wb 
behold progress. Two iiav^il engagements have enlivened us near 
home— the duel between the Kearsage and Alabama, and tlie.figlit 
between the Danish men-of-war and the Austrian squadron ol 
Heligoland. 

On the whole, in so much as England is concerned, we may look 
forward without auxiety to the year 1U65. 



SALVAGE PAYMENTS TO LIFE-BOATS' CREWS. 

As it often happens that the life-boats of the National Life- 
boat Institution are the means of saving vessels and their caigo<'a 
from dc»truction, or of materially contributing thereto, and as the 
owners of such property have not uufrequeutly objected lo paying 
the life-boat men for iheir services, believing that they are onlyjwr- 
fonning their duty by rendering them aid, we think it desirable 
that the owners of ships and merchandize, aa well as the general 
public, should he made aci|uainted with the principles by which the 
Institution i* actuated in the matter of saving wrecked property, 
and the terms on which it allows its boats to be used in aavnig it. 

In the lirst place, then, it catinot be too plaiidy staled, or tou 
generally Imonn, that the National Life-boat Institution is a 
Society establislied for the saving of human lives, and that only. 
It np|)eids to the British public to support it for tliat object, and 
that object alone. It lias, therefore, no right to devote any pari nf 
the funds so raised to providing means fur saving prop'-rty, or for 
any other object tlian the philanthropic one wbioh ia its especial 
function. 

Accordiuglv it is a misapprehension on the part oE tl.vt n-»i's.v.v* 



110 



SALTAGE FAT1IEHT3 TO LIPB-BOATS CREWS. 



[Jan. 



of property at sBji to suppose thnl it is the duty of tlie men who 
work tlie institution's life-boata on the coast, to give their sprvices 
gracuiioiisly to elTect its preservation. The Institution jiaya tliein 
for devoting llieir lime and labour, and for risking Llieir lives, to 
save tlie lives of others, and it iius no claim on them to do more. 

On the otiier haiiH, however, it is felt liiat, in Ilic interest of 
humanity, valuiible projierty wbicli liaa been produced by tlie 
" 8*eat of man's bron" should not be allowed to [leriah beuealh 
the waves, if it can be saved. Tlie Inslitutiou, Iherefore, autho- 
risea the crews of ils life-bfmts to assist in saving vessels stranded, 
or leaky, or otherwise in distress, uniler special circumstances and 
on certain terms. In pennitling those services, and in arranirinij 
those terms, a general principle had to be deoideil on, and such 
service being altopetlier distinct fruni the function of the Insli- 
tutiou, it was considered expedient lu separate it, as far ns possible, 
from the more lei^itiniate cmployraent of ils boats; to elfect which 
it was arranged that, on all occasions of using the Institution's life- 
boats to save properly, they were to be considered as lent to their 
crews for that purpose, and tliat the latter slioolil look to the 
owners of the property to remunerate theni in accordance with the 
provisions of the "Merchant Shipping Act of 185-V," and not to 
the Institution. 

The couditiuns on which the life-boats are lent to their crews for 
audi service ate as follows : — 

1st. — That they arc on no account to be used in the salvage of 
property so as to interfere with private enterprise, wlien any other 
boats ore available, and can be safely emplnjcd, 

2nd. — That they are never to be Inuiiclied and token afloat ex- 
pressly to perform such service, when lives are not endangered, 
nithout the sanction of the local Honorary Secretary, or olher 
representative of the iDcal Committee of MunDgcment. 

3rd. — That the greatest care is to be taken of them, and that 
Ihej are never, on such occasions, to be unneccessonly exposed to 
serious risk of damage or destruction. 

4th. — I'hot their crews are not to make exorbitant demands for 
payment from the owners of the property saved in proportion to the 
service rendered. 

5th. — That to cover risk of damage to the boats, two shares of 
all salvage payments received, i. e., an equivalent to the shares of 
two of the crew, shall be paid fo the Institution. 

The utility of the first three of the above conditions wiil be obvious, 
and need not he further coramenleJ on ; tile two last call for some 
observations : — 

With regard to the fourth, it is hardly possible that any rnle 
which could be devised would altogether prevent disputes arising 
between li.e crews of hfe-boila anil the owners of property saved by 
them, since the different elements have to be considered in deter- 
mining the amount of the payment to which the salvors of property 



1866.J 



SALVAGE FATHBMTS TO LIPE-BOATs' 0RSW3. 



Ill 



are fnirly entitled; viz., 1. The value of the property saveil. 2. 
The cerlniiity of ils lo*s, or tlia degree of risit of loss to «-liich it 
would have been exposed bul for the *alvor'a aid. 3. The amount 
of time anil labour rupendeil, and llie difficultv, exposure to wet iind 
cold, or risk of life incuried bj the salvor?. It is evident, therefore, 
thill tlie chunicler ami valne of such services must be of the most 
vnried character; and lliiit tlie owners of property saved, and the 
salvors, whose interests lie in opposite directions, will be likely to 
form very dilferent estimates of their value. The legislat nre, sensible 
of ihe difGculties puirouiiding such cases, has, by the " Merchant 
Shipping Act of IHrii," only slaled Dial the salvors of property 
from losa at sea shall be. entitled to " reasoTmble compensation," 
but it has made ample provision for settiins all pnintg in dispute. 
1. By empowering tlie " receivers of wreck" tu arbitrate between 
the salvors and owners of property, with the mulual consent of each. 
party, 3. By autliorising any two magistrate? of (he locality to fit 
the amount of payment in cases under £200, where the p:irtics 
cannot come to a mutual agreement. 3. By admitting appeal to 
the "High Court of Adinirnlty," in cases above jE^OO in amount 
of demand ; and in all cases, when tlie contending parties or eilher 
of them are not satisfied with the decision of the local m agist rates. 
And, 4. By ultimate appeal to the Privy Council. 

All, thi'refore, tliat the Institution can do in the interest of the 
shipowner or owner of cargo, in such cases, in addition to allowing 
the use of its boats, is to urge ils crews not to make "exorbitant 
demands," on owners fur payments, it having no power to remove 
such cases from the legal juriadiclion of the country. It has also 
to be remembered that the crews of the Institution's life-boats are 
not 8 body iif enrolled men, retained by permanent wages, but that 
they are formed from volunteers of the local fishermen, or other 
boatmen, and in some instances of Coast-guard men, who are only 
employed for the occasion, and paid " lor saving or endeavouring to 
save huma^i life." 

The 5lh condition, viz., the payment of two sh:ires of all salvage 
receipis to the iTistituiiun, calls lor some explanation, as it is liable 
to he ndsunderstood. It may then be di»linctly stited that it is 
not imposed as a source of profit to the Institution ; the first inten- 
tion, as already implied, being to cover risk of damage, since with- 
out such equivalent it is not considered that the Insiitulion, would 
be justified in allowing Its bonis to be put to a use so distinct froDi 
that for which ils supporters have provided them; whilst a second 
desirable effect of this condition is, that the boatmen are thereby 
induced to use their own boats in preference to the life-bonts for the 
salvage of property, whenever it \f pructicahle lo do bo, since they 
have then no deduction made from the salvage awards which thej^ 
may earn. 

A ca-e in illustration will still more clearly show the principle 
and the elfects of its working : — j 



112 



SALTAOS PATHBNTS TO LIPIC-BOATa CRBWS. 



[Jait^ 



Sometime sinct^, a large SpnnisI) sliip ^rounJed on tlie B'aok- 
WQter Bank, on the south-past coast of Irelnnd. The caplain and 
his crew of 30 mtu, witli the exception of one of the lulter *lio was 
iiindvettently ioi't on board, escaped to the shore, some 8 or 9 miles 
distant. The wind w»s blowing a gale at the time, but moderated 
shortly artorivards, and shifting its directioD, tlie ship clipped olf the 
bank into drep noter, and drifted to the nortlin-ard. Beini,' seen 
from the shore, the Institution's Cahore life-boat was launched, and, 
after a long and arduous row against vrtnd and sea, suceeeded ia 
boiirding her ; some of the sails were shaking, some aback, the shiii 
willt sii or seven feel of water in the hoJd, and the one unl'ortunate 
live seaman on board half friglilened to death. 

Now the cosswain and crew of the life-boat would have done 
their duty to the Institution which employed tliem, and to the sup- 
porters of the Institution from whose conttibutions the. boat was 
provided, had they at once returned to the shore with the poof 
Spanish sailor thius rescued from a watery gmve, leaving the ship 
and cargo, worth £20,000, to their fate ; and, were they unable to 
look for a "reasonable compensation" from the owners, they had 
HO interest in acting otherwise. The fisherman -coxswain of the boat 
and tlie chief boatman of Coast-guard, who was also with some of 
his men in her, however, at once decided to do their best to save 
the ship. They accordingly put her head to tiie north, trimmed her 
saiU) and set to work at the pumps, with a view to get her safely to 
Kingstown if possible, aud intending to send the life-boat back to 
her station with a portion of her crew as soon as they couid feel 
assured that their efl'orla at the pumps were successful. They soon, 
however, found that the water iu the hold was gaining on them, and 
that they eould only save the ship and cargo by running for Ihe 
shore; this they did on the beach near Arklow, 15 miles from 
Cahore. Here she was handed over to an agent for the owners, and 
the life-boat, which could not be got back to hiT station until the 
termination of the gale, was hauled up, her crew returning to their 
homes by land. 

The local Cummillee of the Cahore Branch of the Institution then 
met to receive the re])ort of the coxawatn j and having salisSed them- 
selves of the value niul legitimacy of the service, tliey deputed tha 
chief boatman of the Coast-guard and the coxswain to proceed to 
Dublin, and put in tlieir claim for coinpeDsation for saving the ship 
and cargo from total destruction, wliich they had undoubtedly done. 
The result was, that the Receiver of Wrecks at Dublin proposed 
£50(1 ns an equitable setllemeut of the chiim? of the salvors, which 
proposition was acceeded to by thorn and by the agent for llie 
owners. 

The Institution in this case paid the crew of the life-boat the 
usuul sum of lOs. each for saving the life of the one seaman lelt on 
board tlie ship, and also the expense of tlie requisite help to launch 
the boat ; but all the expenses contingent on the saving of the i^hip 



1863.] 



PORBIGK SUUMAaV. 



US 



h 



and cargo, such as the hire of convejnnees to tnke llie crews to their 
homes, and their si]b°ei|ui}iit rc^iiirn t.o fetch theii boat, and nlao the 
expences incurred \iy ihe coxswain and the chief boatman of Ciiaal- 
giiard, by goinit tu Dublin, ncre paid out of rlie £JiJO before its 
fiubiivisioii. When subdivided, it gave about £51 to euch of Ihe 
creir of the life-boat, and £63 w:i3 paid to the Institution tu cover 
risk of damnge. 

Nijw we cannot but think that such atk nrrangement was benefi- 
cial to b1! parties; — the owners or irisurcrs of a v.iluable ship and 
cargo were fortuirale in having their properly saved at a very small 
per centape, ihe crew of the life-boat, for the most part pnor lislicr- 
tnen, received a handsome pavtnent, whieh was cnleulated to 
increase their attiichnient to the liie-bo.it PL-rvice — whil-t tlie Iii- 
^(itutioti obtained a sufficient sum to cover all risk of damage to iti 
boat. 

The above case is sufficient to illostratc the pnctice of the 
Institution on all occasions when its boats are eniployeil to save 
property. It has hitherto been found to work we!l, and we see 
every reason to believe that it will continue to do so. 



FOREIGN SUMMARY. 

Paris Dec. 24. 

Never was there such a total absence of any subjeet of interest 
for discussion as now. The Convention with Italy is regarded as a 
bore, and no man who has any desire to be regardid iis an agreeable 
companion would think of introducing it as a topic of conversalinn. 
A faint interest is felt in thu progress of French arms in putting 
down Ihe insurrection in Algeria ; the little information tli.it eorars 
from Cochin-Cliina ia read with an intcrfst only ju-t removed I'ruiri 
iiidLffereiiee, and the onlv foreign intelligence in which the nritiou is 
directly concerned that is canvassed witli any degree of spirit is that 
which comes from Mexico; for which there are two reasons, the 
possibility that the French occupation m;iy be terminated before the 
time specified in the convention, and thnt a splendid opening for 
investment may arise out of the explorations that are going on in 
Sonora, From reading the French correspondence in English 
newspapers, it might be supposed that Frenchmen feel a great 
interest in such mHllera as the Appeal of the Tliirtecn against iheir 
conviction of unlawfully asseinbiiiig for political purpose.':, but this 
in fact is not so, hardly a mau you speak to cared two straws 
whether the appeal was successful or nut. The clus= who take the 
greatest interef't in such qnesliotis are literary men, lliuy, partly 
because of their acqunintnnce with tlie persons concerned, and partly 
on account of the connection between nil questions of liberty and 
the press. The indifference of men of tlie higher ranks to public 
questions, except those which retiurd the standing of France in the 
U. 8. Mao. No. 43*, Jan. 1865, ->- 



nt 



POHKIGN SUMUARY. 



[Jlv. 



e'limntioii of roreifin nations, seems to be oonstantly nicrpastiig, nnd 
s> palpable, is this that n flritRr of cmisidernble repiilalton said only 
B few days aijo, that the u)tppr classes are constantly sinking, while 
the lower are as sicadilv rising. The latter I aoi disposed to altri- 
hutp to the !rn])ulse piven by tlie financial policy of the Eni|iMnr. 
The lower classes of Frenchmen in towna liavc iilwavs taken an 
iiiteiest in public affairs, but the interest which once induced thorn 
to adopt the views of any aoitalor who had sufficient ability to 
persunile them that by »n doing they would benefit ttieir material 
condilion, is now controlled by (he recollection thai tliey have pecu- 
niary reasons for avoiding any disturbance of public order, which 
could not fail to dunisge securities and tiie safely of their invest- 
ments in the several loans ihat have been chiefly raised from among 
thera. In consequeuce of iliis they have directed their attention 
more to the foreign policy of the government, and the eoiisequence 
of this is i.hat they have to a great extent ceased to have thai blind 
thirst for glory, which formerly characterised them as a nation; 
they jire gratified by the increase of French inlluence in foreign 
countries wlien it can be obtained without fighting, but they will 
soon be as reluctant to eo to war for an idea as the Eugli;'!) or any 
other nation equally sen^^ible would be. 

There is notl)iiig to be said of military movements of ihe least 
interest, reporis are prevalent of a considerable reduction of the 
army, but nolliing po^^itive ia yet kiiDwa; there in no reason why 
it should not be very luige, so far as cnn be judgal from ap- 
pearances. 

The festivities of Coinpieirne are ni an end, and soiilude enisls 
where recently the gayea' court in ihe world was assembled. The 
sporls and pastimes this year were of a less boisterous and robust 
kind iban in previous rears, though there was no luck of hunting 
and shooling. This is partly ascribed to the growing disinclination 
of ihe Emperor for physical exertion, and to the health of the 
Empress not being so vigorous ns formerly. To balance the diminu- 
tion in the nul-door amuwmenis, an increase of occiipaliou wrna 
found for (lie ladies by extra dressing, which was even more es- 
Iravngant this year than ever before. There is some excuse for 
Ibis extravagance, not only does it please the women, but the 
Emperor regnrils it ns a means of encouraging trade and nianurac- 
turcs; ami it is said that with a view to mitigating the existing 
comtnercial dintress, he has iniimated i<i the high dignitaries of ihe 
court that it will gratify him if thev will increjse Ihe number of 
entertninmentB they are accustomed lo give at this season of the 
year. 

The Emperor is beginning to find himself in that position in 
which muft men find themselves after they have passed their 
Httielli year. His friemis lo whom he haa been accustomed to look 
for aid and sympathy throngh life have fallen thickly about him, 
and iie is threatened with the loss of others, Mocquard's death 



1865.] FOKrio>r sdmmarv. Ho 

Wfighs heiivilj- uiJttn him ; lie was a man in Tliom tic oulil oonSile, 
mid for wliom lie liud a warm personal lririirl-lii|i, wliicli was 
feci |irof Hod bv his sei-relary, who wns, timreover, a man of talent, 
auH Hindi' a ciinsiileritble incouii? Uv writirij; for 'he press under 
lliB sigiinlure of Victur Sejo'jr, and by ullier lilerary composhions. 

Irrirated by the alt^icks of the seel ion of the Chimber of Deputies 

til whifii Tliierf, Favre, and Berrjer bplmg, certmn iuliuential per- 

»Dria hIio have free access to the emperor urge him tn nilhdraw the 

privilege nf di'ciis^sing the Address. Tiiej iii;iintnin thai it ouswers 

no usefiil |iiir|H]Sp, and is a wa-te nf linie wliich coulil be much 

better oiiipli>ied in considering useful measures. Tiiere is snme 

truih in these representations ; the lime o(cu|)ird is cerlainly very 

L long, aiid n^ Ihe uumber of the Opjii'silioii drieg noi, to the best of 

r niv recollect ioM, exceed twenty, it is in rc.-ility powericss to Ojipose 

the desire of the Goverumeui, and may therefore in some sort 

be regarded as a waste of time. It is not at all likely that the 

Emperor will net in accordance with the suggestions made to himnn 

tlii= subject; he m;iy, and most likely did many times during the 

last session regret tiial he conferred the privilege of discossiun on 

I the Addres?, but liaving conceded it, lie prides himself too much on 

I beine a man of proi^ress lo wiiiidrnw i(. 

I A letter from Japan, in La Piitrin, says tJist Pnace Nagsto 
Ihaving refused to pay the war indemnity ngreed to by the Tiction 
lihud bei'n condemned by the .Assembly of Daimios to degratluiion, 

■ Bud the ci.nliscation of his property, The criminal tribunal lurllirr 

■ ordered that his splendid palace in Ye Idn fhuuld be levelled to its 
I founildtiiins ; and lo punish him more ihuii by t lie mere loss of his life, 
f hi* iriiisl f.iilhful BPrtants should be put lo death ; all of which was 

duly earned out ; the palace was destroyid, and the siTvanls 
beheaded, with oiiesingle exccplion, however; his steward, in con- 
sideration of his rank, was perniilted to perform the "happy 
I despiilch," a favour for which he thanked his judges with tears lu 
lliia eyes, and declared that his children ami his cliildreii's children 
would be grateful to ihem for the inestimable favour they had 
accorded him. 

The despatches received from Algeria describe a series of what 
may be termed militiiry promenades, made chielly with the vieiv 
of awing the Arabs, and preventing a repelilioo of such outbreaks 
as that which is now nearly stamped cmt. The misery which the 
natives of certain tribes have brought on themselves is extreme. 
The French know how lo wound tlieui to the quick. The Jutlandera 
had good leason to complain of the losses ttliich the war brouglit 
on them, and no nation c:in be long at war without feeling lis 
consequences in a pecuninrv sense, but these are iuaignificant in 
comparison with what happens in Algeria. In the case of most 
tribes their whole riches and the means of subsi.-tence consists in 
their flocks and herds, and of these a rapid and unexpected march 
of French troops suildi-nlv drptives them, lea»ii\^L'i\'i»\ vl^'stJv.-ivSv.-^ 



lie 



ronEios sruMAttT. 



[Jan. 



de.Mitute, and ecen when theimtives ore informed of tlio opproaclt 
of (he Frencli troops in time to nvoiil fallinjj into tlieir hands, llie 
result is juat, llie same, tlie only wnv of escape open lo them i? tlic 
deacrl, and here bolh llifv nnd llicir cuttle perisli if tlipy remniri, ns 
in tile case of a late expedition led by Deliguy «lin drove, nceordino 
to wliat is no doubt an exaggerated account, 20,01)0 Ariibs and 
20U,OOft liead of cuttle into tlio desert, wiiere the latter nprislied, 
and from wlience tlie former bad to come in and make Iheir submission 
to avoid a similar fate. Several of these exppdilions liiivc- been m:ide 
in piiltinfi down the insurroctiori, and the dislrcss wliich exists in 
coiiseqiiHice among the Arabs must be friiilitful. There is some- 
thing lo be said in j'ustificntioii of (liis warfare of course, but still 
thf puuiiihmeiit apiiears excessive, Hiice it not only falls on iliose 
whose conduct brought it about, but is fell with even greater severity 
by irinoeent uoinen and children. We hoar but little of these 
things except in conversation'! the Algerian Press has neither tlie 
desire nor the power to publish accuunta of njilive distresa and 
sufTeriiigs, and the Arabs have not the power iflhev have the 
will. 

Some lettrra have recently been published in England o'l the 
Bubject of Abyssinia; I translate some details concerning the king 
from a letter which is not without interest. Knised by his own 
exertions from among the mass of his countrymen, he has succeeded 
in putting down a number of petty chiefs and adding their suhjecis 
lo Ill's own ; liiis he accomplished not by inlrigue, but by the strong 
arm; his influence over his conutrymen being as much due to his 
personal prowess and ffcill in arms as the superiority of his intellect. 
A dttermined enemy of I'Igypt, he once wrote to Said Pasha that 
he was resolved to recover posst's.'ion of the Soudan, but seeing, as 
he said that a war would cost the lives of many brave men, he was 
willing to meet liira in single combat, the issue of the encounter to 
decide which of them should possesf (he province. One day wlieii 
an KurojX'nn olflccr was at his court, he asked him to ride fifiy yards 
behind liim and then charge him at full gallop. The officer did as 
he was a,-ked, and when he was coming at full spei'd, sword in 
hand, the king turned round and d;irled the bamboo he held 
with such precision ami force, that he struck the sword out of 
the officer's band, repeating the feat three limes in succession. 
He is extremely proud of hia skill in the use of his weapons, and 
is also lond of striking the imnsination of his visitors, especially 
military men. When he vciivc? ihem on grand occafions he does 
so witii a body of his half-nnked guards with drawn swords behind 
his throlie, and with bis hands resliTig on the heads of two lions 
he has managed to tame. As a proof of the influence he has over 
his troops the following anecdote is related. _ Having taken a 
number of prisoners in one of his expeditions, he set them to work 
in reiaking n road. As the progress they made was not so r.ipid 
as he wished, he ordered a division of his army lo assist in the 



18(15.] 



FOUEION SUUMAaV. 



117 



work. As Abyssiiiiaji warriors regard labour as degrading, ihey 
refosed lo uhey his ordpr, Tiie information was brouj^lil to liim 
as be was silting in council wii.li iiis ministers tliut l!ie unny was 
ill a slate of revolt. Upon hi-armg tliis, lie iiiountcJ liis horse and 
rode down lo Lhe pluce aiiere llie troops were drawn u|). \ 
threatening muriuiir rose from the ranks as he ;ipproiiched. With- 
out heeding this he lea])ed irom lits liorse, laid down hi« iirnis nud 
without anv oliier aid ihaii his herculean sl.reiiglh lie began roiling 
aside enornions bh'ck^ of stone from the wiiy he had laid out as the 
tiew road, and coiiliuued at lliis ivoik n lull lioiir, to the astouislnnent 
of the troops who stood looking on in silciiL aiiiazymi^iit. Then 
drawing liiiasclf up he stood witii folded arms and sp:>rkling eyes, 
and said, "Now let him among you nho thinks biniseff more 
liobic than iiis Emperor fold his arms and look on and si-e him 
«'ork !" The effect of this brief addrejs was electrical. Wilh a 
great shout the men rushed forward aiid cojimcnctd the labour he 
bad ordered with a zeal which soon comph'ted it. 

His halretl of Maliomitiedanisin sometimes urges him to excesses 
that are bardly juslifiable; thougli when Ibis is represented to him 
he endeavours to justify himself by saying lh.it he docs no more 
thau their own prophet. A case occurred at Guiidar, where be 
caused the whole of the MahommedaD inbabilanis of a districlj 
men, women and children, to be assembled, and there gave liiem 
the choice between christian baptism and deatb. 

The reduction of the Auttrian army is the matter in which 
England is most iutercsled as regards that Power, for if a very 
large reduction were made, we might infer from it that an niider- 
etandiiig eusted among the conlincntal Powers tending to the 
preservation of pence. It has been repeated many limes that that 
ri'duction has been or is to be made, a statement 1 have had to 
deny on sever;il prc-vious occasions and which I now repeat. Tbete 
is no intention lo reduce the army, except possibly by a few hundred 

I men whose term of service has expired. Figures in these cases 
may tell the truth as far as tiiej go; bO,000 men may have been 
sent to their homes within ilie last three months, but that does not 

, prove that olliers may not have been called out to fill their places. 
The empire stands ou a quicksand ; Ilungnry refuses ail overtures 
towards a coiripromise, and will accept nothing short of a full con- 
cession of all it asks; aud even if this were granted, it is almost 
certain thai if Austria were assailed by Italy it would not obtain 
[tie support of its appanage, but that Hungary would lake advant- 
age of the opportunity lo release itself from its connection wilh that 
Power, and endeavour to start as an ituiependent Power, either 
sloiie, or, aa many Hungarians hope and believe, at the head of 
the countries bordering on Hungary. There is little danger of 
this occurring so long as Austria is not engaged in a war elseubere, 

^but it is Very well known that the democrats of all the coniinenlai 
nalions ate acting in unison. The little rising in t'riuli woav**-*. 



70KEIBN SVMKAItY. 



uw. 



spniilaneoua or IopbI ufTnir; but inny be compared to llie firsl 
luulterin^s of the coming Ihuiider-storm, mill liud It not brcD 
for llie stroiiglv-ex.prc?scd clettirmiiistiori uf the I'nlifln Giivernment 
not lo parliciiiati; in it, but on llif eontniry, [o cju wli^it it could 
to prrverit il being sufccssfu I, it woulii not liave died away so 
rupidly ns it did, a terrninntidri in part ciiusei! by tlie wise course 
pur»u<^d by Uie Austrian Gnverrirai'Ml, wliicli by abstaining from 
acia of severity prevrnled llie insuf^'i'nls taptiired from being re- 
gfirded as martyrs. Tbe nest riiing in those districts will probubly 
be a very differeut inallcr, und if tlie tiisuigi'iits con only hold 
their ground for a f>'W n'rekti against Ihe force sent against tlieiu, 
S rif'ing muy lake place in [lurignrj, whicli will cerlainly draw 
after it a large proportion of the inli;.bilrtnt'' of the Slavonic pro- 
vinces. Of course such an insurrection will necessitiile the with- 
drawal of a large portion of the tronpi^ now stiitioned in Venetia ; 
and though a Btrmig force must remain there, uoiess it were 
resolvr-d to abandon it to Italy, it would be required to defend 
the fortIes^e9. Venelia is after all the great source of Austria's 
weakness in every way. The necessity of maintaining sueh a large 
army there, renders her almost defenceless in oilier parta of her 
dominions. 

If Italy had the means of buying it of her, and were to agree 
to do lhi», Ilunsary might resign all hope of disengaging iti«lf 
from the yoke which bo large a portion of its ))opulalioii hiids so 
irksome, such an equivnlent, however, ia nowhere to be found, 
except by the combined action of France, Russia, and Prussia, 
an occurrence as little likely to t<ikc place as the arrival of 
the niillejiium in the days of the present geni ration. If suck 
an exreedirigly unlikely occurrence' ueru (o take place as the 
peaceful setllemeiitof the Veneli.in question, it would oc one of the 
greatest benefits to Austria that can be conceived. The army 
might be reduced to n very small iimnber, just sufficient to main- 
tain peace within its borders, fur the<e would lie no puwcr external 
to il which would be templed to a*sail it, and even llungary might 
be made to see its advantage iu remnining as it is. The release of 
ouch a large number of men from the unproductive profession uf 
arms would wonderfully develope her manufactures and industriis 
of all kinds, lier comiDcrce would be so much extended that she 
would probably be led to adopt free trade principles to the great 
ndvandige of her heterogeneous populalinns, especially those of her 
more distant |iriivinces ; taxation would be reduced more and more, 
and thfTe would be a ciiauee of seeing at an early period that her 
receipts balanced hi'r cKpcnditure ; which is so far from being tile 
case at present that the latter is affirmed this year to exceed the 
former by 70,000,000 florins; a state of things which is growing 
worse continually, so that men are beginning to talk of the possibility 
of repudiation, though bow this is to be done it is not easy to see. 
Liiiin after loan has been liie method by maHiis of which it lias 



18C5.] 



FOJLmBN StlHUARY. 



Eituggercd dIoii^ hitherto, but this caimot go on continunily, and 
Austrian bankers will become more Btid more reluctant to repent 
the advuiices tliev made on account ol' [hat issued recently. The 
cuinuiercial distress which exists is no uiure Lli.itL bus to be 
cxiiected. It is impossihie ia these diijs when the menus of com- 
wiuiiication between nntions aie eo rapid and numerous, nnd the 
growth of internatioiia! commerce so great, for commercial distress 
to exist in one ciiuntry withoot sprcnding to nil othi^'rs, and in this 
re8|ieul, therefore, it otdy shares what bos been the common lot of 
England, France, and other countries. 

It was supposed that the subftitntion of vou Schmerlirig for 
Count Iteciiberg indicated a change in the policy of Austria towards 
Prussia, bat, as Count Reehberg said, tlie alliance of Austria to 
Prussia is as necessary for the former power as for the latter, (hough 
Prussians are uot of the same way of thinking, and iheknigis 
probably of the same opinion. There is more truth in this staie- 
mcnt, however, than the Prussians imagine. B.ivariaus, Saxons, 
and the principal of tlie minor kStutes ol I he Conledfranon are dis- 
gusted with the oTerbeaiiug conduct of Prussia. They nppe;ir now 
to be realising the danger lo themselves from the allianec between 
the two great Powers, an alliance for which they have to thank 
themselves, for if they had not forced ihem to unite by raving for 
the release of the Duchies from Dunish control, lliey woidd not 
have come logelher of their own accord ; indeed, the anHpaihy bc- 
L tween Ihem aeeraa so great, that noihiiig shurl of extreme pressure 
I from exlernal circumstances would liave the power of causing them 
to unite in a common policy. The minor Slates of Germany are 
reported to be in great tribulaiion from tlie apprehension that 
Prussja intends to absorb them one by one, an apprehension, by 
the way, fur which there is hardly softicieiit ground, as that power 
will receive a lesson concerning the dillioulty of swallowing all she 
covets from her hitherto unavailing efforts to gorge the Duchies, 
I Tne fear, however, of I'russian ambitiun is spreading ao mucli, that 
[ the suggestions made by a portion of the German press at the lime 
} when tie Hanoverian troops were expelled from Flensburgh, arc 
being tacen into serious consideration by the people to whom they 
were addressed. These suggestions were to the etfect that Bavnriu 
should pjiice herself at the head ot the German Confederation, from 
which Austria and Prussia should be excluded. In promoting the 
realtsalioi of tiiia scheme, Frenoli agents are said to be actively 
engaged, a statement which is by no means improbable, the policy 
of the tVench Emperor with respect lo Austria, Prussia, and the 
German Stales, being to weaken all by balancing one iu opposition 
to the olker. Should the attempt to briiiL.' about a union of the 
secondary and minor Slates prove successful, Prussia will be held iii 
check by :hese, and Austria has quite enough lo do at home to be 
feared by France ; the result of all Hds intrigue would be that 
France would ultimately govtru the destinies. «t v»j^^ «Ji. *i>i«»*- 
Powers, aa well as ot X\.a\j. 



1«0 



rOReio:< auuuAitr. 



[Jas. 



As a nmn sows so lie rciips, atid tliia wliicli is Iruo of individuals 
is codiDioiil^ iruL' (jf iiutioiis. The German States insisted on ilin 
expulsion of UuniuHrk from tiif Ducliies, and 3U|ipD9i:d tliat wlieii 
this was accomplisliisdj it. would real with llie Diet to duciJc on a 
successor. From this ileiusioii lUcj liHve been rudely awakened 
since. The Danes have been expelled, and iLe t'ediTiil troops 
have in iheir turji experienced a like fate ; the Diet hus motwiver 
[been told that it has iiolbin<; to do wilh the H|]{iuintnjent of a rnlor 
over the Ducliic!', lliat this is a matter whic^i re^ta uitii ihe Powera 
who liberated them; all that remains, therefore, in the power of the 
Diet, is to accept or refuse the adniissioii of tlic suvetDiyii, whoever 
he may be, into the Cunfcderalion, and tio doubt Prussia hopes they 
may refuse, because ijj lliut case it woidd expect him to enter iiito a 
closer alliance with ilself. This is looking at ihe mutter from the 
ijDost unfavourjble point of view, for it would really appear as 
if Prussia hud serious intentions of trying to hold tliein olherwiaa 
than by the strong ariti. Wlien the announcement was first uindi 
by the Prussian journals tlmt a discovery had bi*en miide of certain 
documents establishing the superior cluiins of Prussia to Schleswig- 
Holstein over those of any other candidate, it was received wJtli 
incredulous disdain, us a mere pretest ; in fact, a repetition of the 
.fable of the Wolf and the Lauib. By dfgrees, however, these 
'rumours assumed the form of a positive stileinent that not only 
did these documents establish the just claim of Prussia, but that it 
was the inlenlion of that Power lo contest the possession of the 
Duchies with the other claimants on the foundation of the rights 
epecified in these documents, which were said to be newly discovered, 
but which it seems were well known to esist, had been published 
indeed some years ago. There is now a new claimant in the 
field. Saxony. Comniuiiicatious on the subject have passed be- 
tween Prussia and Austria, and no doubt some understiindiuf^ has 
been come to, because, even if these old parehmenis should prove 
that the claim of Prussia, however bad, is better thai those 
of the rival claimants (wliioh are not particularly good), it would 
not justify her in retaining possession of them without thf consent 
of Austria, in the face of the declaration made to the Diet, that the 
disposal of the Duchies rests with the Powers who had wreiied them 
from Denmark. Tlie most recent imfonnation that has reached here 
on the i^ubji-ct, states that tliese deeds, together irith the giounds on 
wiiicli the Dnkia of Aogusteuburg and Oldenburg base ihar respec- 
tive claims, are to be referred to the Prussian Crown law/ers, who 
are to give an opinion of their respective merits. 

The Liberals are said to be deep in consultation with respect to 
the line they shall adopt regarding the Ministry wlieii the Hhambers 
nest meet. That Bi^mark, who treated ihem with such (oiituraely 
before tiie war, wiil, now that his policy has been so successful, treat 
them with but slight consideration, sctm* to he the gencri opinion. 
n this supposition I do not concur, and I see a greater probability 



_Jn this '. 



18((5,] POREION SUMMAKY. 

of the relntioris between nil pnrties being cliBracterised by ati in- 
creiised Hmomit of cordiality. Tlie Liberals are still Prussians', nnd 
,fltl I'russintis tire proud uf ilic way in whicb the army behavud ia the 
war wilb Denmark, wliich tlicy have not yet learned to look at in 
ila just ]iro|)orI ions. Tiie Minister does not hick slin-wdm-ss, and 
ba may see now ihe oji|)urlunity of makinf; concessions williont 
npp relit nsion of his motive being altribtiled to fear, and in the event 
of his adopting this policy, he will probably be met In the same 
spirit. 

The salisfaction of the Pruasians witb the pxpioits of the army 
WAS sbriwn very strongly in the reception given to the troops on 
iheir entry into Heilin. The soldiers tlieraselvcs, too, entertain a 
not less elevatfd iden of the feats lliey li.ive accomplisheil. To us, 
who are not without experience of serious 6glitiug, and who would 
be disposed to rank the war with Denmark on the »nme level with 
the war now being waged with the natives of New Zealand, it ap- 
pears ridiculous that they should slick laureU in their rifles, and 
otherwise drcuruto tliem, as though tliej were making a triumphal 
return from a battlo-lield in which they had achieved, or a.isured 
the mainienance of the independance of their country. The inflated 
language, too, in which Ibe addresses ore coucbcd, jars on our ears, 
aTid contrasting it witb the sobriety, and even depreciatory character 
of our own language nnder similar circuinalances, we do not, 
perhaps, make all the allowance we ought to make for the difference 
of tongue. 

The Emperor of Russia continues steadily to advance in the 
lialli on wbicb he entered shortly aftrr his accession. With a 
caution wbich does liiin credit, he connives at increased freedom of 
discussion of all public mailers, without abolishing the laws which 
enable bim to check it if be saw any reason for doing so. He is 
aiiieliorutiiig the condition of the peasantry where an opportunity 
offers of doing so, a^ for instance in the making and improvement 
of roads, and in a variety of other ways. One of the mOst striking 
j.roofs of tbe advance of his subjects in prosperity, and a certain 
kind of p.ilrioiis'n, combiucd withgreater knowledge than they have 
usually received credit for possessing, is the eagerness with which 
they sub'eribed for the luan recently issued, the amount subscribed 
far exceeding that asked for. 

The Plnijieror appiars lo be determined lliat tbe whole of Poland 
und^-r his rule shall eventually be annexed lo the empire. The 
decree suppri'ssing some of the relij^ious establishments has not 
excited anythin;^ \\ke the sensation that was anticipated ; indeed, it 
is only dnjng what has been done iu most other eooniries. It 
would be difficult to persuade anybody that any gooil can ari?eout 
of Die maintenance iu the kingdom of Poland of one hundred and 
fifty-five monasteries, coulnining one thousand six hundred and 
tliirty-Cve iiioiika, and lorty-l«o convents containing five hundred 
and forty-nine women, including twcnty-uue k'j'i'iK* vji. ^■iiJt.T.* ■*- 



Hi 



KUlTuUS tOUITuLIO; OB] 



[Jaw. 




Mercy. BrsiJe tiiese, there are sundry Brollierlioods unautliorised 
by Ihe III*. 

Thu inruniiatiou that has rtwhed us from different sources, 

enables us Ui furm wliat is probably a correct iiiea of the policy 
Russia i? purauii<^ iii the dircctiun of Iiulia. The account of tbe 
Kiustaii u'lhlnrv opi^rulioii^ given in ihi^ Mii^nziiie a moiiih or Iwo 
since, was derived Iroin Uit Invalide Ruxse and the oflicial journal, 
and in that account one of the reasous a^si^ued for the rL'ttciit of 
ihe army of Kukuii, was that the country was threiitened by the 
King ol Hokliurn. If, as is nut unlikely, this way done at tbe 
instigiition of Kus^ia, hn ha» received one portion of Ins reward in 
the sbape ol a Vdlu.ihle diauiond necklace. 



EDITOR'S POIITFOLIO; 
NAVAL AND MILITARY KEOISTER. 



"fireal cry and lirilc wool" is i=till ihe snni and i^ubstnnceof the 
news from America, thouf^h, as usual, "great operations are im- 
pending." In Virginia, Lee and Grant Bccm to be omuHngtheiii- 
selves with di.=tuiit caimon^ides tlint do no particular harm to either 
party, and ihuugb Hood and Thomas are at work more vigorously, 
alt that we can at present lenrn ia Ihat, according to appearances, 
tbe Confederates are gelling ihe bpst of il in Tennessee, But that 
appearances may be deceplivc, we learn fioai the proceedings of 
Slierman. His occupation of Atlanta some time ago wna to be the 
"death blovv of tiie rebellion," but lo and behold 1 he all of B 
sudden burnt and iibandoned ihe place, on the I2th of laft Novem- 
ber and has ever since beeu engaged in an attempt to make his way 
eu?t*ard to the coast, where the navy, the only efficient Federal force 
may affurd him a chance of escaping a disgraceful surrender. This 
appears lo us to be the real state of the case, allbough of course, 
the Federals ascribe " high slrntegic purposes" to his march, and 
inliinate that Augusta, Macon, and Savannah are all aimed at, and 
within his grasp. Now we know that hia host, which seems to be 
devastating the country in its line of marcli like so many Hnns, 
lia.' passed by the two fir.-t named towns at a respeciful dislance, 
although the capture of either would be a heavy biow to the Con- 
fpderates, whenre we assume lliat it wos never intended to attack 
tbemi and (be dauger lo Savannah we can discuss when we learu 



1865,] 



KA.VAL AND UIUTAUY EBOISTER. 



IBS 



with what iiunib^r uI Folluwers, mid in whut canilitiou Shermat) 
lias arriveil there, slmulJ lie be folni to reach U al all. 

We remurkftl la«t motitli that the Washinptoii Oovernment owed 
it to i's own cliarncter to disavow the insolrfff letler of Mr. 
Webb about the Florida; but we have now no liupe that nuy such 
consideralion «i!l wcijih with tiiern. Indeed Mr. Seward iuiprovea 
upon hi» model, in his re^dy to the request that a charitable contri- 
bution for the benelit of the Soiithprn jjrisoiiers may be allowed to 
leach them. We doubt it auj European Statesman ever acteil thus, 
but if he did, we are certain that al least he employed the language 
of a genlleoiaii. 

The FloriUa herself, if not the question of her seizure, has been 
settled by Yankee " cuteness." Deing moored conveniently near 
Fort Monroe, she has been "accideutally" run into and sunk by a 
transport, Credat Judieua. 

"Help yourself, and your friends will love you," Pays the pro- 
verb, and we all acknowledge ils truth. Buttliere aresome classes 
who hardly can comply with the injunction, and for them tiie 
help of friends is absolutely necessary. Nobody can question that 
the wives and families of the privale soldier ate in such a case, 
and we print below the statement of what is being done for them 
at Aidershol, in the earnest hope that increased sujiport may be 
given to the e^tablishmeiits mi-utioried, and that the example of 
such true charity may in time find imitators at all our great campa 
and ptations at home and abroad. 

LoDoisGs FOR SoLDiEas' Wivzs ASD Fajtilies AT Alderbhot. — The 
first unouni report of this most nieritorioua Inatitntion, to which wa 
sometime since called uttf iitiou, has recently been iBsued- As is preCty 
generally known, the objeet oF'tlie association is to provide lodgings at 
a cheaper rate thaji they coald be obtained by the ordinary means, and, 
owing to the high rents at Aldershot, it may fie considered most viiluable 
for tm.' iicuufit ol" the mHrried soldier. When t!i<? fijrrot-r reports were 
isBUfid, and on which we made some remiirk!', only forty lodginpa werep 
available to that part of Aldershot called North-lune, or Nuw-towa; but 
ill Jiiuuary the committee took two houses in Albert -street. West-end, 
at a rent of£'j5 per annum, including rates, repairs, i!b;., by which seven- 
teen lodgers were added lo the others, with the rents at the low figure 
of Is. lira, to 2s. 2d. per week for each room, partly fumiahcd. Kinety- 
nino aoldiers' wives and soventy-two children have been benefited by the 
iodgiuga aiiiee these wore opened, and all tenants continue to express 
their satiafaction with the quarters provided for them. There is a rule 
most ligidly adhered to by the eomniittee, which excludes from the 
bcncfitB fif the association the wives of soldiers married without leave, 
but if a suQicient namber of women married with leave do not apply 
tor the lodgings, then those manied without leave, who caa obt4iiii 
recommendutioBS from their commanding officer, ere uti'DU-VVK^ '\^ae. 



124 



KDJTOr's FUKTFOLtO; OK, 



[JiN. 



nocounts abow a total biikiice of £74 7s. Uld. to Ibo credit of tbe asscxna- 
tion. Bosirlc'3 a long Hit of rloiiors, iLo report gives the names of forty- 
eight giiaraiitorfi of Buma Ironi £4 to £'M eucb, wbo bold tbemaelvea 
reafKinaible for tbe rout of liny jiremises taken by tbe oasofitttion up to 
June next. Tbe totut Bum g'ULinLuteed tbia year umoDiits tii £42-5. Tbe < 
names of tbo guarantors have incresEed by seven since the bull-yearly 
report was ishiicd in January, and include tbexo of tbe Kurl of Shallea- 
bury. Lieu ten ont-Gciieral Knollya, Colonel the Hon. Lord Georgo 
Lennox, Viscount Everskv, Lord Caltborjie, Sir Hurry Veriicy. Misa 
Nightingale, Major- Generals Drook Taylor, Uusselt, Hodge, and Bated, 
Jkc, The assoeiation con templates tbe extension of its operations nbeu 
tbe funda eball be adequate. 

HuspiTiL fOR THE WiMis iSD CinLmizN or SotniBEs. — The fonrth 
annual report of iho AJdersbot Hospital for the wives and children of 
Boldiere, signed and nfiproved by Licutoiiiint-Cienerul Sir J. Pen ne lather, 
K.C.U., boa been iaaued, from which it ujtpears that the aubacriptions 
and donations to that institution during tbu last tnclveroontb, with tba 
balnnes of £115 8s. od. from last year, amount to £30i> 5s. 7d., and the 
total espenditnrs to £181' 19b. yd., leaving a balonce in bund of 
£116 3s ^-d. Tbe committee express a hope that tbe benefits of this 
hospital have liecn widely felt, and record their thanks to Mr. D. P. 
Bany, the aeerotarj' and medical officer, to Major Smith, the troaaurer, 
and to tbe Ladies Committee for tbe general sapcrviaioti which they 
have esorciaed, 



III the eurly part of tlie American Civil w:»r, t;reat importance 
was ascribed to the. unquestionable superiority of tlie Nortli, not 
odI; ill men, money, and warlike material, but in mechuiiical 
genius. Even tliose who wished well to the South, were obliged 
to confess that nothing like matiuracturing establisiiments on a large 
Bcnle existed aiijwbere beyond the Federal frontier, and it seemed al- 
uioBt iin|Jossible that the Coiifedcrutes could ever procure, louch 
less fnbticale, the w:irlike weapons and stores that they required. 
But neceasily is proverbially tlie molhcr of invention, and the 
following notice from a recent number of the " Itichmond Examiner" 
is a striking proof of the fact. It is inleresiing as showiug what 
energy and resolution can accomplish uuder very disadvantageous 
circumstfinces, and it shows that, even if ihe war should, contrary 
to all probabilily, end In the success of the Washiiiglori (Jovern- 
ment, the uiie great distinction which regarded the Northerners us 
the active cnterpri.-ing manufacturers and the Southerners as the 
plu^gish Jigiiculturisls is gone fur ever — a fact that reudfrs any 
return to Ihe " UrLiori as it was," liltogrther im|)ossihle, 

■' The niecbunical arts bnve udvatieeU rapidly witiiin the limits of tbe 
Confederate I^tal^ s BJuce the beginning of the war. A gloitce at what 
has been done in one depiirtrueiit of tbe Confederal* Government will 
serve to give an idea of the general progress. We select that known aa 
tbe Ordnwico Bureau of tbe war dtparlment, which is charged witb 
supplying arms, artillery, and other tnunitiuna of war to the onny. 

" At the date of tbe organisation of tbe Llovenunent at Montgomery, 



1865.1 



SATAL AKD UtLITftRT KEaiSTBa, 



1S5 



early in April, 1861, there were neither arsenals, foundriesi, powder millH, 
nor Government workahopH of any kind ic operuticin within ttit- limits ^ 
of the Confederate Stntef. The Trc'degar works in this ejty was thsH 
only cannon foundry. No fire-arms had ever lifien made, except, perhaps, ^1 
a few sporting gnus made by hand. No powder bad been mauufactured 
for war pnrpofica ; no Rim carriages bnil) ; no material of war bad ever 
been prepared. All suth wrirk hud been done at the North. The South 
was ienoraut of these arts, and her raecbanicB were not numerouii. Let 
ua follow tlio progit-sB of several important bmncboa of mauufacture, 
beginning with sinull anus. The machintrj* at Harper's Ferry having 
been secured in May, was tranBferred to two safe jjointa, and in Septem- 
ber following Wiia stininlnteit, and priviito Ciipital induced to invest itself 
in the building up of our eatahlishinents for making Breurma, Nearly 
all these have paased into the hands of the Oninancc Bureau. 

"When this war began, all the araennlsof the Cdiifcdorate States con- 
tained, iii the aggregate, l^lO.iXiO muskets, chiefly smooth-bore, altcred^f 
from Iliad to percuaaioii, and 10,000 rifles. Theae, with the arma^B 
possessed by the Stfttea, wore the tottd stork of service arms. At 
present all its armies are provided with the best rilles — the smooth- 
bore having nearly disappe«red. Many of these rifles, nearly all the 
sabres, and a good many of the pistols, in the hands of our troops, are 
the products of our own manu fact ones. It ia not too much to asenme 
that, with the proper applioation of the labour still at our disposal — 
should it become iiccaaaary, by tbe closing of our ports, to rely wliolly 
upon onraelves^the armies of the Confederacy would be supplied wilt 
all the arms needed for an efficient prosecution of the war. 

" In the department of artillery, the labours of this bureau have been 
even more sncccBsful than in the porducticn of small arms. At first 
there was literally no artillery in the possession of the Confod»jrata^B 
Government. None had been accumnlated at any point, and the onlj^^ 
artillery available was a few batteries in the hands of vohinteer com- 

?(iniea, and some old iron pieces, owned chiefly by the SlAte of Virginia, 
he field artillety of the armies of the Confedoraoy comprise now not 
less than a, thousand pieces, most of which ia in field lotteries, well 
organised anil equipped. The gun chiefly used is the 12-pounder, known 
as the ■' Ntinoleon,' to which we added the lO-pounder Parrott rifle (the 
latter mostly captured)- The number of hea\-y gvina iiibricated is to be 
eonntad by the liundrfds, among thorn some rifle guns of the formidable 
description. In this latter kiud of gun, the ordnance department of the 
navy bas achlevod CBjiceial eicellence, and the Brooke gun has a foreign 
reptitatiou, wherever our struggle ia known. The number of cannon 
foundries built up since the beginning of the war is six ; two of these 
have the capacity to cast guns of the largest dimenaions. 

" In the manufacture of powder, great success has been attained. The 
President carlj' dirucled his attention to this point, and the result has 
been the erection of not less than five powder mills in diflerent parts of 
the Oonfederao}'. One of these is alone capable of producing idl tha 
powder needed m the Confederacy, and is a work, the design and execu- 
tion of which is 111 I surpassed. To sustain the consumption of these 
milla, nitre has been imported and mined, and nitre beds established OQ 
the largest acnle. In this connection a curious fact deserves to be 
stated. The most reliable and fertile and nitre-producing district ia 
devoid of a single nitre cuve, and the earth usedia obwined from beneath 
old buildings. The continued o.itiBtenco of this phenomenon is due to 
the sagacity and good manageinciit of one of his subordinates (M^op 
Barney). 

"The roanufacturo of percussion caps ia an inatruotivo instance of 
the advance of arta and maiiufactureB in the military service. No 
machinery to make caps eiistcd at the South, not •«s*,\}Qa'a.-rt.*««^i'»Jfe 



126 



UniTOB 9 POBTPOLIO; on. 



[.Iav. 



the fiilmiTinto of meTOory to fire the cup prnctised. The orilnnnc-e 
department of the Slato of Virginin, untlor the direction <•( its lato 
capultle tiief, offered li rowiird for a nnchine for forming the cup, aai 
one woa in operation a)>oiit the 1st June. 1861. The eupa made wera 
rude enough and the product Bmnll. Since that diiv, such htm been 
the progress thftt 400,(101.1 hiivp nHon been prodiioed in the Conrederaov in 
a day, and there arc mochinp? enongh to make a million if needed. The 
cops compare JELVotirably with those rniulo in the Unit^ States, and 
are better Hnd more rolinhle than tho English niuskot nip. All the 
opemtioua, dowii to varniahing the ™p, aiu peri'ormed by machinery. 

"The whole number made and isaueJ during the war has reachecl 
lSO.OOi>,000, consnraing over 2()0,0'.)0 poundti of copjjer. 6,;i00 pounds of 
moreury, JUAKlO pounds of nitrio ncid (made at. home chicHyl, and t)O,0O0 

Kands of ideohul. When it isconaidered that the mathinery posseased 
the United States at the beginning of the wur would have re- 
quired 12 yeara to produce this amouzit of caps, and that that machinery 
was some lifteen yeurs in attaining its then perfection, tho mochunica 
of the Confcderat^y have here something to boast of. 

" Eioellent machines for dnkvnng friction primers for cannon, and 
for pressing load halla of the various calibres, have been designed and 
Hneceeafully executed in several parts of the Ooafederaoy. The machina 
nsed in connection with the Richmond Laboratory is ingenious, and 
the results very satisfactory. At. the enme laboratory are a half do«en 
highly- Uni shed machlnea for driving time forges, invented and cun- 
Btructed here. 

"To Bum up the labour of this department, it haa estnbliBbed seven 
Srst-claBE arsenala. five second-class nrsetiutn, one large liarneas shop, 
sis armouries of its own, two arraourica through coutnictors, four 
powder mills (two throngh contractors), one laboratory for amelting lead 
now in charge of and extended by tho Nitre and Mining Bureau), and 
varioua smaller depots and works. At each of those first-elaiia arsenala 
are fabricated all the material of an army, from a gun carriage to a 
linstock or a horso-ahoe nail. Wood work, irou work, tin work and 
work in cojiper and hraaa all go together. Kach haa ita extended car- 
penter's shop, with its endless machinery for sawing, turning, boring, 
and planing wood ; its machine shop for drilling, milling, and paring 
iron in all ita ahajjea ; ita Ijiacksmith shop, of twenty to fifty firea, with 
its cranes and hammcra and I'uns ; its harness shop, where saddlea, 
harness, cartridge lumea, cap pouches, bolts and all products of leather 
are made; its tin shop, its bmsB furnace, its cupola furnace, ita atora 
houae full of raw material and Snished products, ready to go to the 
army. 

'■ To tho armies of tho Confederacy it haa snpplied, east and west of 
the Missiisippi, over half a million of small arms, quite two hundred 
well-equipped batteries, countless small-arm cartridges, hundredfi of 
thousands of Hccoutrementa for infantry, and full a himdrcd thousand 
ac«iutrements for cavalry. All this is liut a feeble exhibit of what has 
been done in one department, and speaks well for tho energy with 
which the resonrces of the country have been applied in this struggle. 
It Hbould go 'ar to make ns hopeful for tho future. A couutry that has 
developed Buch tbingB in aueh a contest exiiibits a vitality which 
will snstaiii it throughout the struggle, however protracted." 

To this we vill only add, that such a people may be " extermin- 
atfd," a« the mfek Abolilionists propose, but it is very clear that 
tliey caiiimt be tomjuereil. 



t 



1865.] 



HAVAL ahd mimtary begistee. 



127 



It has bi-come a fashion of la(e yesrs for Mcinbera of PnrliainPTit 
Id give au iiocoiiTit of thtir slewanlship (o tiieir con»titueiiI#, atid, 
if they hHjjpen to hold an official posilioii, to |;ive also some delmls 
of their respective Depurtmetits. Lnrd Clarence Pagpt and Mr. 
Childers have recently done tliis, and both their s|ipeches contain 
exphtiHtions that ou^ht to have a more permanent record Ihiin the 
columns of a newspaper. Under the he.id nf " The Admiralty on 
Naval Affiiirs," a resuirt'- of lliese extra- Pa rliameiitary uilerance* 
will be found, and we recommend it to the nutice of all who mny 
have been di^^quieted by the attacks of certain ill-m formed public 
writers ; ihev will find then, aftiir all, there ia somelhirLg to bo said 
on the other aide. 



COURKSPONDENCE. 

[With the view of promoting the interests of the Service, this depnrt- 
meol of the IUabazine is apon to all antbentia conitnnnii>ntionif. and 
therefore the editor cannot hold himself responsible Tor the opiniona 
expressed.] 



THE ROTAL ARTILLERY. 

Sir, — In your November number, a correspondent signing himself 
"Mentor," condemns in the most wholesale manner the scheme for the 
re-organiKBtion of the E-iyal Artillery which I ventured to put for- 
ward in your pages in October. 

" Mentor," says that I " totally ignore the first principles of organi- 
zation of such a service," and that " the basis of ^1 caleiilalious de- 
pondfi on the number of gnns in charge of an officer according to hia 
rank in the regiment." 

A close examination of my scheme will show ihat in principle I 
entirely agree with " Mentor,' and that his condemnation would return 
upon bimself. 

" Mentoi'' bcnaiU that "atpreHcmt there i a no Bystom or regnlarity 
observed in maintaining the efficiency or discipline of the corps, hence 
the variety of complaints which are daily broupht to notice, and what 
is more essential, no single iirofcssional authority competent to decide 
on all doubtful points under reference." 

This statement on the part of " Mentor," is equally sweeping and quite 
ns erroneous ae hia opinion of my proposals, for the Rojal Artillery liiia 
been famed for its system, regularity, discipline, and efficiency, ever 
since its first formation. Thai some changes and reforms woold Ik 
beneficial to the service is my firm opinion, or 1 would nut have tha ' 
audacity to make proposals with that object in view. 

It is worthy of remark that althonph " Mentor" doea not apprave of 
mj' idea, and also considers the service in u bad way, yet he does not 
suggest any reinedy for the evil, and contents himself by simply finding 
fault with others who endeavour to do so. 

Willi reeard to the rank of major, 1 am perfectly aware that it has 
not existed in the Royal Arlillery for many yehrs. but at the same time 
many officers consider that great hardship was infiicteii on Iht Regi- 
ment when that rank was rutnsed IVir it by one high in office nl ttia 



^H 



H8 



OOBRESPOyDKNCK. 



1_Ja?(. 



time, and thore alwojB has beoii a current of ri^eling towards obiaiiiing 
the rank of mQJnr lor all firat captains. While vitiwing tliia plan as 
purely chimerical, I am inclinfd to thixik the difficTiltioB of the [jreseiit 
orgaiiizatioQ can be in a groat meaauro got ovur by the i-e-orgaiuEation 
which I am about to capitulato, and tbo olijecta of which are — 

Ist. That there Bhould always be with batteries a Buflicient number 
of officers of each rank effective, ao aa to seonre the following chain of 
reeponaibility unbroken, via. : a Lieutenant in cliarge of 2 Field Guns, 
(or a half Battery) a Captain iji command of a Battery of 4 Field Guiia, 
a Major in chargeof a wing of 2 liattiTiea or 8 Guns, and a Lientenant- 
Colonel in command of a Diriaioii of 1(5 Qnna; the Garrison Brigades 
being treated in a similar manner with regard to charge of half batteries, 
batteries, wings, and brigades. 

2nd. That a sufficient number of Artillery Officers of the different 
grades should bo nvnilable (without injuring the efficiency of the aen'ico 
Batteries) fur the many important commands and appointments which 
can be held by Artillery Officera only, leaving also a propiir margiu for 
depots and tor officers employed on the General Staff of the Army. 

In order clearly to show the bearinga of tny proposals 1 will briefly 
detail the si rength and org;ini7.ation of the old Royal Artillery, . 

Tbe Old Roy^ Artillery in Norember, 18S-V, conaieted of, J 

2 Horse Brigades. 1 

b Field Bi'i^doe. | 

10 Garriaon Brigadea. 
Depot. 

The 2 Horao Brigades cont^uined 10 Batteries of 6 guns each, equal 
to 80 guns. 

The 5 Field Brigadea coutalned 40 Batteries of 6 gnna eaoh, equal to 
2-tO guns. I 

The 10 Field Brigades contained 80 Batteries of officers and men. ' 

The Horse Brigades hare enoh the following offioers with them on 
paper. 

1 Colonel-Commandant. . 

2 Colonels. I 

3 Lienlenant-Colouela. I 
1 2iid Captain as Adjutant. 

The Field and Garrison Brigades have each a dotuil of, . 

1 Colon el- Commandant. 

2 Colonels. 

4 Lieutenant- Colonels. 
1 2iid Captain as Adjutant. 

All tbe Butteries in Horse, ^ield and Garriaon Brigadea alike have, 
1 lat Captain. 
1 2nd Captain. 

3 Lieutenants. 

There are 2 Battcriea of Officers more than there are Batteries of 
Quna and wen, owing to the lllh and 14Lb Brigadea having eaeb a 
skelolon battery. The number of Batteries of officers is thra-eloi-e 132, 
and tbe number of officers on praper with Brigades and Batteries is aa 
follows : 

17 Colonels Commandant. 
34 Colonels. 
66 Lieu tenant- Colon els. 
132 Ist Captains. 
149 2nd Captains. 
S'M Lieutenants. 
In the Hegimoutal Seniority List of November, 1861. there are officers 
as below, besides the lists of the old Indian Artilleries. 

33 Generals, 17 of whom are Colonel s-Commaudaut. 



1865.] 



CORRESPOytlENCB. 



129 



34 GolonelB, 

7*2 Lieutenant- Colonel a. 

qoQ JlSC lat Captains. 
""" "\_172 3nd CoptainB. 

505 LieutenantH. 

Thin would ehow that avtr and above the officers nominBilly witb 
Brigades and Batteriea there are, 
Id Generals. 
6 Lieutenant-Col onela. 
2i Ist Captains. 

33 2nd Caplains, 

109 Li eaten nnta. 

A large iiutnljer of these Lieutenants really belong to old Indian 
Brigades. Tor the old Indian LieuMnants are replaced (as caaualtiea 
occur) from Woolwich. There are ctcu more officers ottually away from 
their Bngadea than ore shown above, as colonels-comioandant are of 
course not with Brigades, and many officers of various mnl(s are in 
staff employ and at the depot who are on paper with Brigades. The 
expedient of skeleton btt".erica is obliged to be rcHortcd to in India, in 
order to keep enough officers actually with Batteries owing to the many 
and great draws made upon the paper strength of Brigades. This is a 
summary of the present organization and I will now proceed to my 
proposed reforms. 

1 propose to divide each Horse Brigade into 2 divisions of 16 giina 
each (alter increasing the old Hoyal Horse Artillery by 4 guns), and the 
Field Brigades intf three divisions of the ssame strength, and to leave 
the Garrison Brigades as they are now with respect to number and 
strength of Batteries, 

This would gire, 

2 Horse Brigades each of 2 Divisions of 16 Guns, equal to 64 Guns. 
5 Field Brigades each of 3 Divisions of 16 Guns, equal to 240 Guns. 
10 Garrison Brigades each of 8 Batteries, eoual to 80 BatWriea. 

To each Division of a Horse or of a Field Brigade I propose the 
following officers, 

2 Lieu tenant- Colonels.^ 
2 Majors. I ^ 

e Captains. r 

12 Lieutenants. J 

and to each Gurrison Brigade a detuil of, 
2 Lie utcn ant- Colonels. ~] 
2 Majors. L* 

10 Captains.n ( ' 

20 Lieutcna ts. J 

The 4 Divisions ofHorse Artillery and 15 Diyisions of Field Artil- 
lery, together with the 10 Brigades of Garrison Artillery will then 
coniprise. 

68 Lieutenant- Colonels. 
58 Majors. 
214 Captains. 
42S Lieutenants. 
The Adjntanta for Garrison Brigades could be furnished from among 
the Captams belonging to each Garrison Brigade, and the Adjutant for 
each Division of Horse or of Field Artillery should be one of the Lieu- 
tenants of 9uch Division. 

Comparing then the above numbers with the actual numbers on ths 
hst for November I8G4, we should have, 

3!t Generals, 17 of whom are Colonels-Oommandont of Brigades. 

34 Colonels available for StatTeiuploy. 

U. S. Mag. No. 43t, Jis. W65. ^ 



■34 



130 



CORnESPONDKNCE. 



[Jas 



• 



58 Liente n aw t- Colonel 3 with BrigBdea, and 1-1 availnbla for Staff and 
Dep6t, equal to 72. 

r 58 Majors with Brigadea, and 28 available for Staff and Depot, 
ona J equal to S(5. 

■'■^ I -214 Captains witli Brigodee, and 28 available for Staff and 
I Depot, equttl to 212. 

4-28 Lieutoriants with Brigjidcs. and 77 available for Staff, DepSt, and 
Indian BrigadcH, equal lo 505, 

According to this nrratiKeinont, I believo thai the whole of the Artil- 
lery aerrice could be earned on I'nr more (■ffieiootlj thiin uow, because 
Bomo officers on the atrongth of Brigadea, Divisions, or BatWrios, could 
be atill spared for stalF cm ploy men t, and yot tlie ditrcrent Brigade*!, 
Djviaiona, BiitterioB, and hnll" Biitterios of Artillery be generally under 
the command and control of officers of approijrinto ntnlt and experience. 
All Lie ut«n ant- Colonel H should receive Lieutenant- Colon el' a pay, in- 
stead of us now Home of them receiving Tnajor'a pav ; this with the 
promotion of Sti Captains to the rank of Major would Ije an increase 
of expense, and it may be alao noticed that the number of Horae Artil- 
lery ofGnora according to thin propoaal is larger than at present; but 
againat this outlay there would bo the saving of the Brevet Pay of all 
Captains (now Brevet- Majors) who would bo promoted to regimental 
majors, and the remaining 70 first eaptuius who would remain captaina 
would be gradually replaced by captains receiving the pay at prcseub 
drawn by Slid Captains which ivonld ho a large saving, and four more 
Horse Artilloi-y Guns would be kept up by this proposal than at present. 

" Mentor" cannot have looked into my scheme, or ho would have seen 
that my proposed four-gim h«tf«neB ore with a view to better distribu- 
tion and orgunizatiou, and not with the pretence that 4 = 6. Forty- 
eight guns would slill be the same number of piecea of ordnance, 
whether organised into eight batteries of sii guns each, or into twelve 
four- gun batteries. 

Nevertheless, if sixteen guns on a more efficient system are equal in 
the field to eighteen on an inferior plan in one place, the same will 
hold good with alt the other bodies of sixteen composing the 
whole Artillery, and thorof'oro the aggrogale sixteen will be equivalent 
to the sum of the eighteens, whether or not the whole of the sixteen 
massed on one field would be equal to the sum of the eighteens brought 
against them at that place. 

I have somewhat modified my scheme, as published in October, and 
leave it again to the tender mercies of " Mentor." Ho is very hard npon , 
me with regard to the nnmher of men per gun, hut I beg to refer him 
to page 215 of your October number, where he will find as follows : 
"that the numbers and details of guns, carriages, ito., horsed on Iha 
brigade system, are those at the present moment existing in India, &c " 
Perhaps this may not have clearly implied that the numbers of men 
also were nieont, but this was my intention. Agreeing vrith " Mentor" 
that the number of men per gun is now too small, I still consider that 
if the various duties and details required of Artillerymen were con- 
ducted rogimentally or divisionally, instead of, as generally now, by 
batteries, there would be more men available for parade or for action, 
and the numbora at present allowed, or even the slight reduction pro- 
posed by rao, might then be found nearly sufficient. 

I wrote a few lines headed " Artillery in India," some time hack in 
the Correspondence portion of yonr Magazine, in which I endeavoured 
to point out how terribly Uoveriiment were interfering with the effi- 
ciency of the Royal Artillery, by so ranch rodacing the imraber of men 
per gnn, and I went so far as to say that the number now allowed for 
aix guns was not more than sufficient for four pieces. 

The nambcr of officers and men allowed to a field battery of G guns 



1865.] 



C0ItR£S?O>~DKNCB. 



13L 



duriiig the Crimean Wiir was 242, and the number now given to Ibe 

Eanic piecea in India is 151, but as the false economy of l.liis reduction 
baa been already represented to Government, by mora experienced 
officers than mjsell', without ai'iiil, I nm oonstrainod, against my own 
conviction, lo take the nunibera allowed by Goveniaieat oa the standard 
orcompurison in my colciiUitiona. 

I lake tliia wfipnrtunity of again briefly comparing mv proposal with 
the nnmbc-r -A uffiwrs, vieu, liorses, guns, die., in a fingade oi' Field 
Artillery in Indiu, and for ihe aoko of a clcurcT comparison 1 will 
suppose a Field BrigiwLi; in India to comprise eifrht complete liatteries, 
instead of one of them being a skeleton battuty, as is actually the 
case. 



A Field Brigade of forty-eight 

gma in India, aceorJing to the 
ovcrnmcnt Establishment. 
(As calcuiatod n.t page 216 of 
your OclobcT number). 

117U Nuu-CounaiaHioned officers 
and men. 
EaS Horaea. 
-18 Officers. 



A Field Brigade of forty-piglit 
guns in India, aet'oriling to luy 
plan. 

(Vide page 216 October no mbtT, 
ondthe modifications above shown.) 

10!i3 Non-CommiEaioaed officers 
and men. 

9it Horses. 
66 Officera. 



It will be seen by this that there i8 no very material difierence eit 
way, whether with regard to efficiency or expeoee, as far as the nnmber 
of men aud horses are concerned, and with respect to the officera, 
although the number in a Fiijld Brigade ie increased, that in a Gatriaoa 
Brigade is diminished, and I believe a Garrison Brigade would be quits 
effpctive with tbiriy-four officers instead of hitving, u.t now, forty-eight. 

The number of officers in the whole regiment would remain tlie sama 
as at preseut, and my proposal is strictly one of organization , and not 
of increase or reduction of numbera. The difficulties of the actual 
aituatioa of afliiira in the Artillery aorvice are becoming; dailjr raoro 
patent, and I trust this letter has fully explained the manner in which. 
my plan would work, and at the samo time distinctly shown the pro- 
bable financial tffect of its adoption in the service. 

Peeling confident that greater efficiency would arise to the servica 
from a re- organization of the iloyal Artillery, somewhat as above da- 
tailed, I leave it t{i more competent hcuds to pronounce judgment on 
the plan, or propose some other way of amelioniling tlie present condi- 
tions of the the thirty -one Brigadea of Old Royal and Old Indian Artil-. 
lory, now forming the Royal Eegimont of Artillery. B A. 



THE ROYAL ARTILLERY. 

Sir,— Tonr correspondent, R.A., in hia communication last November 
p. 436, seems to think, that the discontent among the olficera of tlia 
Royal Artillery alluded to in the letter of " Spea,"* is confined to a 
few grumblers, and not so eiteuBive or general as it really e.vistB both 
at home and in India. I should bo sorry to leave your readers 
under such a false impression, and can assuro them there are grave and 
substantial grounds for complaint from every officer in the Corps, 
(excepting the eiclusives, at Hi;a<b Quarto rs) if tbej- were aware of 
them With the exception of those eonimandants m the enjoyment 
of their colonel's nllowiinces, and those whti by "partiality, favour, and 
affection," are corafortnbly provided for at Head -Quarters, thei-e is not 
an officer, including the seventeen general officers on tlio Retired List, 
who ia net aSeoted by the present organization, formed on no 



• Vide numbers for September and October last. 



CURUCsFUNDbKaB. 



[J AX. 




' BcerntatioiiH aJajitod to LLib pnrtiouliir service, nor bused on 

iMtya Wn.rr»nt« of 18M and 1858. 
tnle? utid RcgulatiitiiB of the OrdnfttiCG Depurtmont, Woth 
ptwfaafi and taatericl, are totolly difTeront from those mhii-h ragnlnte 
tbe Line, or Cavalry and Iiifaiitry Services, as far as relates to pro- 
mftion. which ia bused on L-'n-jlk of SeTvii:^ only, or in other wordn, 
'Sf'iiiority Syetetn," and on which the Indian amiy has been 
n<d and reenliited. The effort mada of late yeiirs by the nnthoritiea 
. Uie Horso Guards, and Wiir and India Offiooa, has been to broak up 
dislifiction, on un obaoletu Regulation of the French nrmy, 
Hth April, 18.12, as (piloted by the lute Lord Hprberti though 
Btod aftainHt, both by Sir John Bnrgoyne and Sir Hew Ross, on 
\he pan of their reajMwtive corps, in their prot*>Kt, dittal 16lh June, 
iVA. The fldbnequont modifiDiilion, diited 11th Mnrch. 1860, affecting 
be control and comraand of tlic Artillery Service of the French army, 
Btablislicd by thn present Emperor of the French (himself one of the 
at nrtilleriats of the age), has been entirely ovorliKiked. and is the 
0»e oT the state of confusion and disorganisHition, with which the Bubjcot 
I at present surrounded. 

The only remedy for this, is to organize Artillery, a" Artillery, and 

revert back, to the original formation of the corps, by allotting the 

luties and number of gups to each olBcer according to his rank. 

Let the Authorities and Parliament do this, and all will be right and 

njier, and pot an end to every kind of di '■satisfaction, or discontent, 

HVjcting the right and privileges of HiOO otlicera of Artillery and 800 

"officers of Engineers. 

Aaone great fact and proof of the present imperfect organization of the 
corps, I may observe there are only so vontuen commandants drawing 
coloncVe allowances in, the old Royal Artillery Sorvice to ri6fi officers of 
suhordinitle grades, while there are 24 Commandants drawing colonel's 
Bllowances to 67.5 officers of the lower grades in the Indian Corps. This 
ineiinality can bo rectified ut once, which is now left to the process of 
time to ufTect. 

Another canso of complaint is ths promotion of officers, out of their 
tnrn, to he commandants on the Effective List, as in the instances of 
_llie late Major-Gcnenil Brereton and Sir B. Dacres, which is directly 
"opposed to the 78tb paragraph of the Report of the Commissioners of 
18.W, page 18, thus superseding, 10 or 12 of their seniors iji rank. 
I By consulting tliese ofR.'ors most competent to offer an opinion anil 

I advice, in all radical changes of such a servioo, perfection may be at- 
tained, to tho advantage and benelit of Government, oa well as indi- 
viduala. but when these are introduced regardless of consequences, 
' dissatisfaction and imperfection mast ensue. A nou -professional ofSoer 
' at this moment commands and controls the Artillery, to the exclasion 

iof the most eiperienoed officers, educated and brought up in the 
porps. ' Caksonier. 

i 



I or 



OTTR REGIMENTAL HISTORIC RECORDS AND THEIR 
IMPERFECTIONS. 



We think that it will he admitted by all competent to offer an opinion 
the matter that among no class of persons do the memories and ei- 
rience of the post fade sooner away than among those composing the 
arious corps of our army. 
We do not ciaggerato when we say that no subject is less generally 
known among nil ranks of thp service than the past history of the army. 
Certain vague ideas associnled with the trophies home on the colours 
And appointments, do certainly exist in most regiments, but we may 
look ill vuA Tor any closer acquaintance with the port borne by tha 



1865,"! 



UOBREStONDBHCB. 



133 



t 



corps in past etmgglea, wLile the practical exporienco which most ba 

E allied eveu in each quiet tour of cotoiiial aorvice, pasaes away with those 
y whom it was acquired. 

How many of the altempta to improve the condition of the soldier 
liiive been carried out by Commimding officers whose hearts were in 
their work at various Btations, which have been not only j'orgottc^li but 
bavQ been atortcd afresh as uew and untried e^ipcrijiicute, even in the 
eame corps in Int-er years. 

As one instance sinoiig many which might he nddnced, we remember 

when serving in a distant colony in ihe days before the Crimean War. 

I duriop the prevalence of o feiirful epedotoic, being told that no record 

iBxialedin the command of the steps taken, and Ibund most advantageous 

' for tho security of the troops during tbrmer visitations (the last bud 

occurred some twenty years previously), not a single triistworlhy record 

could be found even in tho Hospital books to serve as a guide through 

the maiQ of conflicting opinions held by the civil and militaiy authori- 

tieB- 

We have been told, hut we kuow not if the assertion be true, that a 
case exactly parallel has lately occurred in another colony. 

When we consider the immense number of returns lurnished in the 
course oC each year from every station, from the Orderly Room and 
Hospital of every Eegiinent, and every Regimental DotacljiuonL, wo ui« 
certainly justified in saying that they form a mass o'' statislical and 
other information enormously eicceiiing at leaat in volumiuouaneaa 
that lurniahed by any other equal number of Her Majesty's subjects, 
and we think it is not too much to espeet thitt some rvi^unie (the moru 
concise the better) of experience, often dearly gained, should eiist at 
each station and in each regiment, which in alter years might be avail- 
able for the inlbrmation of Those moat nearly concerned. 

It is absurd to suppose that the Duplicates of Returns and Reports 
thus furnished, and which in a few years far exceed in bulk the allow- 
ance of space which tho Regulations grant for Regimental books, can bo 
available for this plirpooo. 

We pro])Dse brictly to notice the best Regimental Records hitherto 
published, and in conclusion to olfer a few suggesCiona which, if tarried 
out, we humbly think would supply in tho army the want, above alluded 
to, a want which Ibe Admiralty Instructions have well provided for in 
tho sister service. 

With the exception of the records of some of the Regiments of the 
Household Brigade and one or two others [whieh possessed an interest 
and obtained a oireulaiion only in tho corps to which they referriid) 
we believe that the first attempt to publinh the hUtorio records of 
regiments was made by the late Mojor-Gencral D. Stuart of Garth, 
in ft work entitled " Sketches of tho Scotch Highlandera with an account 
of the services of the Highland Regiments.''* 

This work published some forty years ago, aud now long out of print, 
and which we do not by the way remember ever to have mot with in 
any of the Government Military Libraries, eoulained a well written 
account of the services of all Highland corps, including those disbanded 
before the commencement of the Fi-euch KevoliitioiiBry War. Many of 
the chapters (we would instance those on the Black Watch and the 
old 71 and 8-i Royal Highland Emigriint ReginientsJ were well worthy 
the perusal of even the uon-mililary reader. The work also contained 
an account of tho Volunteer [and L'encible) forces of Scotland, interesting 
aa one of the few authentic notices of the Volunteers in the eventful 
days of the old i'l-ench war. A work entitled the " History of the 

* li^i MS ask why the Irish and WeUh Begimants hare as yet found 
no historian. 



134 



CDBRESFOfJDKKCB. 



[JiK. 



Scottisb Regimonts," has been not loug aince puWisbpd by Majof 
Mnrray ftiid bus renched a srcond edition. Tbo rerords lire, Croin tbo 
size of tlie work (n single volumt'). necessarily brief; but I'roni tbe care 
bestowed on it. we tbiiik it is worthy of more tiotii* tlian it bos yet 
received on tbis aide of the Tweed. 

The neM. work jrossosainf! niiy gpneml interoat brought before the 

Sublic. waa, we believe, the " History ofthe King's German Legion,* by 
lajor Bi.-iiiiii»h, formerly of the 4th Dragoon Giiurd^. 

Not long sabsetiiiently it was determined to ]>ul>liiih the War Office 
Becordii of tbe various existing regiments, and the execution of this 
work which WBB intrnsled to Mr. (.'itnnon, was performed with much 
care and nccnmcv, for we beiievo nil tbe existing cavalry regiments and 
for about bnlf of those of the infantry. From the meagrtness of the 
detnils in this gentleman's possession (we suppose), tbe works with one 
or two exceptions wcrw (n'oilucetl in ft vcn' dry and unrpadable form, 
and notwithstanding the liberality with which they were supplied to 
those adminihlu institutions, the Garrison Librnriea, both iit homo and 
abroad, wo beiievo few works are lit prepcnt less often connulted. 

Thfi nt'irt nnd last work to which we shall allude, is the " Record of 
tbe 'j2nd Regiment," by the late Captain Mooi^om. It would be quite 
Buperlluoits on our porta to offer any further commendation of this 
work, but we draw attention to it as n proof that in suitable hands these 
works may be miide not only valuable additions to militory, but ercn 
to general literature 

Few corps may perhaps have tbo good fortuao to find an historian 
ec|iially fitted lor his work with Captain Moorsom, but we think that if 
tlie goTCHiment olfered any eneoiiriiKcroent to these labiinra. in the 
ebilpe of a grant of money which would defniy the exiienses neccsitarily 
ineurred in such undertakings, that uiuny oflieers miglit he found wiliinp 
aud competent to perform them, and much information might be col- 
lected for tbe advantage of the military public. There ia one seeming 
omission in all the above works which we suppose is unavoidable, in 
the accounts of times now past, viz., tbe little attention paid Ut what we 
nmy perlinps be allowed lo term the " Social Science" of the subject. 

In every regiment there is a book kept either at tbo Head Quarters 
or the Depot in which the changes of station, promiitioiiB, and other 
cognate subjects are ontercd with greater or less ditl'useiieas by the 
officer in charge, in many citses tbe adiutaiit, which hwk is dignified by 
the title of the Iti.'ginienliil HiHtoric llccord. We do not know if this 
book be always more or less iieglcctud, but it cet^fliiily was in more 
than one regiment with which we were acquainted. We would suggest 
with a view to a future more perfect system, that each regiment be 
required to keep its record in one given fonn. The entries therein to 
be made, either quarterly or half yearly by a Ecgimentul Board, and 
that the work be duly produced at iuspections. That at tbe end of 
each period, the different officers composing the Regimental Staff be 
requested to hand in a brief statement of anv experience acquired, or 
suggestions as to imjirovcments mado or to be made in the details of 
their respective departments, and such information be embodied (it 
need in uo way be vci'bose or diffuse) in the Record Book with a short 
notice of the movements and stat^e of tlie regiment during the period. 
All tbe entries, though made by a Board of Olficers would, of course, 

• Would it not be possible before the last Burvivora of the late war 
pass from among ns to, preserve in the pages of this or other nrofea- 
eional periodicals, the memorials of many corps which now exist hut in 
ranie. We allude to the Ancient Irish, the York Rangers, the Chas- 
seurs Bnttaniquea and many others, whose names stand out brightly ia 
the recordb of the old war. 



18G5.J 



OOBKESPOXDbNCB. 



135 



have tbo suporviaion of tlie commimding ofEcor. If the entriea wore 
neatly miulit vritli a brood inargin for ligiires, dotes, &c., to each puge, 
we believe that euch period of fifl,i?en years, viz., ten abroad and five 
at home, might be contained in u space cousiderutly smalltir thaji ao 
ordinary Coinpuuy'a Dufaulter'H Boob. 

A liword should be kept in a somewhat aimihir form in each Gairi- 
aon. 

In this way, we ventDK lo think that, with bat little extra troubls 
and 1)0 extm expeiice to ihe country Ijeyoiid providing the Hocord Books, 
a large amount of ]>ra<;ticully useful iuformation might be retained in 
an eaHilj available form. For the value of information Lbiia coUoctfld, 
we may ask our readers who have been in the habit of keeping a diary 
or notes, however roughly, if they have not often found cheir utility in 
after years, rough as the notes may have been and trivial ae the circum- 
Htances recorded may buvo uppeiired when tbo memoranda were made. 
Even if no other cud wore g»ined by our suggeatious being carried out, 
they would at least prepare the way for some uniform syatem of hiatorio 
record in the array, the want of wbieh iii nearly all deparLments of the 
publio service, was telt and animudvi'rted on m the utrongest manner 
bj authoritiua like the late Lord Mucuuluy and Sir Harris KioboiaB, 
as it baa been by many others of Icsacr note both befuro and since. 

AsctZSI. 



CRITICAL NOTICES. 



Lodge's Peerage aud Bauonetaoe for 186T<. — If any hook can faiHy 
be described as an "institution," Lodge's Peerage may bfc so-called. 
It was first brought out in the year 1827, and as long as he bved Mr. 
Lodge raude It his most ai^sidiiuuij care to obtain the latest information ' 
direct from the members of tbo uristoorncy, thus giving a value lo tha 
work that none of the imitations now before the public eun poMsibly 
poBBesB. Since bis decease in 18HP, the work baa Ijeen carried on with 
equal core, and now the iilth annual volume is bei'oi'e us, corrected by 
the nobiliiy themselveu down lo the very day of publication. We have 
before now hud occasionally to point out shgbt changes of plan, all of 
them improvements, but we imagme that the limit has now been 
reached, aa wo, fur our own part, can not desire anything more satis- 

faotory, 

PuisT Help ih Accidzsts: Being a Surgical Guide, in the absence or 

before the arrival of Medical Assistance, for tbo Use of the Public^ 

especially for the Mcmljors of both the Military and Naval ServieeB, 

Volunteers. Tnivollere, &c. By Charles H. Scheible, M.D , Ph.D., 

Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. 

The ample title of this little work, which ia a neat, cheap pocket 
volume, with some filty clear illustrations, gives a lair idea of its 
nature. It is by no means meant to supoToede the services of the 
" medico," but, as lie may not always be immediately at band in the 
field, or in the bueb, or on ship board, it gives directions which even 
a cliild may understand, and which, if carefully followed, wil! generally 
allow of bis being wanted for without any increase ufsullering or dan- 
ger. Every officer is likelj', at some time or other, to have bis preseuce 
of mind ajid fertility and invention taxed whether fatal or non-fatal, to 
those under bia comraiind, and be cannot better prepare himself to meet 
such cases satisliictorily than by a careful study of tliis "first Help 
in Accidents." 

GuEEii Anthology, with Notes Critical and Explanatory. Trans- 
latod by M^or Bobert Gutbrie Macgrcgor. 

Some ten years ago lliyor Macgvegor pubhsbed a n-umbe? at 'j*.-,'k- 



m 



CRlTICAt. NOTICES. 



[Jam. 



lutiona from tlic Greeks; two years after he gave to the world a oollection 
of Epiliiphs; and now he haa given us n full hiilF^of tlie Greek Antliolof^, 
the study ofwhith, it seems, has bfeii bia " njktxntiori in ti hftrd-vforked 
life of uncongenial duties." He diBcluims the title of a Greek acholar, 
but he is evijently a Greek student, of no^Jmraon dogroe of industry, 
M our readers will allow, when we Bay tkit he hiis, in the volume before 
UB, fumiahed translations of more than 3,71)0 epigrama, oil every con- 
ceivable Bubjpot. Many to whom the Greek Anthology in the original 
is a sealed book, wfti be glad to get an idea of the treaHures that lie hid 
in its pages, and they may thank Major Mat^gregor for alTording them 
a lUilhfuT and forcible version of a collection, from which much of tha 
rnrreiit wit and wisdom of our days is only a " crib," and disfigured in 
the operation. 

Mil, StewjIHt's Intentions. Bt Frederick William Robiusoi), Author 
of " Gran Aother'a Money," &«. 3 vols. 

All wIM have been ehurmed by " Grandmother's Money," which is 
eqnivaluiit tn fiayingall its readers, will And the present work onp en- 
tirely to their mind. In fact several of the chnract^ra are the legitimate 
representatives of our old favourites. Ab is too commonly the case in 
life, the men of the novel are not particularly good spoeimens. of the 
genus, but tbey lind loviDg, trustful women who welcome them back 
when they are tired of roaming, and treat them far belter than they 
have deserved. Thia is particularly the case with Mr. Stewart, whose 
" intentions" seem often a secret to himself, and though he wins, and 
nft«rwardB forsakes the heroine. Bertha Casey, all turns out for the 
best, for BerLha is at length united to his far more nobio-niinded brother. 
Mrs, Kingsworthy has many points of resemblance to Gi-andmother 
Tresdaile, but she has nlao vices and virtues of her own that make her 
a distinct character, and the real relationship in which she atands to 
faer prot>!g^, John Kingsworthy Casey ia so cleverly masked that the 
interest ot the tale is preserved to the very last page. 

Blockt Tkmpest, By the Rev. J. C. M. Bellew. 2 vols. 

Mr. Bellew la known as an eloquent preacher, and a clever writer on 
many auhject.s but we believe that Ibis ia bis first ■essay aa a novelist. 
If Lis reception shonld be equal to hia merita, it will be far from his 
lasL He gives full scope tg the picturesqne diction in which he ao 
much delights, and ihougli lippeurauees are at first- tarribly the other 
way, the halter is at last htted to the right nock, and Blourit Tempest, 
the supposed murderer of hia unele, le vindicated before the world, and 
made happy with the woman of his choice, who has cliing to him, aa 
only women will iu the darkest trials, even to the brink of the scaffold, 
and there baa achieved hia deliverance. Why the murder was com- 
mitted, and b; whom, it is not our intention to tell, as this might de- 
priv^ho reader of the pleasui'e of learning it in the more powerful 
lan^Voge of oar author. 



The TiiBEE Watcubs. By W. G. Wills, Aathor of "Notice to 
Qait," &c. 3 vols. 

To reveal what the " Three Watchc.t" are, would be to disclose pre- 
maturely the cat-astrophe of Mr. Wills' last book. But, as iu bia 
Preface (now boeotning a not unusual feature in novels) ho explains 
that his purpose is to paint sea folk as they really exist, we may aay 
that the scene is principally on the desolate abore of Lancashire, and 
that the hero, Tom Frompton, is the son of a poor curate, who from 
the evil ejsamnle of Mosie Tonipkins, on old salt, acquires many of the 
bad habits of sea life, though he has a genuine loving heart in hia 
bosom. When a child, he falls in love with Mary Gowan, the pretty 
duuglitor of a rough old ciigiuoer, and though he i-oves about for many 



1865.] 



CRITICAL NOTICEB 



137 



u year, he settles down with her at Inst. Hia progrcBs is sometiniea 
relarUed, Horaetimee hel]Kiilhj- wber fharactore. as his fiither. theaimple- 
minded old narsun, his sister Deborah, Dr. Colon, who is Mury's ancle, 
and Willv Blnir (the type of the sm(Kith-a}K>keii scheming seiimati, oa 
Tom aiiil Moaie are oi'the rough and ready class), bat after he has 
married, his story is by no means ended. A falac report is sprond of 
a former wil'e being alive, poor Tom is harrassed, and aluys on shore, 
when hia ship is wrecked bel'oro hia eyes. He is deprived of his master's 
certificTite, lakes more than ever to driiikiii;;, and only eseapea the guilt 
of tnurdering his wife and drowiiing Dr. Colon and himself, throngh a 
variety of little uiatters that we do not care to mar in the tclUug. 
Suffice it to say tluit the hunihle Mnrk Antony, luckier than hia clnsaio 
prototype, finds redeni])tion at lust. The simile is our author'a, and 
therefore we use it. though it is ttixibly unjust to poor iiarj Gowan, 
to compare her to Egypt's famoua Queen. 

. ■ 

The DAT-STiji Propoet. By Mra. Alfred Allnutt. 

Sacred poetry does not often fall under our notice, but when it does, 
we ore bound to give a candid opinion on it. In this particular ease 
the duly h<-C0Tnes a pleasure, aa Mm. A hoa (rested her theme, John 
the Baptiali, in a loving and reverent spirit, and the has, by employing 
a variety of metres, avoided the monotony that too often attends a 
theme eitendiug over more than 2,000 lines. Her volume, which IB 
a small quarto, is very handsomely got up, and both eitornally and 
internally it is well fitted to grace the drawiug-room table. 

The Gold Mi.ve *.sn other Poems. By Harriet Eliza Hunter. 

The Bearish for gold lends Norman Grey to Au.stralia, and he en- 
counters "moving accidents by flood and field" in the pnrauit, which 
are told with spirit, and in pleasanlr measures. The same praise applies 
to thu minor poems, which take a wide range, both of subject and troat- 
lueut, and evmce a very creditable mae^tary of the divine tirl of Poesy. 



OBITUARY. 

General George Irving, on retired full-pay, of iho late Royal Irish 
Artillerv, died on NovemlHjr 2iliLd, at Balmac, near Kirkcudbright, aged 
82. He entered the service, December, X793, became Captain, July, 
I7tH ; Major, January', 180&; Lieu tenant- Colonel, January, 1812; Colonel, 
July, 183<1; Major-Gen erul, June, lf<a8; Lieu ten ant- General, November, 
1861; and General. December, Ittoti. He was formerly a captain in 
the Hoyal Irish Artillery, and retired upon lull-pay when that corps 
was broken up. 

Getientl Edward Buckley Wvnyard, O.B„ of the 58th Foot, died^TOi 
November 2-1. at 27 Gboster Street, S,\V.. aged 76. He entered the 
service December, 1803, became Captain, Januarj', 1808; Miyor, March, 
1813-. Lieutennut-Colonel. April, 1814.; Cclonel, July, 1^30; Major-Gen., 
November, 1841; Lieu ten ant- General, November, 1861; and General, 
Jannary, 1800 ; Colonel, 58lh Foot, January, 1861. He served with the 
Army in Sicily from 1808 to March, IfSlO, when he was severely wounded 
at the aftuck on Santa Maura, for which he subsequently obtained the 
Brevet rank of Major: he was also preiont and on the ataff with the 
force that occupied labia and Procida. 



^^■B 


■ 


138 


■" 


[Jan. ^^^I 


" THE EOTAL MILITA-RY COLLEGE. SANDHTJIIST. 


H 


The Ibllowiiig la tlie official list of tlie numes of Lha BuccesBful 


candi- ^1 


dates for tiduiiseion to the Eoyiil Militur^ College, Sanilhurat ;— 


^H 


Onln, Kfivpi- Indei >uin1>cr 


Mark! 


Oidrr. NiiiuTB, liWies 5un;bcr 


Uirlu. .^H 


1. Sinjthe, A.J-H. 


21 


7.117 


58. Cape, A. H. 


104 


2,808 ^^M 




9 


6,95a 


59. Willinma, E. 


54 


2.746 ^^H 


3. Brown, S. . . . 


93 


6.721 


SO. JohiiBtone, J. 


67 


^^H 


4. Symonda. F. C. . 
&. Blimdy. W. P. . 
6. I'oUock, A. J. . 


55 


6.336 


gjlHainilton, E.G. . 
jLiiiidoQ, C. P. 


11 


2.641 ^M 


121 


6,.V29 


22 


2.641 ^1 


26 


6.518 


63. Mitrtj-r. T. R. . 


89 


2,632 ■ 


7. Vinceut, H. A. . 


118 


6,-w;j 


M. Wobb. E. A. H. . 


32 


2.631 ^M 


8. Dojle. F. G. . . 


m 


a.:i:JO 


65. WallBrBteiii, E. M. 


13 


2.596 ■ 


9. Morshead, A. A. 


47 


6,320 


66. Lowe. V. F. K. . 


132 


2.512 ■ 


10. Torke, F. A. , . 


S5 


6.249 


67. WetheruU, W. A- 


92 


2,502 H 


11. FniBer, A II. 


125 


5,ti4S 


68. Beard, J. R. . . 


44 


2.S0Q ■ 


1-2. Symfl. J. G. . . 


25 


.1,719 


69. Griffith. H. W. . 


148 


2.484 ■ 


U. Pritchnrd. L. G. . 


12 


5,661 


70, Fitz i'Btrick, A. J. 


135 


2.4ti0 H 


U. Jenkins, T. M. . 


2 


5,535 


71. Cartwright. G. E. S 

72. Lacy, W. G. J. . 


. 39 


2.403 ^M 


15. Butler, J. . . . 


18 


5.259 


86 


2.391 ■ 


16. Woldron. H. C.A. 


20 


5.1U2 


73. Ellis, J. 0. . . 


105 


2,330 H 


17. Emson, H. B. . 


28 


5,006 


74. Cohen, J. C. 


97 


2.269 ■ 


18, Bellera, K. G. . 


108 


4,889 


75. Oheavers, H. 


74 


2.260 ■ 


19. Wright. 0. E. . 


4 


4,626 


76. Worelej, H. G. . 


15 


2.230 ■ 


20. WiUoughljy, C.S.P 

21. DevereTl, J.B. S. 


109 


4.749 


77. O-Brien. C. W. . 


127 


2.172 ■ 


36 


4,726 


78. Kilgour. H. . . 


37 


2,107 ■ 


22. Yates. F. V. B. . 


1 


4.669 


79. Wethenill. G. N. R 


69 


2,046 ■ 


^K S3. Maitland, P.J. . 


61 


4,656 


80. Biidgen, G. 


99 


2,030 ■ 


^V Si. PctccvhI. G. G- a. 


138 


4,524 


81. Jonee, 0. C. 


116 


2,002 ■ 


26. Bichara=on, G.W.W. 76 


4.512 


62. GaII,H. B. . . 


134 


2,001 ■ 


2«. Gordou, G. E. . 


64 


4.463 


83. Buetow, B. W. . 


3 


1,846 ■ 


27. Swelunbam, H. H. 


84 


4,442 


84. Pigotl, A R. 


41 


1.140 ■ 


28. Stockley, J. 0. . 


i;i3 


4.419 


85. Carthow. E. 


114 


1.623 ■ 


2R. Smith, F. J. W. . 


142 


4.38-1 


86. Davidson, G.P.DeE 


. 42 


1,761 ■ 


30. LiK-y, C. K. . . 


27 


4.376 


87. Wilkinson, C.Sl.Lo 56 


1,756 ■ 


ai. Towor, A. . . . 


1*1 


4,325 


88. Diiiwiddie. L. 


24 


1.719 ■ 


32. Munsoi-gh, 0. W. R. 23 


+.297 


89. Dunlup. T. J. M. 


120 


1,638 ■ 


33. Ricbardfioii, II. W. 


4:1 


4,121 


90. Bashlbrd. G, P.M. 


70 


l.&i'? ■ 


84 Egerton, J. F. . 


52 


4,070 


91. Cooper, KB.. . 


80 


1.523 ■ 


35. Smith, H. F. . . 


75 


4,0M 


92. GariUnor, R. V. . 


141 


1,519 ■ 


3iS. Lydinrd. A. C. G. 


111! 


4.i.>4.5 


93, Jackson, W H. H. 


90 


1,512 H 


37. Ingliam, J. . . 


118 


4,023 


Queeo'B Cadets. 


^H 


K 38. Buriic-U, W. H. . 


5 


4,0U7 


1. Mttinwaring, G. 


136 


3,747 ■ 


^V 8S. Becd, W. A. 


53 


3,984 


2, Derman, R. H. 


57 


3,629 H 


" 40. n.irnrord. (\ D. . 


117 


3,1180 


3. LewiH, T. L. 


126 


2,430 ^U 


41. Williy. A. E. 


14 


3.952 


4. Balia, A. G. 8. . 


88 


2,561 ■ 


41!. Towiisend, F. R. D 


145 


.1,818 


5. Ring, w. P. a. . 

6. Taylor, F.F.W. . 


101 


2,317 ■ 


43. Lindsay, 0. A. . 


46 


3.798 


50 


2,231 ■ 


41. Hoivurd, F. . . 


(i2 


3.749 


7. Saunders, F. H. 


35 


3,194 ■ 


4S. netkett,J. R. 


113 


3,726 


8. Newbury, E. N. 

9. Campbell. G. F. 


87 


2,066 H 


m. Butler. V. R. . . 


51 


3.593 


45 


1,694 ■ 


47. WilliiiniB. W. 


79 


3,528 


lU. Miliar. J. A. 


77 


1,594 ■ 


48. Ruck. A. A. 


33 


3,491 


11. Price, A. J. 


143 


1,512 H 


49. Powell, G. H. 


17 


3,241 


Cadets nominated by 


the 


Sccre- ^H 


60. Johoatoiie, W. A. 


111 


3,138 


tary of State for India. ^H 


61. Chftlmers. F. N. 


82 


3.063 


1. Rind.-A.T.S.A_ 


59 


3,473 H 


52. Tiirnbull, A. W. 


102 


3.049 


2. Crawford. H. 


60 


3,789 H 


53. MoberlT. W. H. . 


112 


3.ii4« 


3. Shnw. B. L. . . 


72 


3,34« ■ 


5t Warifig. W. F. . 


115 


3.016 


4. Bobertsou, F.W. 


139 


3273 ■ 


55. Httmer, J. P. 


121) 


3.'d4 


5. MalUndaiiie, J, J. 


149 


2.8.33 ^M 


56. Goi-don, W. H. . 


94 


2.880 


6. Kitson, J, B. 


9& 


2.732 ■ 


£7. Boikfld, S. E . 


IM 


2,812 


7. LipLroU, J. 


38 


2,241 H 




^^ 


^^^ 




^^ 


^^^^J 



STATIONS OF TnE ROYAL NAVY IN COMMlSSIOl 



{Carrrcifd to 27lh Drcrmttr.) 
With the liaten of Commitsion ofihc o^cm in Cotnmand. 



Alionkir, Bl, ic, Comdrc. P. Cruntt, C.B., 

. Arl.Ulee, m, ic^ Cspl. E. W, VmiitUrt, 195<l, 
[ C..»Pi 
Aroin. Hwji. Ship, Mm.-Com. D H. SpMt. 

AAte, 30, l'riithLi>Lr Sliiii, for KnVJil Itwrrri:, 
t'aill. D. S. dc It fliill, lljlll, Sondrrlnnil 

I (Artingj Sheemdi 

^Adv«n(iiF?« i, ar. Imnp aifip. Titpt. C. L- WuclJE- 
lovr, IHM, pnflirnlHr aervi-'e 
AilTlce, 6l vn , SircoDd Mrulcr Com. M. C. Kiiy- 

LAIIWIla, I pud.. ^lulTCaai. Wclrb, IMS, I|iniiil 

fUHto, S, n. in.. Coin. W. Q. BiKbf, IMn, 

S.E. Cout nf AmrrirB. 
jUcTt, 17, IF. Com. H. C, UJijnidie, tBH, 

PhfiSc. 
Alurrmr, 1. sF.^nboat.Licnt.-CuiD. A, R.I1li>lin. 

IHSO, Cliidn. 
lutclil|ip, 3, iL tc»., Lirul-Cgm. C.O.D.AUill»- 

huiu, IMS. Cmh «( Arrics 
[Arrhcr, iS, tc. C«pL F. Mulni, (1881) Cwul 
f of Ainm 
L Araup, C, Btcua Vij. Cdm. n^ L. Round. 1A63, 

China 
Ariel, B, ir- Coo. W. C. Clupinui. IBM, 

PoiluDDnEli 
AjIi. Kcui Arliiiinl GmriF Rlliol. dpt. H. 

ChlLl.ra fB.laM.GuuJSliliiodlaB'ii, 

FuiUuionlb 
AuuniDrc, «, tt. Oini. II, H, WooUcomlie. 

1800. putirulur KFTJce 
Aaron. U, K. CnpL Sic f. L. klETCIintjck. Kt., 

LKt, pwtirulor KTvire 
BUD, M. •».. Sun-Cj^m. J. W. Weill. 1Mt3, 

Barrnniula. fl. iF. vpe. Cam J. TVArcj, ISC^, 

NortL Amrrimnnd Wrrti Indiot 
Bunu, 3], IC, CipUln H. Boyi, lUB, 

CUbi 
Blirk £w1'. >, Hd , Slaa-Com. Whillfer, 

ISMTwoolwlch. 
Bluk Piince, 41. ii-. Cnpt. Lard V. 11. Kerr. 

(I SMI DcTonporl 
Bluer. 9, Liinjr.-Coca. FrontD, l&i, CtuitincJ 

Sprrico. 
BIcDbeiiD, 60, gr. Capt T. 11, Motno, IStS, 

Cmil lioBld, Mdfuid 
Boipliin, «7. K . [L,or-Adinl. Ilii' Kiin C G J, 

B. Elllul. C.B , Copl. C. A. Cniuplpdl. IMS. 

S.E.CoMlipf .ImmrK 
BoidnoFi], iO, Com. G. S. Nnrrii, 1M9, TmiD- 

in^ ship, Suuihintproii 
EouDccr t ic. pinbont, l.fi-'Ut.-CiHii. T- W. 

Lcwii, IS^, rl[inn 
BrllliAni, IS, Com. J. E. Dktrord, IBM, Ninl 

Besenc Dril] ^ihip, Dnnike 
BriUhiuB, B, Cadet Tnmiuf Ship. CupUin 

R. A.Fovril, C.B., llUi, TtaRnionth 
BoUdoK, a, iI. tea.. CBpl. C. Vtkt, IWV. Nonb 

Ameno uid Weal Indlfv 
Buiiird, I, If. EUn'iDiiI, Lleut-CoDi. J. C. 

Ticker. IBM, CUim 
BuBrd. S, M. m., Cum. T, H. U. Uutin. 

IS5>, Hnrth AmiqiDi nnd Wnl lodlM 
CidBiu, 11, K.. Cii[i. A' C. Gordon, i&H. 

Challuiin. 
Cuolindcc, ^nnciy Ship, Cupt C.I. F. Ewut, 

lUfi, Di'Viinport. 
Ciuiitli™. II, tc.Corn.T. M. Jonfi.lBEfl, Pniide 
Cuifipui, NqvDl BDrrai±. CupL. C II. Hity, 

(18691 llfvoiUKin 
Ciinduc, K . 3, Llni(,-Coin, T„ H. WUkiuun. 

1>3AQ, Mrdlternncun 
Cu«loI. 32. Cuin. C. K. Jsrlion. IBSA, H«v»\ 

ftcHrre Drill %l|i. ShIihU 



ChiUeni^cr. i1. ac. J. J. KrDDcdy, C B.. I^^D. 

North Aiptnnt unO W, IndJHfOhlrred Uonk'l 
Chnnlideer, 17, ac. Com, ). E, f . Ki»t, IM*. 

Urdjr#mmeiiD 
CbonlidH, ai, K. Capt. E, W. Tiuooor, 1867. 

Frirlllr (onterrd home] 
Clin, K. ac, Capt N. K. B. Tumour. 1M», 

FDCldc 

Cloim. 3, ge.pubcat, Ueal.-Com.J. S-Tonlln. 

lH:i6, ctiine 
CorkulHre. t, IC. LlDDt. Com. R. K BOlton 

llfissi. Meiliicrnmenn 
CMkrlmrei, 3. ic Eunfanl, lieiit.'CDn. E. U. 

IhijiEll. inbB, Cbids 
C'>luiii<>inr. 4. ac, Com, T. Le II. Wird, \Bf\, 

ran fir' 

ConqucnK, Tfl, et., Cjipl. W. G, Luard, 1BB7, 

JaiiuD iL 

CnqiirilF. *, ic, (Smniuidnr A. 6. B. Bse, IMS, 

Ciiiia 
Coraioraot, t. le. Com. C. M. Docklo, 1B«0, 

Clillia 
CurdeJiii.U, K, Com. J B. Scoll, IBCn, Noith 

Aiut'ncfl and Wcat Indin 
Coroiaandel. B. at. trt., lieuL Com. "D'A. A* 

Dmnr. IBSS, Clilna 
CUancli, Sn. IT.. CgpU W. R. RnUu^ 1BB7, 

HcdEEtrininean 
Cmiberi-Dd, H, Capt W. K. Hair, C B.. 1SB3, 

rfc«mn}> aliip, Sbemicft 
Cntiima, Zi, Cuiiiniodnre Sir W. Wiaimpii, 

Burl , C.R. .tallralia 
Cmlcw, B. It Cum. J S. Iludim. IWll, S. E. 

Conat or Ainmcu (i>rJe[t]il lioiiiri 
CjBwt, t. K. Con.. W. a. Tlr Kiiutjiw (1W3) 

North America and Wral Indira 
PBdalna, IS. Com. E. tSrld, lUI. Ntval 

B«cmi IWll aliip. B™1ii) 
Din. fi, ar. Cam. 1'. U'. Hjdiuidl, IIWO) Ciwl 

II r Africa 
Pulicr. 3, al. Tpa.H C4ini. P. Be Saumaree, 1HG4 

CI14JI01'] lalanJi 
BauDlleaa. 41, ar. dipt. J- N. Stranjc, I8M. 

C^iaal Guard, Riicr 1luDil.Er 
1>». 1, at. siure Ship, MBB..Cam. O.Biyraniid, 

le&B, tiarliculnr acrrire 
DrTEncF. IS. ar Cipl. A. FblllinoK, USD, ditn- 

Del ii^qoddroa 
Derualulicn, 6. >l. 113.. Com, v. K. Julhflc. 

KiS, Faring 
Donepl, Ml, ac, Dipt, J. A. Vajnlei, 18Ai. 

DotfrrI, 3, ar. julilwial, bieul Cum. W. F. John. 

•Oh, 1^5. S,£. CiiikBt nt AntHlirq 
i^mnt'dniT, ac. ■torc.ahip. MHat-Com- A. Brown, 

(166«. njrtimlaraemcf 
tlnhe of Wellinftnn, It. Bitrnck Ship, OapU 

J, ?<rrconihe, l^&9, PrirlaniniLth 
Donfiin. Bl, ac, Virc-Adn>. ^ir Jama Hott. 

K C B , i:i-pl R. UlbtuD, IMS, N, AdiciIh 

auit Wfal ImUci 
FJ>|[le, M. roiiimnnllrr W. E, FithcT, iDGfl, 

Naval tlevrrvp l>rLll 9lilp. Ijverpcol 
Erllpse, t. ac.. Cum. E. IL Firmanlle. liUH. 

Autltuliji 
EdFar.Tl.ar Ui. Adml S C Darrea.C B..C»nt. 

G T, F lloriibc, I ee3. Cbajinel Squadron 
E^monT. rcci-i*ihfi ihiti. Ciipt t. 4- B. Cmu^nffl, 

IBTiS. Kill iliOaniiru 
Einn, pHil. tliia.-Coui. A. BaBlalon, IKH, 

riprlamnLilh 
Eurhjiiitri>B>, ], il. Admlnilt; Ymbl. ^ttH- 

Com, J, E HpLldT, IWflB, pjirticniar aw^u c 
EnlerBiiic. », jc, Cmii. C. J. EimUtj, IWl, 

f^hunnci Squndron 
Eat.ai.ac., Capl.J. P. Luce. ISM, ImMcli-^ 



1« 



BOfAl 



^HMlBfiinif. 



FAtTp 



Eorvului. 36. ic VWe Aclnil Sir A. L. Kujicr. 

'KC U , Cape W, M |k>4flL. \!Ha. CliUkJi 
Kuril k'lit. Kuniicrj aliip, CupL A^ C* lU'y, 

€.B . la^li. PurumiJiLrU 
iWy, tfi. yiirlil, ttniler Ui Victnm jiiiiL Albert 

YHton. 17. ir- Ciiui, G. 11. I'Brkift. jlPSV,) 

Puiny. -i, dpJ KiuLerJ f^rarlclt, PLirtimunlh. 
Fhvii. k. 17, Cinn C, J. WMj.lflft), A. Apicni-P 

FoTrl, A. Tnibih^ Hne. Meut--C4mi. E 

nieftj, ft, It- vtt- Ijciil -Cam. G. It. WiLkinion, 

iBfri. MpjliLrTniii^n tkon'cY) 
FiTroatrn. lU fi^s., Hthtf Ciim. t, W, ThuI, 1S&3, 

l''Up.>n\ 4-3. Cainmodure' U' Dnnlop, C.B-, 

WiKilnrirH 
Kuiicr. ? ic ^nlKMtt, LiifiiL. Com, &. Entnq, 

1HE17. Cliinn 
Fcirmlil-Wr, 3ft, Tjc*- AdnifrJ Sir V. TuIIkiC, 

K I R , Cjix>L Julin Kalfirrd, \^i8. ^brvntat 
yorwflnl,^. Br Uienl Com- ll>c Unn- H- D, TrfH- 

Htls, l6Afi, Pmrillc 
Fm, 3, ir« sturt-alniit SlAff-Cam. MonBrty, 

(iMrt-ll PJirticiiIjir anvicc \S'<nk]iiJrh 
I'ToiJcnrt WilliaiTk, 71. h CiinULn E. CudiL, 

L^T, CfmaUriiiLiO, F'LnlAiicT 
GnUTu, 3e, tc. CiLji K. Mh^uiTD, iBfrfi, >{iflTi 

A.ai7nr0 riml Wrat Tndji:* 
Od>Mr, It. T*s. Com A,T. Thrapp. (ltl&8) 

pnnLriUor trniM. 
Oibn.LU^ ei, IC. Ca[iL K. Coat?, Igb4, M(di- 

If^rranean 
QIdbv, diiJ Mutter G^ Norlli, QuiimHtovn 
Glnitinlnr, fi,*l, -ti , Capt V. II. J^Jtortl, IB^rfl, 

piirTif ulu- acrrtce, 
Gmpiilcr, 2. cF- Liout. Com, E- TL Ttmej, 

LHfry, I'ariac 
Gni«l>i>Pl>er, i!. u, srnnlnal, lA. Com. Q, J), 

Moruil, IBd7, Diinn 
Griflon, r^, er. Com, J- L. Ypsiy, \%iS,(Lot ASr'iai. 

GmwlFr, i, K., LicDt-CDDL Ddnt. ISfri, HnlJ- 

llaiidT, I. It, vrs,. InitinL Com. R. P, Montray, 

Ydm. CiHif of Afrim 
Etartly. ?, ic. KUnN, Ii'^ut. Djni, K, H. A. 

flJirrirr. IT. v. (.iini V, . II. Fmviek, leM. 

AuBlrhha'orilercd himte) 
ILutinEB, JV^ tc, ttvnrAitminilSir L T, Ionc«. 

K.C.B-, Cfl|jt J CiiHien. lhi»7, tjutcnitown 
liavoirk, 3.1c. ^m1>t, Lti-uL t. BrirkLry, ]84ii, 

riijna 
llaD^lily. 3. te giuibonl, Lieut.'Caia, UainvnT' 

inf, Climn 
H«wl(f,flif. Br. Capl E.ITtalhpolE, 1SS2, CoaiI 

Gaanl. QnrimtLowh 
UtfVir, iJt. H^-, Capt. l'»i'd),C-n„ I SA5. Chaiinul 

Hnprr, t. ii', *li>ffi al'ipi Mut, Com- A. F. 

llaxer. lAb\, ChrDia 
HniFfiith, rcc- jliip, IWnr Adm. H T .iuaTJn, 

C.B., Com. K. R- Kbrvt-v. lbA9, MnJLi 
Ifigltflyrr. 30 Bc„ Citp. H. S. Paaloy, IjHOOp 

PrtrlamOulli 
BiAi'<l4iyBi fl, V- troop iLip, CiipUin E, Lnr), 

rLHfi^jp Ponijtiouth 
Hjilrv, L tt. 'ea-H Cam. A. L. UimirlL. Ir^M. 

MvdJiFrniutnh (■Dn'L-)) 
Imp1>»Ue- St, Com. E. L. U. Hj.y, iHCd, Tnun- 

ib^ Sliip. DcTOtport 
Imprptnrtlilr, "fl, LTnpI. 1-". S. TremltH (lBfl3j 

TrpiniDR SIkip, iVvEinpon 
iDdun. Ksir Admiral T H. C. St^r^iid? C H-. 

Ciipl. W. I'lilitmnatoTie, C.II., Ia&,1, I>4:Eoiij>nn 
IqdiiiLn. % K- *lorc •hip, Mui. Com. t, 

C. T- Youel. t^>. pirticDkr ■crricc 
laaolppl, 2. ar. (lUiilit. Litbt- Cuiu G, T, nifn. 

tbi, IHA«,Cliuka 
iDYHiiearar, S, it^ vu. Lint- Com. C- G. F> 

ILbdwIh, 1SS3, Coul at A^ioi 



IcfuiiliMf, as. ic , Cnft. T R, rUcLHn. l^Gl, 
Ciii<4l Gufirtl. T^utttanipl-iiL- 

IBAU, SLi'rni Lrttnt 
Jmrknll, J. ir ta Lutil -Cab. II. U. N, 1*JV4, 

Iti^b, ^c1ft^l] Fulienui. 
Jnsfuf, b. tv C-JDi, W-J, II- GniliW flflfll) 

Cuual [i( A/n™ 

Keilj-Pl 1, K., Li(ul--Com- Dunlop, \8b7 

Chiim • 

Li'.iJKtcr, ;(9, tr. CarunioilarJ? T- llnrvcy. PBCiflo 

LiiDAl, A. &[. vrt- Lidil-CoflL II. I. CtflUii, 

lH"i, >Jjr^riini 
Ut, n, Bf, I.iL-qLCom.C, G- r™«, IWJ, tcndfir 

Ui tUiitlF^iifthrj COD>t ur KMn 
Lrnpurdj IH, iL- Teurl, Cnpt- C I'. UcUt. IdGB, 

ChLiirk 
LcVfn, S, acrcw ^riiTi vruel, Ll. Com. M. P. 

KiK'Viii ^^tii^^ CliJnu 
LilTr^, ^0. tr Cnptam G. FarhcT. l^^ 

MediicrTHEioiik 
Lightnifif. 3, ir. tea., Staff-Cooi.T. W-Sullv^n, 

IWS, Penibnikc 
tlly, 4. »c. Com. A. C. ¥. TlpDpBfEO, 1^7, 

Nnnh Amnim und Wrtt Indjii 
UvernouL^ lib. ST., Copt. K- Uiubert, IfiCE- 

llcHOiipiprl 
Lioh. 61^ Bc CuptiiEn A. Firrjubiit. IBifl, 

C'lfiBt tiuBTiI, tiri'iifinrV 
Ljm.tP, af^Coiik. It. A riirr. l&fll, PurlBnuiLlh 
MituDiirr. in.Cqpt.J. G. BkUord. (|0iWMH.'Cit> 

AJOD 

Ma^i'iiniDr, 10, tt. ?■■&. Ciipt. AV. Armylage, 

ZhTiO. MtdilarmiiFqn 
Mninllu. *r. M^i. a»in II. W. Damrll, IFOfl, 

ClUDB 

MiirTin, 13, Tmmln* Uri-, IJful.-Coio. W- II 

llti|i<jn, lHi>7, lltvunporl 
Mc-Ipn,fl,ftt t«.Diiu.lVArfy-'4.Pr«tnn,(|9 ''J 

Norfh A'UMim 411(1 Wml Indin 
Mcduin,a, It. vM.Mui.-Djin.J. ILAIlMxd, Ifl&l, 

^LitfcmtfiB 
MreuQR:, Ol>, Cnpifua G- WAlcLaaw, 1A&(| 

MrdEturniiip-.Lihr 
Miraiidji. U1, nc Cnpi. R. JadkinB, C-B-, lBfi7, 

Aiiiirnliii ri>idi-i'cil liDiiiti) 
Mullrt.^r.d.tum.CH- SjmpwD 1@(I0. Coaat of 

Afncn 
Nui'tiT, fl, BlUTe ship, Mhh Com- G. R<<ja, itibH, 

CtllIdD 

Kertiu, rt, BiinB drnot. Staff Com, C, B. I*. 

Forljdfl. HC-'I, Vftlptirniio 
Ninilile. &. lender lu T>uuf]Ui, LirtiLr-Com F. W. 

Ll-tl]4iwrB» Mutt, fiaftii fmiveicn und Went 

] i>djE« 
0[<o«Htir]i4 3. tc » L]BuL,-Com. St. JoliD, LSB7, 

CEimji 
Orrat'^H J', tc. Capl> A. 11. Curdbcr, ISM. 

KmiT luiiii'iBiid Cupd of G-h»l| Flop^ 
GrlaiiJo. Vi. tc. UpL G, G. Kbiidi^jph, ,iau 

McllTk'rriiiiMii 
DroDtra, 3, af., |r<ii-ip ililp, Cnpt, U- W. Hir«, 

IHflS, phrlLiiilir tcr^icc 
Oilrtrm:, tl yaclii, huJT Com. G, TI- K. Bower, 

mi>^. piiTUrulnr Bcr\iLF 
tiBprcv, if, 4, Com- W, Miu^ea, Iflflff, Cldni 
Pnitdom, ». K. Com, V. F. Riutou, iHfll, 

C-iiu( of Afim 
PnntErloim, 11, tf. Cum. F. Purrii, O^^D)* Eait 

IndbL-i nod Cajie r^f Good Hopf 
Pi'lirun, I?, tr. C<gni. H. W. ComTicf, 18ST* 

MnlitiuniiLeiiii, 
PelciniH, ai, Bt Capl. W. H. UmwcH, IBfiT, 

CIllllA 

Pcml>tnki-, TiU, tc. Coiumodore A P. H^drr, }SiS, 

Cupl. J- O. Joluivru- L^Q, Coiiit Guard 

Hnrwifh 
Frnutiin, &, oi: , (tender to I'ribrpm Iloynl) 

Lieut -Com. E & J. GnrfurEli, lrl57, taa\ 

Indin and Cnpc priiixtd Un^ic 
Pcrwui, i;, BTpComC. E, St^vuM, leflO. CiiUiB 
Piilcrti, II, ar. Com. K. Mndden, ia&6. Noiih 

AmmLaund WeiL Imbio 
FbdCtoD. ;<fl, IC. Capt Q. Le G. Rnwytnf, tHfia 

North Amrrira and WrB[ Indira 



imr 



ItOTAL KAVT IS COMJITSSIoy. 



■w 



Plmbew 3S, ii_ CiptiiD T, D, A. Fortwtne, 

lSs7, Mcdilrrmncmt- 
Pufniv, a, >( I. Mmltr Cam. W, W. Vine, 1801 

iViiUnimiTh 
FlDvcr. A. ic. Vam lilt Iloa A. L. Oat}, 18BS, 

Nnrth AiiterLi'R Find Wffll Indies 
Parcu|iiDe, 3, It. let. SIhE-Ciuii. Culler, 1RG3, 

Pmidnil. 1«, Cgm W. MouUI, ]g5&. N'mi! Rc- 

Krve Ihill Ship, London. 
Pnnre rin-jin, M, ic . fiiipi. G. O, WiDa, C B. 

IHtn, C'liHjuie] Sf^uhiifm 
Prinreu Alire, t, it. vca. Mut.-Cnm. R. C. 

I'JiT. IDSi, llcioniwft 
PlilK'eiiiClnirtotIc U. CgiitHln M. S. NaDolll, 

ISA'E. Rri-ekrEEiff SJli(l, ILuat Knng 
Frinim Rovnl, 73. le. Rur-Ailin. B. Bt V 

Kio{. C.U.. Ci^l. W. e laaa, t8«l. 

Kul Ihdivuid CftpeorGooH Hojic 
PnKlii, 3, Ciipt. J. C. Prevuit. Isil, Limt. 

Com. HiHi J. B, Vinaii. IHtB, GibtiJlor 
PvjcJip. 9, A teiuel, LieQt.-CDm. R, Steine, 

1851, MtditnmncBn 
Fjlidei, 31, K Cnpt A. W. A. Honl, Nodh 

AucheAijui A\cAt Indies 
luekant, 4, te. ana. C R, F. Boiei, teso. 

Ckiai 
lUur. IC., 11. Com. 1. N, T. i^ukc iiH. 

V«dih!rnineBn 
Rimui, S2, K. Cnpl. Coiint Gldrlien, rlB^tl). 

porticnlar Bemre 
RiDgcr, Ik. tr. Com. W. E, Gnrdon, 1861, Cout 

ur Africa 
Ruiid, II, K Com. C. T. jH|[»'l8aO; C, ofAnic* 
lUtller, 17, tc. Cini, 3. W. Wclili, IbSJ, Cliin" 
BftllnnnVc^t, sc. Coinmuilurfl A. P. E Wilmot, 

C.B. Conllaf Afnen 
Bawrrli, 4, ee. CipL A. Wibuhnnl. IrlGI, 

Chiuinci ^niidraa 
BalRuiec. in. sc Cspt. W. C. CliJinilierliiln, 

IHnil. ^ttrditerrnnrui 
Bmenje. 73. «■. Br -Ad. 11. B, Yrlverlon. CD,. 

C»pt Hon.F. A. Kdtcj, IdGII. Mf^ilrrnLni'in 
Silemin, a. K., Qnii. J. WanI, le!^if. Cliuia 

Sent (flur^ry) 
Binit^u. 17. ir Com. Hon. M. 11. Ni'lwn. IHf^S, 

Infi^. North AumriRA and U'eat Indies 

inrdered home) 
RMorvii. II. IT., Com L. II. Vcritiinnp, lidiO, 

NorTIi Arjkerici heiiI We^t Ilidlc4 
Bnj»l Adclniilf, as, Adnil. Sir C, H. Pre- 

nunllr, K.CII. Cupl. t'.li. f Scjmonr, C.U. 

IK" I, IVvOHLKJFt 

RoTnliil. II, ic. Com. E. J Fanird, |1MIJ 

N, AmcHcn Nnd Wt*l lnili« 
lotBlOnir^, 70. tc. <^a^i- U- de Cuari^)' IS!!^, 

Coutcuord Kinesioit'n, ihilrlm, 
B^ 0*K. St, IC Cu|>l. F. A. CuuplicU, IMt, 

Ucdir^TTUprmi 
Rornl Sovereitiin, fr, u^., Forlquoutli 
wtniJindflr. 4, i1, vti-, Com. Ihc llou. J, 
' C'lmetfie, 18111, AustmJ'i laoiri'y) 
anhmii. I, It. '» . Com. F. tl, Sutlle, 

triWI. pqrljculjr tecvirr 
SUellJtr. :'l, "■ I'.ipi s :«, L. CioBon. nat, 

A. k Cintl of .\iiirrirjl 
fkbitn.CHptiuuW Liiniiji, c.n., law, Pemhnikc 
SfTltbi, il, K Calit. IL. W, Courlctin)', IHoD. 

Chliw 
Bnlirh. S. TrAining Bnr. I,i<'«t4:um Han, I. 

T, Kliuuinrii'i', laSU, P'lrtantoolli 
fl0tli|taf>a'""i| BecelMii^ SEiiEi, CcLpt. J. K.Cwk- 

tnrn, IMO, C"tn: "fHoHl Ilnpi' 
Scttn, », u. C<ioiiiii<a,in! ^ B Moni',<ior, 

CkiM 
tkuHiKk, 1. tr. Un>i..Coiii. Stanton. IBAJ. 

HtihnJea (aunevj 
SkUBm. St, H. C'lit. 0. J. Jon«. (lUi) N, 

AmuFumuid Wcml Indra 
S1ianiakoni«r. fi, af , LwHt.-CDm- ClaTehng, 

IHI7, Bnill 
Shfldfute, 2. tr. ^riUMt, 1,leut.,Coni. John 

N«I, ItIM, fl. t, CuuL ut Aiiirtiiii 
HhcvwaUr. II. K. Cimi, R. G. Pou^bi, 18110. 

Paciftc. 
SII1IM7. 1. IE. EiinbOal. Lieat-Con. W. )' Lee, 

18U, Clima 
SHp. 9, IC.. Llrut-.i'niD Fncke. IH.'Mt. Oilnii 
Mdpi. b. w l.'.mi. A. a. ». UattUDOioliF, IMI. 

Cnut of A (Vin 
Spaunw. (. ■( t>,q,, I,, r Johm, ISfll CiMiai 



Spordircll. 6, ir. Com. C. F. Coltsm, 1b8I, 

Coaal uf \fritTi 
Speedy, 1, )canl>oia, Fdai,.Cum. C. Hume)', IBdl. 

CliJiDnrl lajMnili 
Spltltr, ■!, M. (unbonl, Lii'iil, Corn. E. A. T. 

Sttil,l,s, 183.1. il.F. Coailaf Alncnra 
Spnjiulv. It. 1111 , Hut -Coui. G- iltcu, (ading) 

Purti mouth 
Squirrel. H, Trsinine Brig. Lirat.-Com. T. K. 

lindvin, 1697. Uenm^ 
SI. r-rorgv. 73. K. CniR. K. B Bin IB6S, 

Coival Onart, FalmoiUh 
Stoonrli, -1, IC., Lient.-Com. J. S. KcDla ItiU, 

Cliinn 
St. Vlnrent, W, Tmining ship, Com. 9. I. 

GrriJIe, 1840. Ponanwilh 
Steadv. ft. K. Com. Hon. W. C. Talbot. IWI. 

hortit America and Weat Indiea 
Slork. 2, gunboat, [jrul.-t'ni,i, E. Ponlder, 

Tender In llic KTLcellent, PortBuiuiltb 
Strotnholi, li.il. vei .Com. A, Fhilitie, IB6U, S.E. 

CoiuT of Aajeru'a 
Slyi.il. It vM. Cnpt. the Hon. W.J, Ward, 1841, 

Xorth Ameriea tnd Weat [ndica 
Supply, S ic ftture slnp, StalT Com. C. Bavden, 

L8fl4. liHTtlculai Hemcfi 
Surpriar, 4. ic. Com, O. Trjon, 1800, Medl- 

tirnini'fln 
Sutli'j, 'io ne., Bcar-AJmL 1[f»n, J, Denman, 

CnptainT, T. Ciiqde, ISSfl, PonBc 
8»»ili,w, ». IC, Maat. Com. £, Wild), ISASi 

Climji und .l:kpan (Biirvey) 
Tamar, 3, >r troop slilp, Cipt. F.^H. 9tlj1tn|[, 

ISfiO. particubii' aervirt 
TirWr. 30. ac. Cupt. J. M. Hayei, ISU, 

China (ordered Imiot} 
Tenor. 14. sr. Ciipt. J. F. B. Wainwnght, ISU, 

Brmindn 
IrnfiiaBf, 70, ar, Cnpt. J, BariMe, C,B., 

|N.'E, CiiialGunrd. Qneen'a Firtv, N.B. 
Tribune. a3, k. Ciipt. Lord (JiUltli, 18ft9, 

I'urlflo 
Tnni'i he. 16, Coin, W. I. FiiDnid. 18.14, 

.\Mini Ittai-rve ilnllShip, Hartlepool 
Tniinihi. Z, sr . Lirut.-Coai. Crogli, ISfJ, 

Chiiiinel Hco:idraEi 
Trilnii. ■<-., ^, Lieul.-Coin. K. II. Napier, lal>T> 

t^ El. Coiifll of AmeiLm 
Urgj-nT, 4, ,r, troop ablp, Cupt. S. O. HcDder- 

aon, IHO^. p:inLcul:ir service 
Valor'ius, Ifi. Bt. vi^„ IjBpt. C. tj, Fanyt^, 1^7, 

(.''spi'of (iood llulic 
Vidoruianil Alher-t. sL-rim varfht. Cunt. H.S H. 

Priim Li'ioiui^en. K,!. A (iBiMI.I rnrtsniontll 
Victory. I J. Admiral Sir Michael ^uyiiirjur, 

i: C II. CaiitiiD truneii ^nll, C.B , (1818) 

PoEtiinriulEl 
Viftucio. 11]^, sc., Vice Adm Robert Smart, 

K II . I.'i>|ibiin P. a. UowliuouKh, 1«», 

^ii^iliiermncan 
Vigiliiiii, i. 10., C'lin W. R. Miiliton, IBit, 

Knqt Indi'a null Cu|>t nrr.ond H'ipfl 
Viudlctl'i:. 9101-- 41110, Uua.-Cuui. J, Cntuju, 

LB&r iLTUiindo Po 
VImico, n, si xrt. C»m. C. P Palmer. iBld 

.\iirtli America nnd Wesl lndl« 
\niA. -i, a. 1. Mild Com, II, »', Allen. I8US, 

WlKllWLCh 

Vuii':Lii. I), le. trDO|>>hin. Cupt A. C. Strode IMS 

tiast indiea nnd Ciuiia, paiaagr home 
Woiidi-rtr, 4. >r. Com. U. C. £ynii.ar, [Sit. 

Medittrmntun 
Wup, 11. XT. Ci|>i Vi. BfimliED (Isnl) F.ut 

Indifa and Ciipe at Good Hope 
Vcaicl, 'J, ac. teunlkutbt. Ljcut- Con. H. 0, 

Hrde, 18til, Clrina 
Vclli'iliy. 7'i. Ciqitiun W. I[. Stewnrt. C.B 

USt, Cliulliani 
Wucr. 0. il- V <^Di. A- H. J. Johuitund^ JStO, 

Meititemuiebn 
WUitlirr It. ta., Msal..C4iu. G, Brucliiiiu, 

\1tt. Sheer nrii 
Wliich»rt«. 12, llnU Sihip tor Naval Beaerie, 

Com. C J. UaK^ur I81>i, Abeidieli 
Wiilieriiic, ai. ac, <:a|,i, F. B, 1» Uoiiey, 

1X67, N. Aniericn anil Wot liidim 
Wooiliocll, 1, tc, Urnt.-CL.in. Adumi. lojj 

Ciiiiin 
WvE. !!, ac alorr-ahip Slafl Cnm V, U, HobrTtl, 

IWH. partiruiar arrvirj- ' 

Zrbra, 17. ir.. I'mu C.J. LiiulMt , \tAV, ( 



^^^^^ 


14^^^^^^^[jIiI^^H 


^ STATIONS OF THE BRITISH ARMT. ^^M 


^^^P^f {Cvrtctrd %^ la 27 lA Dteenirr, IBSi, tnrliuive.) ^^^H 


[Wiim IWD jilom nra mtntiourd* Uia Liil-iL4iDe«i li ibat Ql vliidi (he UepoLitiUllimed. ^^^^H 


III UIi- OuDrdi— Hydi Pa>ll 


Ifflb do. fix bal-J- Canada, Trmplainart ^^H 


jDd Jd.— WlDcJiar 


Da. (:^ad bal.)-^Na\'n ISonllB, Ttfoiplemarr ^^H 


Royit Haric tiunrdi — nF^riiL'l Pflrk 


I7l(t na. .lal b-L) — Canada, Lltarrlck ^^H 


III UntDiiii Quvilt— >I>aria, Cinurburr 


Da. (Inrl bat) Naia Scmla, Limrrlck ^^^H 


Sod do.—flrngal, Linlcrbary 


I0lb rta. iltl bat.}— Mndraa. Bulleran ^^^^H 
Da (Ind bul )_Nfw Zealand. Biillrvan ^^^^B 
Itlb da. (lal bil )— baiigal. rhilbuni ^^^H 


Sni do. — Bambiy, CaalerUurjr 


41 b do,— NcwlHidgs 


Sib da.-UDLiliD 


Da. IVuil bal.)— Ulrmah. Cbaiham ^^^^^B 


Ikh da— HrlKhlan 


SOlb dfi (Itl b>l )— Bengali. Chalbam ^^^^^B 


7 111 da. — BeugHl, CiEilerbdrj 


Da ClndLinl.l — Japan, CUaTliam ^^^^^H 


lit DngDona — Auiertbol 


aifllda. (lal bal-r— Purtiuianlh, Birr ^^^^^1 


Ind do — Alilrnhol 


Da (lied ba1.|—9ladrui, Birr ^^M 


&rd tiiAHr^tt—ilwiichfttet 


Undda.llilbll-l- Mulla, ParkhDM ^H 


Ub rla.— JJuudulil 


Ua. (:ind bat.]— Mil», f.rlibiiral ^^^^M 


fJEh LmfkLen — I'^ngal. CAJIIerhury 


tiril ds (111 but,!- Bpniial, Walinar ^^^^H 


filh ilmgoaii*— Uuiubar. llAldBLDD* 


Ua.(^nd bat.)— Gibraltar. Walme' ^^^^H 
14th do, {111 bal )— !)bori>cllff', Cark ^^^^H 


7lb Huitan^llengal, UAldiLune 


Bill do.— Vurk 


Da. (:!nd bal.)— Mauritlui, I'nrk ^^M 


fib LaiicFn—Dubllu 


l&lh do, (!«( bat.)— <:anarlii, AlblauB ^^H 


IDIli Iliii>,>lt-C>blr 


Dn. (liid bat.)— C.ylon, AlblDili ^^^^H 


lllb Kuiiin— UubllD 


Mtbda, — ,Par1inianlh, Brir4(a( ' ^^^^^H 


I'Jtb r.mntcti— SnalHcLd 


37l)l da.— Brngnl. Cork ^^^^H 


131b HaBAHra — El<iiin«li>w 


Mlb do. — Hoiubay. Pprmay I^^^^^H 


Utn du,— AldrnliDl 


ntb da.— Nvurry, I'raptt.n I^^^^^H 


IJlli Huiini*— Eilliiburph 


■(lib do,— Canada. Parhbrifal ^^^^^H 


111 lb LDitcrn^Cuk'bcHier 


Hill du.— Aldi-rihiit, Clialhani ^^^^H 


17 tb 'Id ^Unclrfla, niulilalar 


13nd da.— Walfrfard. I'rvatan ^^H 


IHlh Husaart— AlailriLfl, CaDlrbgrr 


Mrd do.— Uambav, l^ftmoy ^^H 


19lti dd' — Bpngal. Cabtrrbury 


■4lh do.- Bingal, CakhnUr ^^^^M 


30 Tb da. — BriiK^f, CableTbiiry 


WItb do.- HFiiKal. L'hiilbain ^^^^H 


3Lal do-— HvnifBL, Mnldatufia 


BAtb do.— Bengal, Atblnne ^^^^^H 


Hllllarr Train II tl bal.l—WgaMcll 


B7th da,— [lover. PFmbnilrfl ^^^^^| 


Us (Joil batJ—Aldcnhnl 


■Hlh ita.— Brngal, CnltbeaKr ^^M 


Da. (9n1 b».J— Waoltvlih 


Kltb da.— Ahkribol. Trmldcniare ^^M 


Us. (4ib bu,|— Mev ZiHlMni 


40th do.— Ntfitf Zealand, tilrr ^^^^^| 


J>n. (&tb baL.j^Aldtnbot 


4t>l da.— DubKn, Prpatoo ^^^^H 


Do. (Itlh but 1— Cuna»b 


4; lid do.- Hernial. Steillnn ^^^^H 


Orcnadlrr Ouardi (In bmO—Cbellca 


43rd lia — Ne7 Zealand. Ubalbim. ^^^^H 


Dd. IZnd hil )--Slioriii!bir« 


44lh do, — Bbiinbay, Cukbetter ^^^^^| 


Do, [.Irb bml.]— U'rlUn|;lDD Hqrrarltl 


4blb do.— Hauibay, Parkhunl ^^^^H 


Cnldilreini (iiiBrdi (lit bil.)- U'clilnKlan Bka, 


4l?lb da.— Bentfal, Bullevant ^^^H 


Ud nndbaL)~Wlndaar 


47lh da.— Canailn. Albluo* ^H 


Scau Pui.GuarlttllalbAl.) — Tnwprof LoDdiin 


IHlh do.- Bengal. Cork ^H 


Do- i?iid bai.F — 91 titorge't UarrRcki 


4UIh do,-l)iibllK. Rrirail ^^H 


III Fiiol(lat.J— Madni, Uolcbaaur 


AUlb da.— Nf» Zealand, Parkbutal ^^^^H 


Do. Ciinl hal )— Jtriey, Calihcalrr 


niatilD.— BEngal, CliDlbim ^^^^M 


Sad do. (lal bar^^UefDii-inrr. Walnier 


b^od da.^B. npial, Cbaiham ^^^^^H 


Da.l^nd bal )— Sarmuda, Wolmtr 


do.— Curragb, Birr ^^^^^H 


3rd da. <!■< Ual.)— sbindd, LlmerlFb 


Ii4th eIo.— Benjral. Cvli-beiier ^^^^^^| 


Da. {7lld bat;- Bartiad'ita. LlmrMcli 


fiSlh do.— BeligBl, Prealon '^^^^H 


4lh da. (Ill bat,)- Hoi" bay, Chninun 


fifilb da.— Bombay. Clilt'bf Her *^^^^^H 


Ua. (3nd bal.)~M>IUi, (.balbam 


b7<b do -New Zealand, Cork ^^^^M 


tin di>. (Ill bal.)— Wooiwkb. Lokhfiln 


IWlh da — Bentiiil. Birr ^^^H 


Da. (Zndbal.) — Cif^eorGaof] Mape, Colchratcr 


A9Ih do.— Aldrrihiil, Trealnn ^^^^H 


dlh lia. 1 III bal.i^Devrupvrl. fJuLr.bralar 


«llhda.|lal bal,)-D>ibllii. WInebeiter ^^^H 


Do. t'2n'\ bal- J— Jamaica. Cakbaaler 


Da. fSnd bat,)— Alderihot. WIreheater ^^^^^^M 


7lh da llBI bal 1— Brn^Bl. U'aLmer 


Da. (:ird bal.}— KIrmoll, »'lDcb»Itr ^^^^^M 


Do llnd b>l 1— ItiKe. Waliiii-r 


Do. (Jib bal )— Cairado, Wliicbealer ^^^^^^^ 


6tb du. ^lil bal )— JlUncbnirr. Teni|ilFmon 


Alil da.— Currairh. Pembroke ^^^^^^| 


Do. [Slid bnl.l— Mi.Ua, Ttin|>linior» 


d^nd da.- Alderkbol, BeFlaal ^^| 


01h da. flat bat t^OIUralmr. [^linFHcIl 


on rd da.— Canada, Heiraal ^M 


lla. t2ad bBl.)_Chlnt, i.iuii-ilcb 


IHth do. — Pontninuib, Cnlrbealcr ^H 


lOlh ilo. (Ill bpl.) — CaiiralGd. flapi, Prnlon 


Ib^lb dn.— Mrw Zealand, Birr ^M 


Do (Snd bnl i — Uap* of <id. Hup". Pmlun 


GvElh dn. — Aladrai, t^olchf-aler ^^| 


lllb da (lal bal.)- Upogal. Prrmoy 


^7Lb du.— t^blrib. AthLorie ^H 


Do. (Jnd bal.) U. of ISuuil Kopr, F^rmay 


dtllh [la.- Nrw Zealand, Prrinor ^H 


lllb da. (Ill bil.l_Ncw Zealand. Uhllham 
Uo. lind but-)— Bengal. Cbatbam 


69lh du— Gaiiiarl. Ptuniry ^H 


rCLb du. — New Zealand, Coicbeilcr ^H 


l.llh da.[lalbal.}— l>oirr. FT-rniay 


7lEtda,— Benunl, Perth ^H 


I'D. i'Jn*t bfli J — MaurUliia. Pttmoy 


72nd da. — Hambay. Aberdeen ^^| 


141b lia. lilt baT.>— Alderabal. Fermtiy- 


73rd da.— Shorn el, It, Culcbeiler ^^^H 


Do, anil bal>— Nrw Sajlf iid, Fprmny 


7Jlb do,- Bdlnburph, Atjerilecn ^^^^H 


Iblb eIu. flal bal )— N Hrtiiiatvk'lt, I'tmbroUe 


7.'ilh do,— AMerahut, Chathhoi ~ ^^^^H 


Do. iind but.)— (ilbMlur, feubrokc 


7dlh Faot— Madrai, Belfaal ^^^^H 


1 


~th Fuol— BeOiBl Ihalbam ^^M 



1865.] 



STATIONS Of THK BETIISa AKUT. 



143 



7eita do.— Doblln, HwrdHn 

7»tli do.— BcDKiJ, StlrlJDg 
SOlb dn.— BengBl, ButUTint 
aU[ do.— Bengsl, Chilhun 
BlDd dD,_BrngaJ, CoLclitiwi' 
83 rd do.— Aldenllal. Chilbim 
Wtb do.— Dublin, Ptmbrok* 
Bdtb do.- Aldcnhot, Pumbroki 
SSlli do.— Ojbraltur. Templemort 
B7tb do — Ooiport, BuIMtudI 
8nih do.- Bengml, ColcbMUt 
891)1 do— Bfd^I, Fcrniar 
80 lb do,— Bc'itsl. Culc neater 
Vltt do.— BcngiJ. CbBlbun 
ItZnd do,- aiMgav. Sllillag 
113rd do.— Bengal, AbrrdefEl 
Mtb do.— BeDB"!, Chilbim 
BMh do.— BombHT, Fcnnoj 
Mlb da.— Ope, BelfMt 
97tb do. — Beogml, IJolcbFltar 
Mtb da.— BfDKil, ColcbHUr 
9»lh do.—Cbloi, Cork 
laaih Foot— HiUUi PwkbBrrt 



IDlal do.— Btnful. ChitbuD 

lOIad do.— Uidru, Cbuhua 

lOSrd do.— Bouibur. Colcb«Mi 

IMlb da.— Bni>i[, Parkbont 

lOetb do.- Uidiu. Pembroka 

IMIh do.— Bombar. Birr 

1 07 lb do.— Ban»l, Ptrmor 

lOStb do.— If ufru, Ffnnof 

lOttb do.— Bombay, Cork 

Rifle Brigade (In bat.)— Canada, Wlncbeatcr. 

Do. (2nd bit, I— Bengal, WlDcbeaiar 

Do. (Srd bat.)— Bpngal, WlnDbellel 

Do. <41b bat.)— Gibraltar, Wise beater 

let Wcat India Begiment — Babamaa 

Sad do. — Barbadoea 

flrd do, — Bkerra Leant 

4tb do— Cape Coait Caalla 

Atb do — Jamaica 

Cerlon Bide BeglmeDl— CeTJon 

Cape Uoonted Rlllea— Capr of Qood Ropa 

Boral Canadian Bl<e Beglmenl— Canada i 

Royal Malta FenclM* AiUUerr— Malta 



DEPOT BATTALIONS. 



lit Depot Battalion— CbUhun 

Ind do,— Cbatbain 

Ard do^'-^bathani 

4tb do.— Colcbealer 

ttta do.— Parkhunt 

«lh do.— Walaier 

7lh do.- VVInchMMr 

8tb do. — Pembroke 

nb do. — Colcbetter 
lOlh do,— Colebeatcr 
lltb do.— Preiton 
13«b do.— .Albloae 
ISth do.— Birr 



Ittb Depot Battalion— BtUtet 
tbtll do.— BntteTant 
IStb do,— Tempi emof* 
17tb da,— Umetlrk 
IBth do.— FennoT 
IDIh do.— Fennoj 
30th do. — Cork 
33nd do.— at<r]lD( 
33rd do. — Aberdeen 
CaTalnr Depot— Ualdatont 
00.— Cutarburr 



U. 8. Mao. No. 434, Jas. \?ift6. 



114 



[Jas. 



pfiOMcyrioxs and appointments. 



NAVY. 



ADSiiniLTT, Nov. 21, 
Witli rpfcreiife to tht Deajintch 
of Vice-Ailmiral Sir Auguatua L. 
Kiijior. E.C.B, relaiirc to (lie 
operBtions in the Stiuit^ of Simono 
Sieki. piibliabed in tbe LonJon 
(SatttU of tbc ISth inst., tbe nnmo 
ftf onv <if \\ic UidBhI|)uicn of the 
Eurynhji!, who oot^d aa Aido-do- 
Cninfi lo Ciipfftin A!e\nntier, K.N., 
Cotnmtiiiditit; tlit Noviil Brigiide. 
n Jnhn Arthur Home, and nut E. 
P. Haroe. 



AnuiBiLTi, No^^ 26. 

Viw-Adm. John Jervis Tucker 
hua licon appointed to receive a 
penHioaof £'150a-7ear> aa provided 
by Her Miijeaty'fl Ordpr in OoDiicil 
of 'i^th Jnnp, 18.M, vocaiit, by the 
denl.h of Vicc-Adm. Henry Francia 
Grcvillp. C.B,. find the name of 
Fioe-Adm. Tucker ban been re- 
laovcd to the Reserved Hulf-pay 
Liat accordingly; and in conse- 
qacnce of this removal, Ihc fol- 
lowind promotioiiB, to date the 
20th Oct., hiive this day tjikcn 
plnce, vix, ; — Bear-Adm. Horatio 
Thcmaa Austio, CO., to be vice- 
Cupt. CharloE Gepp Bobiu- 
, to bo rear-adio. 

And in conGequcnco of tbc dca.tb 
on the 27th ult., of Rear-Adm. 
Htnry Lyater, the following Flag 
promotions, to be dutod the 28tE 
nit., have also this day taken place, 
via. ;— Capt. George Thos. Gordon 
to be a rear-adm. ; Retired Cup t*in 
Willitttn Louis lobe retired rear- 
ndro., under Her Majesty's Orders 
in Council of 18(50 and'lStH; Be- 
tired Capt. Chas. John Bosanquet 
to lie retired rear-adm,, under Her 
MnjcBty's Order in Council of 
IHfil; Retired Captain Coiirtenay 
Oabome Hayes to be retired rear- 
adm , under the Orders in Council 
oflSeO and 1864. 

And Vice- Ad m. Fredk. Bullock 
hna been nppoirted to receive a 



fension offlSO a-year, as provided 
y I Itr Majesty's Order in Council 
of 25th June, 1851, VM.int by tha 
dciLih of Admiral Sir Montagn 
Stopford, K.C.B , «nd the name 
of Vice-Adm. Bullock baa been 
removed to the Reserved Hidf-pay 
Liat accordingly ; o,nd in conse- 
quence of this removal, the follow- 
ing promotions, to dote tbe l'2lh 
in)>t., have also thia day taken 
place, viz. : — Rear-Adm. Williftm 
Bameay. C.B., to be vice-adm. ; 
Cape, the Eight Hon. Edward 
Lord DunBany to be rcar-iidm. on 
the Reserved List ; Capt. Eruamua 
Omnjunney to be rear-adm. 



rito«nTioNB. 

To ho Commander— Lieut. Ohas. 
Finuie Walker. 

To he Master — Clemeot Hertzel 
of the Grasshopper. 



AfFOINTMKSTa. 

Captains— W. JU. Dowell to the 
Euryalus, vice Alexander, in- 
valided : H. Boys to the BiiroBsa, 
vice Dowell; W. H. Haswell to 
tbe pL'loniB, vice Boys ; A, 0. 
Gordon to the Cadmus ; T. M. S. 
Pauley to ibe Highflyer. 

Commanders — B. S. De B. Hall 
to the Active, vice Heard, whoso 
period of service haa expired ; W. 
sAeazios to the Oaprey, vice Innes, 
invalided; E. H, Murmy to tho 
Achillea; A. W. GOlett to the 
Achilles; H. L. Round to tha 
Argus ; vice Moresby, promoted, 
the appointment of Commander 
J, W. Armstrong h».viag Ijoen 
cancelled ; James E. Bickford to 
tbe Brilliant, vice Ski p with, wboeo 
[leriod of service has expired ; J. 
W. Armstrong to the Argils, vice 
Moresby, promoted; C. E. Steveni 
to tbe Perseus, vice Kin gnton, pro- 
moted. 

Lieutenants — A. O. V- Collins 
to the Victoria; Henry P. Nichol- 



1865.] 



paOMOTIOSa AND APPOISTHKSTS. 



145 



son to the MBf^cienne; Francis 
Durant and Herbert F Crohan to 
the Cambridge ; James D. Bitrker 
to the Cumberland; Hugh Davia 
to the Black Prince; Samuel 
Long. John Fellowes, and Thomas 
BaiBsboCham to the Highflyer ; 
T. P. W. Neaham, Francis C. 
Vincent, and S. H. Eickmah to 
the Cadmus ; A. Tupmau to 
the Defence. 

Masters— S. S. Sngden to the 
Cadmus i C. Prickett to the High- 
flyer. 

Secretary — Richard Mundar to 
be secretary to rear-adm. Kcllett. 

Snrgeons — Ahmuty Urwin to 
the Aurora; A. Brown, M.D., to 
the Blenheim; W. H. Cameron to 
the Highflyer; W. H. Baxter to 
the Cadmus. 

Paymasters— Hugh H. Bnrais- 
ton to the Cadmus ; Charles D. 
Lindsay to the Highflyer; C. W. 
Eeles to the Victoria. 

Snb- Lieu tenants — John W. 
Brackenbury to the Block Prince ; 
Victor B. J. B. Von Donop to the 
Duncan. 

Assistant - Snrgeons — Gerald 
Molloy and Leonard Lucas to 
Plymouth Hospital; W. K, Ben- 
nett, M.D., totheDufceofWelling- 
ton; H. N, Maclaurin, M.D., to 
Greenwich Hospital; Charles P. 
Williams to the Impregnable; 
Joseph C. Griggto the Victory; 
M. J. Bohilly to the Asia; Philip 
Cowen (acting) to the Cadmus; 
Archibald O. Robertson (acting) 
to the Highflyer; Martin MagUl 
to the Prince Consort ; James 
BamSeld to the St. George ; Geo. 
Duncan to the Excellent; James 
Farelly (additional) to the Sutlej ; 
Robert Oilmore (additional) to the 
Rattlesnake; Thomas Milne, M D., 
to the Jocka! ; Dyce Duckworth, 
Alfred Brend, and Philip Cowan 
to Plymouth Hospital ; George 
Bellamy, Conrad C. Wimberley, 
A. G. Robertson, and B. W. Doyle 
to Haslar Hospital. 

Second Masters — Charles Bay- 
field (additional) to the Duncan ; 
R. H. C. Hebden (acting super- 
numerary) to the Victory. 

Naval Cadets^ John Edwards 
to the Achilles, Allan C. T. Mann, 



F. Hi Shemsen, R. R. Scott Rogers, 

G. M. Brooke, and J. W. Strachey, 
Manrice H. Litchfield, Andrew L. 
Murray. Charles B. Sawie, Edw. 
J. Saunderson, James L, An- 
struther Edward Mills, Milford 
William Pye, William B. Ryan, 
John H. Kerr, Hugh H. Adarason, 
Henry Elwyn, Henry Ponsonby, 
Hugh H. G. W. Carruthers, Dud- 
ley Gordon. Alan King, William 
Henry Callweli, Henry Dawson 
Arehdall, Andrew P. Balfour, 
George S. Bosauqaet, Francis L. 
Butt, Arthur G. S Carter, William 
H. Castle, W. Crombie, Blanchard 
B. Coward, Herbert E. H. Hughes, 
A. C. T. Mann, F. H. Logan. L. 
G. B. Childers. O. B. Bradford, 
and S. J. H. Braro, are nominated. 

Assistant-Paymaetors^F. R, O. 
Wright and Alfred P. Freeman to 
the Cadmus ; Henry C. Jenkins to 
the Highflyer; James N. Robin- 
son to the Britannia ; W, R. 
Weatherby to the Egmont ; John 
Heath to the Excellent; Charles 
Backhouse to the Edgar; Henry 
Ellis to the Impregnable; George 
W. Alldridge to the St. Vincent; 
James B. Rawlinga to the 
Bgmont; William Weatherly to 
the Eicellcnt. 

Master's Assistant — Edward B. 
Connor to the Firefly. 

Clerks — Charles J. Curgenven 
to the Indus; Robert J. Willia and 
William J. Oliver to the Cadmus, 

Assistant- Clerks — Edw. Lander 
and Charles Cock to the High- 
flyer. 

Chief Engineers— Frederick W. 
Sutton (b) to the Serpent; Robert 
Williams to the Orlando. 

Engineers — W. B. Leeson to 
the Shamrock ; J. Leathleati to the 
Bann; W. Roberts to the Asp; 
E. G. Ashworth to the Chasseur; 
W. Dark to the Fearless ; T. H. 
Kitt to the Defence ; G. P. Sutton 
to the Cumberland ; H. Hull to 
the Indus; W. Tottonham to the 
Royal Oak ; O. Garden (acting) to 
the Curlew; F. W. Robinson 
(acting) to the Triton ; W. Chase 
(acting) to the Euryalua; T. Gray 
(acting) to the Sutlej ; W. Harwood 
(acting) to the Esk ; W. R, Cott^w^ 



116 



pKOMcmosa and appointmekts. 



[Jan. 



(acting) to tho Lenndi^r; J. W. 

Notl (confirmed) to the Asitt. 

First-Clnsa A a sist-aut- Engineers 
— G. Woolard to the Tnifulgtiri 
E. Clark (supemutncrarj') to the 
Asia; N. D- Chambere to tlio 
Dnuntleaa ; W. G. Storling to the 
Enterprise ; Edward Hockep and 
Henry Bider to tbo Phtebus; H. 
Hall to tho Espoiri J. G. Buin to 
the Victoria and Albert; T F. P. 
Sbolley and H. W. Wilkins to the 
Urgent. 

Second OlasH Aasistant-Engt- 
ceeri— A. J. B, Newman to the 
Asia, as Bupernumcniry ; Georgo 
Tricker to the Cumberland, as 
Bu[ienmmerary ; B. G. Little to 
the Donegal i J. Barre (euper- 
naiaerary) to the Airia. 

EOYAL NAVAL "RESERVE. 
Ti) be Honorary Lieutenants — 
Lord Otho Angustns FitKGorald 
and Charlea Gribble. 

To bo Sub-Lieutenant — William 
Joaeph Whereat. 



COASTGUABD. 
Inspecting- Commaii tiers — TliO g . 
E. Smith to Siinderlxvnd, vice tbo 
Hon. Fitzmaurioc ; Arthur Rodney 
Owen to Bridgewater, vice Durhin, 
period of service expired; Hon, 



Frederick O'B. Fitzmaurico t« 
Bungor, vice Owen. 

EOTAL MAHmES. 



Admiraltt, Dec. 2. 
Royal Marine Light Infantry — 
First Lieut. Robert Frederick 
Tayler to be cant , vice Prilchard, 
deceased; Sec. Lieut. Alfred Closo 
Caaean to l>o firet Ueut., vice Toy- 
ler— 14th Nov. 



Aduiii.u.tt, Nov. 25. 

Royal Marine Light Infantry — 

Soc. Lieut. William Frederick 

Campbell to be first lieut., vice 

Caldcr. whoso name baa been 

struck off the list— 13th Nov. 



Admibaltt, Deo. 13. 
Royal Marine Li^ht Infantry — 
First Lieut, the Adjt. Jamea Wm. 
Vaugban Arbuckle to be copt., 
dated £th inat., vice Olendon, to 
half-pay ; Sec. Lieut. Chas. Albert 
Louia Moore, to bo first lieut., 
dated 0th inst., vice Arbuckle. 



ArMrKAiiTT, Deo. 14. 
Royal Marine Light Infantry — 
First Lieut. John Straghan to bo 
a4jt.> vice Arbuckle — Doc. 12. 



1865.] 



FltOUOTIOMS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



U7 



ARMY. 



THE ARMT GAZETrK. 
•»• Whore nototherwiBB speciGed, 
tbe rullowina Cooimkaions bear 
tho ourrcnt date. 
Wak Orricz, Pill Mau, Nov. 22. 

3rd itogt. of Dragoon Ouiirda — 
Aaaist.-Siirg. Duvid CiiIIqii, M,D., 
from 17th Lniicera, to be aaaist.- 
aurg., vicQ Lithgow, nbo coi- 
chiiiiges 

7th Husears — Capt and Brov.- 
MaJ. ThomaiB HoatLcato SCistcd to 
be raaj., by purciiaBB, vice David 
Philip Brown, who retires ; Lieut. 
Edwnrd Metcalfe to be capt., bj 
purehose, vice Brev.-Maj. Stiated; 
Cor. John Lombard Hunt to be 
lieut, by purchase, vice Metcaifo; 
Bus. Wilhiim Bodingfeld, from the 
4-2Dd Foot, to he cor., vice Hunt. 

1 7th Lnncers — Assist.-Surg. 
St^:wart Aiiron Lithgow, from 8rd 
Dragoon Guards, to ho asaist.- 
Burg., vice Duvid CuUcn, M.D., 
who exchanges. 

ll)th Euaaara — Lieut. Cecil 
Clarke Jervoise haa been per- 
mitted to retire I'rom tho Service. 

20th Hussara — Quurt.-maat. 
Scrg. Man sol Armstrong, fi*um 
3rd Dragoon Guarda, to be cor., 
vice Thoiuaa Shtphcrd, promoted. 

Boyal Eiifjinecrs — Lieut.-CoL 
"William Elliot Morton to be col., 
vice AiexaDclcr David Turnhull, 
deceased — olat Aug. ; Capt. Jo- 
seph Henri,' Dyas to be lieut.-col., 
vice Morton — 'ilst Aug. ; Sec 
Capt. TLomaa Geo. Moiitgomerie 
to Iju cnpt , vice Dvaa^31at Aag.; 
Lieut. William JcilVcjs to bo sec 
capt., vice Monlgomorio — 3iat 
Aug. i Gent.-Cudet George Wm. 
Tisdall, from tho Euyal Military 
Academy, lu be lieut,, with tem- 

{loniry rauk, vice Jcflrevs ; the 
irat Cliriatiiin came of Lieut. 
Biiiltjuu ia Lcatook, not Lealock, 
aa stilted in the Gatulte of 7th 
Jan., 1862. 

Military Train — Btuff-Surg. 
Ormaby Bowen Miller to be sorg., 
vice John Andrew Woolfrejea, 
U.D,, who oxcliungeet. 
Scots Fuedlier Guards — Lieut. 



and Capt. Cecil Lennoi Peel to be 
capt. and lieut.-col., by purchase, 
vice Jumea Boss Farquliarson, 
mho retires; Ens. and Lieut, the 
Hon. George Grimston Craven to 
he lieut. and capt., by purehaae, 
vice Peel: the Hon. Paul Sanford 
Methuen to ho ens. and Uotit., by 
pnrcbiise, vice the Hon. George 
GriumtoQ Craven. 

■1th llo)^. of Foot— Capt. Edw. 
Roberta, Irora the &th Weat India 
Begt., to be capt., Tioe Bent, who 
exchange a. 

20th Foot— Lient. Geo. Frederic 
TTarris to bo inatriictor of mus- 
ketry, vice Lieut. Charlca Kyrle 
Chatfield, appointed Aide- de- 
Camp to the Governor of Hong- 
Kong— 2-lth July. 

2-kh Foot^Capt. Henry Berke- 
ley Good, from the Ttlth Foot, to 
be capt,, vioo Oouper, who en- 
changos. 

27th Foot— Ena. Raymond Wal- 
lace Eamonde White to beinatruc- 
tor of muaketry, \-ico William 
Stnckhouae Church Pimwill, pro- 
moted — 26th May, 

Slith Foot—Lieut. Hon. Charles 
Jamea Fox Foivys to he capt.. by 
purcbaise, vice Henry Bobert 
Twyford, who retires ; Ena. Wm. 
Skerrett to be lieut., by purchase, 
vice Hou. C. J. Foi Powysi Wm. 
Fraucia Aahton, gout., to be aoa., 
by purehaao, vice Skorrett. 

abth Foot — The aumama of the 
Surgeon tranaforred from tho 
Staff on lltliinNt., is Whylock,and 
not Wylock. aa then Bt.)i1«d. 

t2nd Foot— Gent.- Cadet Georgo 
Bo a tin k McLeod Cumberland, 
from the Boyal Military College, 
to he ens., bJ purcluiee. vice Woi. 
Beduigfeld, trunarcrred to the 7th 
Huaaara. 

&2nd Foot — Maj. Arthur Lenno* 
Peel to be lieut -col,, without pur- 
chase, vice Brev.-Col. John Leslie 
Dennis, promoted to be ranj.-gcu. 
—28th Oct.; Capt. and Drev.-Mnj. 
Geurgo Utinvlos .Syuge to be inaj., 
without piirobftse, vice Peel — 'ilKtt. 
Out,', liifiU-V S\dQai^"^'^'S§«fiA-**^ 



148 



PEOWOnOSS ANU 4PP01XTMBNTS. 



[Jaji. 



Vo pupt., withont purcbiiac, vice 
Brovet-Maj. Syrge — 2«lli Oct.; 
-Ens. Robert Lcgli Cnisse to be 
iient.,, wilhniit, imrcbiipe, vice 
"WinpfirM— 2iSth Oc't.; Eu8. Her- 
vey Jufkes Lloyd Bmce to be 
lieut., by purebhse, vice Robert 
Lpgh CrosBc. wboae promotion, by 
pHi'cli.ise, on 4l.il Nov., baa betn 
catjci'Ik'd. 

(iOili Foot— Lieut. Hurry Robert 
MillJEiii lo be cii[it , by purcbuse, 
Yioe Henry I'arciix? E^itoti, wlio 
retiree; Ena. William Wairen to 
be lieut.. by purcbaBB. vice Willi- 
gan; Quart.-mast. William Ban- 
bury, Crom Plh Foot, to be pay- 
master, vice PByiaaster, witb tfie 
hon. rank of Capt., Frederick T. 
FathjrsOD, placed on ti;m|xiniry 
half-pay. 

7tiih Fool^Oapt. Heiiiy Edw, 
Couper, Team Mth Foot, to be 
capt., vire Good, wbo oxcbiiiigea. 

5th Went Indift Regiment — 
Capt. Stepben Weaton Boiit, from 
tbe 4-tb Foot, to be cnpt., vice Ro- 
berts, wbn excbdiigoB. 

Royal Maltti Fencible Artillery 
— Lient.. wi(L local and temporary 
rank, Siiverio do Tiro to be capt.. 
with local and temporary muk, 
vice Guiseppe Seaino, retired on 
rnll-imy— 11th Oct.. 

aEOIIWl nE['.\HTJlEKT. 

8ul^. John Andrew Woolfreyea, 
M,D., from the Militaiy Train, to 
bo stall" aurg,, vice Omisby Bowen 
Miller, who caclmnges. 

BKEVET. 

Lien t -Col. William Alej:andeT 
Middleton, C.B., Royal Artillevj-, 
having completed the qualifying 
service in the rank of Lieut. -Col., 
to be col., UTider the Royal W^ar- 
nuit of Utb Oct., IRr^iS— 7th Oct. 

Paymaster Arthur Goro Andov- 
Bon, 81'th Foot, to have tbe hon. 
rank of Capt. — ItJlh Aug. 

The undei' mentioned Ofliooi's, on 
rctij'cd fiill-piiy. Royal Murine 
Light InfiiDiry, to have the bon. 
mnk of Mnj.-Gen., nnder Her 
MnjeBlj'a Order in Council of 13th 
Nov., 1858 : — Col.-Comt. John 
Geor^ Augustus Aylea — -1-th 
Nov.; Col.-Comt. William Friend 
Hopkins. C.B.—lth Nov. 



THE MILITIA GAZETTE. 

Wau Ottujf., pAi.i.M.11.1:, Nov, 25, 
Ea&t and North York Artillei^ 

Militia^Yarljurgli Gt-orgc Lloyd, 

Esq.. to be ciijit. 

Boyal Munraoutebim Uilitia — 

Willium Jomos Steward Esq , to 

be super lieut. 

THE VOLUNTEER GAZETTB. 

Wilt 0?FicK, Pill Mall, Nov, 23. 

The HtHiuumble Artillery Com- 

Bjiy of Loiidua — Ena. John 
oriiby to belieut.; Serg.Matbew 
Uenry Jacuba ro be ens., vico 
Jacobe, reaigucd. 

7th Surrey Rifle Volunteer 
Corpa — Maj. Francia fttiireua 
Buriisford to be lieut. -cob ; Fredk. 
Charles Jonex, Kent., to be Aurg., 
vice William Tiffin llili'. reeigned. 

IStb Surrey Rifle Volunteer 
Corpa — Mai. Valontino Hieka La- 
brow to be lieut.-col. 

let Loiidon Artillery Volunteer 
Coi-ps— Muj. John Richard Lam- 
bert Wulraielcj, late Capt. nan. 
Artillery Company, to be lieut.- 
col. 

35th Cheshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corpa — Joha Edward Simpson, 
gent,, to be ens., vice Payne, re- 
signed. 

1st Middlesei Engineer Volun- 
teer CorpM— First Lieut. Henry 
Sauham to be capt. 

Kith Middlesex Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — JoBOiih Jupp to be ena. 

aUth Middleseji liiflc Volunteer 
Corps— James Williatn Glover to 
be ena. 

48th Middlesex Riflo Voluntew 
Corpa— Chuj'lea Robert Peglur to 
bo ens. 

Memorandum — -Inns of Court 
RiHe Volunteer Corps— By Royal 
License bearing date the 27th day 
of July, Ens. William John Putts 
WHS authorised to tako and use 
thenceforth the surname of Chatto, 
in addition to and after that of 
PotlH, 

Urd RoBB-ahire Eifle Volunteer 
Coips — Lieut. Alexander George 
Mackenzie to be capt., vice Mac- 
kenzie, resigned; Ens. Henry 
MackenKio Fowler to be lieut., vice 
Mackenzie, promoted; John Dear- 



1865.] 



PEOMOnONS AKU APPOINTHENTS. 



149 



nallj Shaw, gent., to be ens., vice 
Fowler, promoted. 

War Office, Pall Mall, Nov. 25. 

3rd Cambridgeshire Bifle Volun- 
teer Corps— Jamea Grant Stephen 
to be capt., vice Henalowe, re. 
signed; William Winter to he 
capt , vice Chapman, resigned ; 
John Neal to be lieut., vice Bazeley, 
resigned; Marcus Boame Huiah 
to be lieut., vice Patrick, resigned; 
John Henzeli Pidcock, to be ens., 
vice Martin, resigned. 

4th Renfrewshire Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps — Alexander Scott, 
gent., to bo ens., vice Beid, re- 
signed. 

3rd Herefordshire Eifle Volun- 
teer Corps— The Rev. Frederick 
Wood to be hon. chap., vice the 
Eev. Edward Witt Cnleha, de- 
ceased. 

8rd Administrative Battalion of 
Surrev Rifle Volnnteers — The 
Rev. Robert Trimmer to be hon. 
chap. 

Ist Administrative Battalion of 
Pembrokeshire Rifle Volunteers — 
John Harvey, Esq., to be hon. 
qonrt.-mapt. 

Ist Administrative Battalion of 
Derbyshire Rifle Volunteers — Mr. 
James Lingard to be hon. quart.- 
mast. 

5th Derbyshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Frederick Josias Robin- 
eon to be ens., vice Ailport, pro- 
moted; George William Fawcett 
Swarbrick to be eus. 

1st Lancashire Artillery Volnn- 
teer Corps — John William Maxwell 
Smith, gent., to be flrst lieut., vice 
Kirby, promoted. 

19th Lancashire Artillery Vo- 
lunteer Corps— Sec Lieut. John 
Openshaw Greenhow to be first 
lieut., vice Whittaker, promoted. 

65th Lancashire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Arthur Evans, gent., to bo 
ens., vice Bartlett, promoted. 

THE ARMY GAZETTE. 

•#• Where not otherwise specified, 
the following Commissions bear 
the onrrent date. 

Wab Office, Pall Mall, Nov. 29. 

2nd Regiment of Dragoon 

Guards — Henry Frank Egbert 



Lucas, gent., to be cor., by pur- 
chase, vice John Taylor Marshall, 
who retires. 

3rd Dragoon Guards — Comet 
Edwin Brett to be lieut., without 
purchase, vice Henry Fullerton 
Richmond, promoted. 

6th Dragoon Guards — Lieut. 
William Thomas Brekine Bookey 
to be capt., by purchase, viae Ri- 
chard Coote, who retires ; Cor, 
William Henry Hoey to be liBut^ 
by purchase, vice Bookev ; Charles 
Leigh Davy, gent., to be cor., by 
purchase, vice Hoey. 

14th HuBsarB— Lieut. -Col. and 
Brav.-Col. Francis Mountjoy Mar- 
tyn, from half-pay, late 2nd Life 
Guards, to be lieut.-col., vice Lieut- 
Col, and Brev.-Col. Sir William 
Russell, C.B., who retires upon 
temporary half-pay ; Mai. and 
Brev.-Col. Pearson Scott Thomp- 
son to be lieut.-col., by purchase, 
vies Brev.-Col. F. Moun^oy Mar- 
tvn, who retires; Capt. Frederick 
Barclay Chapman to be maj., by 
purchase, vice Brevet-Lieut.-CoL 
Thompson; Lieut. W. Arbuthnot 
to be capt., by purchase, vice 
Chapman ; Cor. Jaroes Logan 
White to be lient., by purchase, 
vice Arbuthnot. 

Royal Artillery — Staff Assist. - 
Surg. Henry Cramer Gninness to 
be assist.'Surg, vice Wm. Younee 
Jeeves, promoted on the Staff; 
Staff' Asaist.-Surg. William Evelyn 
Alston, M.D., to be assist.-surg., 
vice Robert Storey, appointed to 
the Staff. 

Grenadier Guards — Lieut.-Col. 
and Brev -Col. the Hon. Augustua 
Murray Cathcart, from the 96th 
Foot, to be capt. and lient. -col., by 
purchase, vice Barnard, who ex- 
changes. 

Scots Fusileer Guards — Mty. 
and Brev.-Col. Henr^ Pereeval de 
Bathe to be lient.-col., vice Brev.- 
Col. John Hamilton Blphinstone 
Dalrymple, who retires upon half- 
pay; Capt and Lieut.-Col. and 
Brev.-Col. Henry Poole Hepburn 
to be maj., vice Brev.-Col do 
Bathe ; Lieut, and Capt. Henry 
Jelf-Sbarp tobe capt. and Lieut.- 
Col., by purchase, vice Brev.-Col. 
Hepburn V B^*- «ios^ Xis*^ ^Ssafc- 



IRO»0TIO« IXO JH-POlSTKEtra. 



Arthnp Wjnne-Pinch to be licQt. 
null capE-. l>¥ purchusc, vii-e Ji'lf- 
Shapp; Rnlph Vivinn, geiil., to be 
ens. and liout., Ly purchuBO, vice 
WjTine-FiQch. 

2ud Kf^^moDt of Foot — Lieut. 
Sidney Henry Latimer Tin ley 
Widdrririgt-on to be capC, by piir- 
cbaae, vico Wm. Henry Speucer, 
who retires; Ens. Dovid Frank 
Byrom Webster to be lieut,, by 
purchase, vitTjWiddrington; Win. 
Wade Browujohn, gont., to be 
CUB., by pureboso, vice Wubster. 

t!lh Poot^Lieut. John Coleberd 
Cooper, to be Cftpt., by porohiiBe, 
vice John Cockerel], who retires ; 
Ena. Bennett Fleming- Handy to 
be lieot., by pttrchnKC, vice Cooper; 
George Bowan Hamilton, f^nt., 
to be ens., by purchEWH), vice 
Hiuidy. 

17th Foot — Lieut. John Emmett 
to be inBtructor of mnsketry. vice 
Lieut. Dftvid Frederick Allen, pro- 
moted. 

19th Foot — Lient. Beauchiinip 
Colcloogh to be adjt., vice Lieut. 
William Bead, who resigns the 
Appointment. 

45rd Foot— Staff ABsiat -Surg. 
Eobert AJoiiinder Peter Grant to 
be uasiat.-surg., vice John James 
Henry, who eichangea. 

£>3rd Foot — Benjamin M'ClIn- 
toek. geat., to ho cna., by purchii.tc, 
vice Philip Durham Trotter, trans- 
ferred to the SISrd Foot. 

7-'Jrd Foot — Miij. Godfrey James 
Biinieto be lioiit.-col., by purchase, 
vice Hugh Maurice /onca, who 
rctirt-a ; Capt. William Henry 
Barry to be mnj., by parchaae, 
vice Burna ; Lieut. St. John 
Dupond Gnlwey to be capt., by 
purcbaao, vice Barry; Ens. Ri- 
chard John Airey to bo lieut., by 
purchase, vice Galwey. 

yj-lh Foot— Lieut. Wm. Ciiiyton 
Olnyton to be adjt., vice Lieut. 
William Frauk Whentley, who haa 
retired. 

sard Foot — Lieilt.-Col. and 
Brev.-Col. Henry AtwoU Lake, 
from half-pay unattached, to bo 
licut.-coL, vice Lieut. -Col. and 
Bri:vet-Col, Kobert LocklinrtRoBa, 
ell., who retirea iitHjii tem|iomry 
hitlf-IHiy i Moj, Knskine Scott< 



Francis George Dawsoo to bo 
lieut. -col., by purchaae, vice Brev.- 
Col. Lake, C.B„ who retires ; Cupt. 
Beeinald Stewart Williams to b6 
maj., by pnrchase, vice DavrBooi 
Lieut. Charles Warner Losock to 
be capt., by purchase, vie« Wil- 
liama ; Ens. Tbonuka Pi'iiico Lloyd 
to be lieut., by purchase, nee 
Losat'k ; Ena. Philip Lurham 
Trotter, from the 53rd Foot, to be 
ens., vice Lloyd. 

96th Foot— Capt. and Licnt.- 
Col. William Andrew M. Barnard, 
from the Grenadier Guards, to be 
lieoL-col., receiving the dilfcrcnco, 
vice the Hou. A. M. Cathcart, who 
cxchanECS, 

li}2iid Foot— The appointment 
of Ens. Frederick Grey Faber to 
bear date the 1st of Oct , 18*)3, and 
not the aist of May, liiGi, as pro- 
viouBly atated. 

lOyrdFuot — Lieut. Geo. Henry 
Bridges to ho instructor of mus- 
ketiy, vice Lieut. Thomas Stanley 
Clay, promoted. 

108th Foot— The appointment 
of Ens. Frederick Edw. Shepherd 
to ijeor date the 1st of Oct.. 18li3, 
and not 31at of May, 1804. as pre- 
viously stated. 

Hifle Brigade— Quart. -mast. H. 
Harvey to be pit)' master, vice 
Michael William Lade Coast, de- 
ceased. 

1st West India Regiment — 
Gent.-Cadot Henry John Hugh de 
Vismea, from the Royal Military 
College, to be ons., without pur- 
chase, vice Anthony Coulton Allin- 
Bon, promoted. 

DEPOT B4TTALI0H. 

PaymnHter, with the hon. rank 
of Jrfoj-, Alexia Corcoran, from 
Lalf-pay, late Paymaster of Dctacb- 
TOunta, to be paymaster, vice 
Morris Robinson Campbell, re- 
tired upon half-pay. 

MEDICAL DEVMITMENT. 

Aanist.-Surg. Wilbam Youngo 
Jeeves, from the Boyal Artillery, 
to be staff-aurg., vice Staff Surg,- 
Maj. Alexander Douglas Taylor, 
M.U.. placed upon half-pay. 

Aseist.-Surg. J. James Hcni^, 
fi-om the 33rd Foot, to bo staff- 
iissiwt.-surg., vici) Riiberl. Alcsan- 
dcr Peter Graul. who eichangOB. 



186S.] 



PROUOTiOSS AND APPOlNTUKflTB, 



151 



ABHi3t.-Sai^. Robert Storey, 
from the Eoyal Artillery to be 
Btftff aBsist.-Burg., vice WiUiam 
EveWn AlBton, M.D., appointed to 
the Royal Artillery. 

AaaiBt.-Surg. Andrew Moffit, 
iVom Supemnmerary in the 67th 
Foot, to be staff aBsiBt.-Bnrg., vice 
George Yonell, deceased. 

BREVET. 

In conaequenee of the appoint- 
ment of Maj -Gen. Sir Bichard 
James Dacrea. K.C.B., from the 
Bupemumerary list, to be maj.- 
gen. on the fixed establishment of 
general officers of the Royal Artil- 
lery on the 11th of Sept., 1864, 
the commissions of the undermen- 
tioned officers have been altered 
as follows, and the subsequent 
promotions have taken place; — 
CommiBsious as Lieutenant-Co- 
lonelB. 

G. H. L. Milman, Eoyal Artil- 
lery, to Sept. 11. 

C. 0, Villiers, 47th Foot, to 
Oct. 3. 

J. Robinson, 44th Foot, to Oct. 

a& 

Commission B as Majors. 

J. de Montmorency, 59th Foot, 
to Sept. 11. 

N, S. K Bayly, Boyal Artillery, 
to Oct. 3. 

J. Stewart, 57th Foot, to Oct. 
28. 

Capt. and Brev.-Maj. Charles 
George Arbnthnot, of the Royal 
Artillery, to bo lient.-col. 

Capt. John Heniy Stewart, 
Royal Marine Light Infantry, to 
bo maj, 

. The undermentioned officers 
having completed the qualifying 
service in the rank of Licut.-Col., 
to be coIb., under the proviaions of 
the Royal Warrant of the 14th of 
Oct., 1858 :— 

Lieut.-Col. Hugh Smith BaiUie, 
Royal Horse Guards. 

Lient.-CoL Gfeorge John Pea- 
cocke, leth Foot, 

The hon. rank of Lien t. -Col. 
conferred upon Paymaster, with 
the hon, rank of Maj., Alexis Cor- 
coran, in the Gazette of the 2nd 
of Sept., 1862, has been cancelled, 
that officer having ■ been re-ap- 
pointed to full-pay. 



Paymaster, with the hon. rank 
of Capt., Michael Thompson, 70th 
Foot, to have the hon. rank of 
Maj. 

Staff-Snrg, -Maj. Alexander Don- 
glas Taylor, M.D., who retirea upon 
hair-pay, to have the hon, rank of 
Deputy Inspector-General of Hos- 
pitals. 

The undermentioned promotions 
to take place in Her Majesty's 
Indian Forces, consequent on the 
death of LiBut.-Qen. Chas. Denis 
Dun, Madras Infantry, on the 16th 
of Aug., 1664, and Lient.-Gen, 
George Sandys, Madras Cavalry, 
ou the 20th of Oct., 1864 :— 
To be Lieutenant- Generals. 

Maj.-Gen. Robert Hawkes, Ben- 
gal Cavalry. 

ME^.-Gen. Archibald FuUerton 
Richmond, C-B., Bengal Infantry. 
To be Maj or- Generals. 

Col. David Babington, Madras 
In&ntry. 

Col. William Robert Andrew 
Freeman, Madras Infantry. 

The undermentioued officers, 
who have retired on fnll-pay, to 
have a step of honorary rank aa . 

follows . 

To be Major -General B. 

CoL James Whistler, C.B., Ma- 
dras Cavalry. 

To be Lieutenant -Colonels. 

M^. Bichard Western, Madras 
Infantry, 

Major Alexander Campbell 
U'llfeill, Madras Staff Corps. 
To be Majors. 

Capt. CharleB Piowden St. John 
Law, Bengal Infantry. 

Capt. Robert Maxwell, Bengal 
Infantry, 

Capt, George Oliver Geach, 
Bombay Infantry. 

Memorandum — Maj. and Brer.- 
Col. Richard Leckonby Fhippa, 
half- pay Unattached, has been 
permitted to retire from the Ser- 
vice by the sale of his Commission, 
under the condition of the Horse 
Goards' Circular Memorandum of 
the 16th of Feb., 1864. 



Was Office, Pall Mall, Nov. 30. 

Tho Queen has been gracioosly 
pleased to give orders the ap- 
pointment o? ywi ■iisi4B.'«asjtJu«««&- 



PBOMtmOSS 4iro APPOlHTMElfTS. 



offictTB to 1)0 oi'ili'iiiry mPtnlicra or 
tlic- milifurj diviiiiiiti nf the ikird 
class, or Colii[)iiiiiuiiH ol' t)iD Moat 
Hoiiouroblo UriKr of tlie Botb, 
™. : — 

CadC. John Hontagu Hiiyoa, 
B-N. 

CapL Willifttn Moiitftcn Dowell, 
E.N. 

Ciipt. Jolin HobhoUflo Iiiglia 
Al^xiuider, R.N. 

Lieui.'Col. Wni Grigor Sulhor, 
of lite Koyol MiLriiiee, 

Wak QpficK, Pall Mall, Deo. 2. 
6Sth Regiment ot Foot— Mai.- 
Gen. Cbarles Cranturd Hnv to be 
col , -vice Gea. Edward Buckley 
Wynwiird, C.B., deceased. 

THE MILITIA GAZETTE. 
Waii OfFitT. Pall Mall, Nov. 29. 

-tth H.ogimciit of Woat York 
Militia— Jobii Robert Ruddock, 
gmt., to bo aB£i»t.-sarg., vice 
Beckett, resigned. 

Wab Office, Pall Mall, Dee. 2. 

FifesLire Artillery Militia — Ro- 
bert Riutoul, goiit., to be lieut., 
Tice ]Ma/?itnlny, resigued. 

Wt.rcfsItTBliJre Ri'giuiont oF 
Militia — William Henry Stephen b, 
gont., to be lieu(. 

Meenorandum — fler Majesty bus 
been gniciousiy pleuscd to uceept 
the reaigimlions of tbcfommission 
held by Lieut, Churlea Thomas 
Luck in the ^rd Regt. of Royal 
Bnrrey Militia. 

THE VOLUNTEER GAZETTE. 
War OFFItE, Pall Mall, Nov. 'Jy. 
lat Gi once stersh ire Rifle Volun- 
teer Corpa — Ens. Charles Bowlea 
Hflro to be lieut., vice Ponlo. re- 
signed; Enfl. Charles Hoskiiis 
Lowe to be lieut., vice Worsley, 
resigued ; Ens. Thomas Henry 
Prichard to be lieut., vice Graiiing, 
resigned; Gilbert Irelund Mon- 
tague Bltttkbumo, gent., to be 
ens., viiX' Hiii-e, promoted; Henry 
Roljert Sulmou, gent,, to he ens., 
vice Lovre, promnted; Augustine 
Fielding Woodward, gent., to bo 
BUS., vice Prichard, proniotedi 
Edward Arthur Harrey. gmit., to 
be eus., vice Rogers, resigned. 



12th Ntrrtb Riding of Yorkshiro 

Rifle Volunteer Corps — John 
Frj'cr, Esq., to be hon. usGisI.- 
aiirg., vice John Robinson, re- 
signed. 

1st Aberdeenshire Rifle Volnnr 
teer Corjis — Angus Fniser, M.D., 

to be (ISBlHt.-SUrg. 

18th Mutlurdshiro Rifle Volon- 
toor Corps— Lieut. Henry Sparrow 
to bo enpt., vice Pearson, resigned. 

2;'th Middlcsoi Rifle Volunteer 
Corpa — Liont, Edward Barker 
Gowlajid to be rapt., vice Benrd, 
resigned; Ens. Jamea John Hej- 
nolds to be lieut., vice Gowland, 
promoled, 

■Iflth Middlesex Rifle Volunteer 
Corps— Ens. David Oomfoot to 
be lieut., vice Brocklebauk, re- 
signed. 

2rth West Riding of Yorkshire 
Rifle Volunteer Corps — Lieut Ro- 
bert Kenrsley to be copt , vice 
Rhodes, deceased ; Bna. Thomas 
Wood to be lieut,, vice Kaaraley, 
promoted. 

41st West Riding of Yorkabiro 
Rifle Volunteer Corps — Edward 
Day to be capt. ; Joseph Stimclifl'e 
Hurst to be lieut. ; Thomas Wndo 
to lie ens. 

[The following appointments 
are aobi^titoled for these which 
a,ppcjired in tho fjiizelt^ of the lltll 
iiist.] 

let Peebloaahire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps— John Gracie to be lieut., 
vice Murray, promoted. 

Memorandum— Her Majesty has 
been gmcion sly pleased to approve 
of Oapt. George Maiwell Goad 
bearing tho doaignation of Capt.- 
Oomt, of tho 2nd Hampshire Rifle 
Volunteer Corps. 

Waji OFFcrE, Pall Mall, Dee. 1'2. 

1st Worcestershire Ride Volun- 
teer Corps— The Rev. John Hodg- 
son lo be hon. chap., vioo Pardoe, 
resigned. 

17th Essojt Rifle Volunteer 
Corns — Ens. James Gordon Bel- 
hnghamto be lieut.; Herbert Tay- 
lor to be ens., vice BeUiagham, 
prom Died. 

Ist Oxfordshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Buniphrey Pocklington 
Sotihuuse, Esq., lo bo capt,, vice 



1865.] 



FKOUOTIOtJS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



15S 



Bowyer, resigned; Ens. 'Williaiii 
Fraser Campbell to be lieut., vice 
Uedlicott, resiKued; Ens. James 
Daaf^ltks Walker to be Ueut., vice 
Druce, rOBigncd ; Doogks Moflatt, 
Eb^., to be ens., vice Donaldson, 
resigned ; Charles Egerton Carey, 
Esq., to be ens., vice Walker, pro- 
moted; Amherst Datiiel-Tyssen, 
Eaq., to be ens., vice Campbell, 
promoted. 

1st Warwickshire Eifle Volun- 
teer Corps— Walter Evans Warden, 
gent., to be ens., vice Bankins, re- 
signed. 

3rd Cambridgeshire Eifle Tolim- 
teer Corps — Lieut. Henry Edmund 
Buiton to be capt., vice Rosa, re- 
signed; Ens. Eichard P. Thomp- 
son to be Ueut., vice Burton, pro- 
moled ; Alfred Henry Qlennie to 
be ens., vice Thompson, promoted ; 
Frederick Leyceater Fisher to be 
ene., vice Jones, resigned. 

2nd Administrative Battalion of 
Cinque Ports Eifle Volunteers — 
Dr. Charles Egerton Fitzgerald to 
be assist.- surg. 

THE ABMT GAZETTE. 

•#• Where not otherwise specified, 
the following Commissions bear 

the current date. 
War Office, Pall Mall, Deo. 9. 
The Queen has been graciously 
pleased to give orders for the ap- 
pointment of Lieut.-Col. Charles 
George Gordon, of the Eoyal En- 
gineers, some time employed in 
the service of Bis Imperial Ma- 
jesty the Emperor of China, to be 
an ordinarf member of the Mili- 
tary division of the third class, or 
companions of the most honour- 
able Order of the Bath. 



Wak Office, Pall Mall, Dec. 9. 

3rd Eeginient of Dragoon Guards 
—Frederick FitzWilliam Trench 
Eobbs, Esq., lato Capt. 55th Foot, 
to be paymaster, vice Paymaster 
with the hon. rank of Capt., Thos. 
Marshall Cockerill, deceased. 

4th Dragoon Guards — Fredk. 
William Gosselin, gent., to be cor., 
l>y purchase, vice John Warren 
Koberton, transferred to the 14th 
Hussars. 

14th Hussars— Cor. John War- 



ren Roberton, fivm the 4th Dra- 
goon Guards, to be cor., vice James 
Logan White, promoted, 

2(rth Hussars — Maj. Charles 
Campbell Hook has retired upon a 
Pension equivalent to the half- pay 
of a Major, and not that of a Capt., 
as statod in the Gazette of the ISth 
Nov. 

Eoyal Artilleiy — Lient.-Col. 
Edward Wray, C.B., from the 
Supernumerary List, to be lieut.- 
col., vice Wiiham David Aitken, 
removed to the Supernumerary 
List— 26th July, 1864; Gent.-cadet 
Augustus Browne, from the Eoyal 
Military Academy, tobe lieut., vice 
Dodgaon, who resigns; Serg.-Maj. 
Chas. Clarke to be riding master, 
to complete the establishment. 

The surname of the Gent -Cadet 
appointed to a Lieutenancy, vice 
Leishman, is Domvile, and not 
Domville, as stated in the Gazette 
ofthoieth Ang. last 

Eoyal Engineera — liient-Col. 
Harry Bivers to be col, vice 
Nortn, who retires upon full-pay 
—24th Oct. ; Capt. John Wilbam 
Play fair to be lieut. -col., vice 
Eivera— 24th Oct ; Sec. Capt. 
Julius George Thomas Griffith to 
be capt., vice Playfair— 24th Oct.; 
Second Capt. George Philips, on 
the Supernumerary List, to bo 
capt.— 4th Nov.; Sec Capt. Chas. 
Nassau Martin to be capt., vice 
Lochner, who retires on temporary 
half-My — 4th Nov. ; Lieut Brown- 
low Hugh Mathew to be sec. capt., 
vice Griflith- 24th Oct.; Lient. 
Daniel Corrie Walker to be aeo. 
capt,, vice Martin — 4th Nov. ; 
Lieut. Eobert Home to be see. 
capt., vice MoncriefT, who resigns j 
Gent-Cadet John Thomas Wright, 
from the Eoyal Military Academy, 
to bo lieut., with temporary rank, 
vice Mathew ; Gent.-Cadet Am- 
brose Awdry, from the Eoyal 
MiUtary Academy, to be iient, 
with temporary rank, vice Swiney, 
deceased; Gcnt.-Cadet William 
Brunei Hurst, from the Royal 
Military Academy, to be lieut., 
vrith temporary rank, vice Walker; 
Gent.-Cadet Stonier Waller, from 
the Royal Military Academy, to 
be lieut, vitli. ^is.\K!«ar% -wai*-. 



154 



PSOMOTIOSB AND APPOIVntENTS. 



[JiX. 



vice Home.^The Commisaion of 
Lieut.-Ool. Joseph Henry DynB, 
as Capt., bears date tlie 11 th Aug , 
1857. aiid Ilia ComuiiBHion aa 
Lieulr.-Col., the Ist Juiy ; tbc 
Conimiseion of Liout.-Col, Alex- 
ander Fniser, na Cajit., bcnra dat-o 
the l*th Sept., 1857, and his Com- 
mission na Lieat,-CGl. the 31st 
Aug., 13tM.. 

3rd Regiment of Foot — Lieut.- 
Col. Willmm McCall, from half- 
p ly, Uniittflohed, to be lieut.-col , 
Tico BrcT,-Col. John Neptune 
Sargent, C.B., who retires upon 
temporary balf-pnyi Muj. Thomas 
Georgo Gardiner to be lieut.-coL, 
by pupohftse, vice UcGall, who 
retires ; C»pt. Charles Moore B. 
Sircc to be muj., bv |)iiix:hase, \*ic6 
Gurdiner ; Lieut. Bcibert Bui'dett 
Moruny to be taipt., by purchase, 
vice Sireo; Ens Geiirgc Agar 
Aloiiander tobelieut., hy purchaec, 
viceMuroiiy; Aabby Pochin, gent., 
to be ena., by purchase, vice Alex- 
ander. 

7th Foot— Liout. Eicbard Albert 
TcTCOC Pope, from the SHh Foot, 
to be lieut., vice HiU, who ex- 
olianges. 

fth Foot^QuBrl.-mast. Sei^. 
John Casey to be quart.-mast.. 
vice William Banbury, appointed 
Paymiistor to the Kth Fuot. 

11th Foot— Lieut Henry Her- 
bert Skill to be adjt., vice Lieut. 
Willinm Joseph Tibbs. who haa 
roaigned that ttppoiiitment-— Sth 
July. 

■2sHh Foot — Fletcher Castoll 
Hiingerrord LiUk'diile, gent., to 
be onfi., by purchase, vice Edmund 
OBrringti'n, promoted. 

»6lh Foot— Ens. William Verner 
Ellis" Lo bo lient.. bj- purcbiise, vice 
William Edwin Pnce. who rcliros ; 
Frederick Lloyd Harford, irent.. to 
be Otis,, by purchase, ricu Ellis. 

asith Foot— Lieut. Rowland Hill, 
from the 7lh Fntit. to Ijc lient., vice 
Pope, who eichangea. 

40th Foot— Staff-Surg. John 
Eldon Young, M.D.. to bo snrp., 
vic<! Henry Freder'ic Sobertaciu, 
BppoiTited to the Stnff. 

44th Foot^Lieot. Gii'o. Egcrton 
Hodgison to be rajif., Iiy purcliase, 
viui; Capt. and i3i'ev.-Mi^. Ibe 



Hon. Robert Baillio-Hamilton, 
who retires; Ens. Thomas Thomp- 
aon Irvine to bo liout., by purehaac, 
vice Hudgaou; Bryan Healden 
Poster, gent , to bo cna., by pnr- 
ohaae, vice Irvine. 

tiuth Foot — Thomaa Bancho 
Powys-Kock, gent,, to be ena., by 

Eurcbaso, vice Cecil John Shop- 
erd, promoted. 

tl'2iid Foot — Liout. John Honry 
Pagan to be instructor of musketry, 
vice Capt. Joseiib Sanderson, who 
has resigned that appointment— 
l+th Nov. 

73rd Foot — Joseph Carre Roaa, 
Kent., to be ens., by purchase, vice 
Richard John Aircy, promoted. 

T5th Foot— Maj and Brev.- 
Licut,-Coi. Charles E. P. Gordon 
to be lieut.-col., without purchaae, 
vice Liout.-Col, and Brci-.-CoL 
William RiidclilT, wlio retires upon 
full-pay ; Capt. and Brev.-Maj. 
Thomas ClemoaC Dunbar to t>e 
maj., without purchase, vice Brev.- 
Licut -Col. Gordon ; Liout. Ri- 
chard Wadeaon to be capt., without 
Eurcba.io, vice Brev.-Maj Dnnbar; 
lis Charles Ueiisman Haycock 
to bo lieut., without purchase, vice 
Wiideaoii. 

P'Jnd Foot— Lieut. Robert Alex- 
ander Eramot to be inatruclor of 
muwkctry. vice Lient. Alexander 
Forbes Mackay, appointed Acyt. — 
21 Bt July. 

4th West India Bcgt— Serg,- 
Miii Joaiah Gerard to be ens., 
without purchaao, vice Geo. Heury 
Cary, promoted. 

STAFF. 

Miij. Alexander Abercrombio 
Nelaon (Irom Fort Major. Gueru- 
sey). half-pay, late of a Depot 
Battalion, to bo deputy adjl,-^n. 
to the Forces serving in Jumaira, 
vice Brov.-Col. J. W. Reynolds, 
Ciiptuin, half-pay, TTliattaehed, 
whose period of service on the 
Stafi' has e.fpired. 

UEPItiL IlKPiBTMENT. 

Snrg. Henry Frederic Robert- 
son, from the -iriih Foot, to be 
BlfllT-Burg.. vice Jolin EldoiiTonng, 
M.D., appointed to Ibo Wth Fool;. 

BKEVET. 

Col. Charles Frederick North, 
retii-ed full-pay, Royal Engineers, 



1865.] 



PltOUOTXOKH AND APFOINTinHm> 



ISS 



to bo moj.'ger., the rank being 
hoc. only — ^'24th Oct. 

Lieni.-Ool. find Brev.-Col. Wm. 
Radcliffe, retired full-pay, 75th 
Foot, to have the hon, rank of 
Maj.-Goa. 

Muj. Alcnander Aborcromhio 
jTelaon, half-pay, late of a Depot 
BatMilioa, Deputy A^jt.-Gcn. in 
Jamaica, to be Heut.-col. 

Parmaater, with tbe hon. rank 
of Capt., Robert Smytb, (JiHh 
Foot, to have the hon. rank of 
M^.— lOth Nov. 

Pftymaater Terence Bowan, 3-Uh 
Foot — to have the hoii. r&nk of 
Capt.— 16th Sept. 

The following promotion a to 
tftko place in conaeqacnoe of the 
ilcceaee of Gen. Edward Buckley 
Wynyard, C.B., Col. of the tJSth 
Foot, on the 2-H.h Nov. 

Lieut.- Gien. Charlea Geo. James 
Arbuthaot, Col. of the Slat Foot, 
to be gen. — 25th Nov. 

Maj.-Oen. Charles Oascoigne, 
Col. of the SPth Foot, to be licut.- 
gen. — 25th Nov. 

Lieut, -CoL and Brovot-Col. 
Frederick Paul Haines, from half- 
pay late 8th Foot, serving with 
the rank of Brigadier- Gen., to be 
mai -gen,— ^25th Nov. 

Capt. and Brev.-Maj, Fntncia 
William Hnecings, Boyal Artil- 
lery, to bo Ueut.-col, — 25th Nov. 

Capt. George Thomiison, 85th 
Foot, to bo maj. — 25th Nov. 

The following Lieut.- Cola, of 
the Royal Engineers having com- 
pleted tbe qitftlifving service in 
their present rant, to bo cols., 
under tho provisions of tbe Royal 
Warrant of the Mth Oct., 1358, 
via. : — Robert Michnal Laffon, 
Arthur Henry Freebng, Harry 
St. George Ord, and Hampden 
Clement Blamire Moody — 28th 
Nov. 

THE MILITIA GAZETTE. 
Wah Officb, P4U. Mall, Dec. 6. 

I st Devonshire Kegtmont at Mi- 
litia—Lieut. Henry Arundel Mar- 
Ivn Fiirraiit to be copt., vice Fnrs- 
diin, resigned. 

War Office, Pall Mall, Dec 9. 
Ist Derbyshire Militia — AliVed 



Oliwant Francis, gent, to bo 
ossist.-aurg., vice German, pro- 
moted. 

West Suffolk Regiment of Mi- 
litia — Lieut. Edw. WiUtor Greene 
to be capL, vice Lord Manners, do- 
ceased. 



THE VOLUNTEER GAZETTE. 
WiaOi^FicB, Pall Maj-l, Deo. G, 
Queen's (Westminster) Biflo Vo- 
lunteer Corps ^ Roper Dnero 
Tyler, late Lieut, in Her Majesty's 
lllh Rcgt. of Foot, to be adjl., 
from tho 18th Oct. 

Mcimorandnm — Adjt. Roper 
Dncre I'yler, of the Queen's (Wcat- 
miuBtor) Biflc Volunteer Corps, 
to serve with the rank of Capt. 

Ist StaObrdabire Artillery Vo- 
lunteer Corps — Sec. Lieut. John 
Strick to be first lient. 

2ith Cheshire Riflo Volunteer 
Corps — Ens. John Aahton to bo 
bout., vice McAjidreiv, resigned; 
Robert Ashton, gout., to be ens., 
vice J. Ashton, promoted. 

1st Devonshire Light Horse 
Volunteer Corps — Lieut. Henry 
Carew Hunt to bo capt., vice the 
£arl St. M&ur, resigned; Jefierj 
Mieiielmoro to bo cor. 

4th Devonshire Artillery Volun- 
teer Corps — Charles Paget Blake, 
M.D., to be asaist.-surg. 

Ist Devonshire Enmneer Volun- 
teer Corps — Charlea Fowler to bo,. 
Bee. lient., vice Withington, re- 1 
signed. 

4th Administrative Battalion of 
Devonshire Rifle Volunteers — 
Walter Soper Gervis to bo Burg. 

3rd Devonshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Abel George Clifton to be 
ens., vice Harris, resigned. 

6th Devonshire RiHe Volunteer 
Cnrps — Lieut. Arthur William 
Leigh to be capt., vice Collina, 
resigned ; Joseph Foster to Ijc 
lieut., vino Leigh, promoted i Isoaa 
Frost to be ens., vice Leigh, pro- 
moted. 

6th Devonshire Riflo Volunteer 
Corps — Anthony John Newman 
to be assiat.-surg., vice Guroble, 
resigzied. 

13th Devonshire Kifle Volnntoer 
Corps— The Rev. Edward BaiAus 
be fawn. c\ia.^- 



U6 



PROBIOTIONS AND aPPOlSTMeSTS. 



[Jan. 



17th Dot on ah ire Rifle Volunteer 

Corp3^F rail CIS "Bdmund Ktacey 
to bo cupt., vice Watson, resigDed. 

8th Tower Hamlets Rifle Volaii- 
teor Corps — Ens. Henry Wil»hin 
to be iieut. ; Ena. Georgo Edwurd 
Ridilirord to be Iieut.; Joaeph 
MoGregor Koppel, gent., to be 
Iieut.-. Wiltiuin Joseph Frederick 
Bannatyne to bo ena. 

lilt Midlothian Artillery Volun- 
teer Corpa— Cant. CharleH Stewart 
to bo mnj. : First Lieut. Jiunes 
Thomas Itiddook to be capt., vicQ 
Stewart, promoted; Sec. Lieut. 
Alciandcr O. Sjiouce to be tirsi 
heut., vice Riddock, promott'J, 

lat Dumbai-timshiro Rifle Volun- 
teer Uorpa— KdwarJ Uuit, gent., 
to be eua., vice Burgtsss, renigued. 



War Office, Pau. Mali, Dec. 9. 

13lh AbcTtleetiBhire Ride Volun- 
teer Corps— Giirden William DufF, 
Esq., to be capt., vicePalriuk Rose 
Innes, resigned. 

7tb Bedfordshire Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps — Sir George Robert 
Osbom, bftrt., to be ciipt., vice 
Hoggp, niBiRncd. 

IsL Middleaei Engineer Volnn- 
teer Corps — Sec. Lieut. Georgo 
Jamea Kaiii to be first liciit., vice 
Sandbam, promoted j Sec. Lient. 
Josiah Webber to be Srst Iieut., 
vioo Pliear, resigned ; Micbael 
George Luck to be sec. Iieut., rice 
Webber, promoted. 

London Scottish Rifle Volnntwr 
Corps — Lieut.-Gen. Sir James 
Hope Grunt, G.C.B., to be hou.- 
DoL 

1st Ailraini strati ve Brigade of 
Norfolk Artillerv VolnnteerH — 
Lient.-Col. Sir Edmund Henry 
Knowlea Lacon, Burl, M.P.. to bo 
Iieut -col.; Maj. Hill Maaernden 
Leathc!i to lie mnj. 

1st Norfolk Artillery Volontpflr 
Cnrjis— GuorgeMooreCbamberlin, 
to be aec. lioot., vice Brown, pro- 
moted. 

Isti Lainirkshire Engineer Vo- 
lunteer Corps^Robcrt Ferguson 
Cnder.heod, gent , to be f^ec. Iieut., 
vice Biiber Keddie, deceased. 

2nd Adminiwtiitlive Biitfalion of 
Lnnarkabire Itille VoinTitterfi — 
John Campbell, esq., late Captain 



Tth Dragoon Guards, to be lieut.- 

cnl, vice A. C. Biviiig. resigned. 

1st Liinitrksbire HiHo Volunteer 
Corps — Jauies Henderson Fer- 
guson, gout., to be oae., vice A. J. 
Watson, promoted. 

3rd Inmarkshiro Rifle Volunteer 
Oorpa — Daniel Cameron Smithy 
gent., to bo Iieut., rice Q. XAnd^ay, 
resigned. 

6th Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps— Thorn iiii Short, gent., to 
be ens , vice S. Aitken, resigned. 

25th Lanarksbiro Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps— Tbomns Richiirdson, 
gent., to be ens,, vice T. Pollock, 
resigned. 

Momorandnm — 3rd Lanarkshire 
Rifle Volunteer Corps — Th« 
Christian names of Lieut McCiinl, 
gmtettoJ 2-ltrh ALay, 18ij't, arc James 
Sloan Mc Caul, tind cot Jobti 
Sloan McCaiil. as therein stated. 

3rd Caithness-ahiro Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps — Charles Gurdiner 
Dunbar to be ens. 

iith Cinque Ports Artille.ry Vo- 
lunteer Cfirps — Soc. Lieut George 
Dira Mertens to be lirst Iieut., tico 
Taltburd, resigned ; Hiimrnerton 
Crump, Esq,, to l«! aoe. Iieut., vice 
Mertens, promolecL 

3rd Essex Artillery Vol nn teer 
Corps — Sec. Liout. George Alfred 
Sedgwick to be cant. ; Joseph 
Gilbert Blair Marshall to bo first 
Iieut 

I-2th Essex Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — George Courtould to be 
enpt. 

4th Adrainiatrntive Battalion of 
Durham Rifle Volunteers — His 
GmcB the Duke of Cleveland tt> 
bo bon.-eol., vice the Duke of 
Cleveland, deceased. 

1st Lancashire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps— John Pilkington, gent., to 
be hon, quart.- mast. 

8th Northumberland Biflo Vo- 
lunteer Corps— James Smith to 
be ens., vice Jobling, resigned. 

5th Hampshire Kifle Volunteer 
Corps — Copt, Josiah Joseph Webb 
to be maj., vice Ford, rusigticd. 

TFTE ARMY GAZETTE, 
%• Wbcrcnot otherwise speeiflod, 
the following Commisaions bear 
the current date. 



1886.] 



PBOMOnOHB AMD APPOINTVBNTS. 



167 



Wab 0»nCB, Pau, Mall, Dec. 16. 
Royal R^ment of Artillerj — 
Sec. Gapt. John Henry Brown to 
be oapt., vice TbomaB Longworth 
Dames, who resigns — Nov. 26 ; 
See. Capt. Walter Aston Poi 
Strangways to be capt., vioe Wm. 
Uorria, deceased — Dec. 2j Lieut. 
Arthur Ford to be sec. capt., vice 
Brown — Nov. 26; Lieut. Francis 
!UontAgae Smith to be sec capt , 
vice Joseph Nathaniel Portlook 
DadsoQ, deceased — Nov. 28; 
Lieut. Francis Arthur Mant to be 
sec. capt., vice Strangways^Dec. 
2; Gent-Cadet Edw. Blaksley, 
fivm the Royal Military Academy, 
to be lieut., vice Ford; Gont.- 
Cadet .Tohn Pousouby Cundill, 
firom the Boyal Military Academy, 
to be lieut., vice Snfith; Gent.- 
Cadet Alfred Foulger Fletcher, 
from the Boyal Military Academy, 
to be lieut , vice Mant ; Quart. - 
mast.-Serg. Benjamin Trew to be 
quart. -mast., vice Black, retired 
npon half-pay — Dec. 16. 

The date of the retirement upon 
fhll-pay of Major- Gen. Henry 
Pester, and the removal of Maj.- 
Gen. Sir Bichard James Docres 
from the Supemamerary to the 
Effective List, is the 11th, and not 
the 10th of Sept., ISlH, as stated 
in the Oazetts of the Ilth of Oct. 
last. 

The second Christian name of 
Lieut. Russell is Broodfoot, and 
not Broadford, as stated in the 
Oaxelte of the 20th Sept. last. 

THE MILITIA GAZETTE. 
War Office, Pall Mall, Dec, 13. 

Westmoreland and Cumberland 
Begt. of Yeeomanry Cavalry — 
Lieat. Sir Henry Ralph Vane 
bart., to be capt., vice Sir Rolwrt 
Briscoe, bart., resigned; Cor. Ri- 
chard Conrtenay Musgrave to be 
lieut., vice Vane, promoted ; Lord 
Kenlis to be cor., vice Musgrave, 
promoted. 

Wak Office, Pall Mall, Dec. 16. 
Memorandum — Westmoreland 
and Cumberland R<'gimcnt of 
Yeomanry Cavalry — Her Majesty 
has been graciously pleased to 
accept the resignation of the com- 



mission held by Capt. Sir Robert 
Brisco, bart., in this Regt. 

THE VOLUNTEER GAZETTE. 
Wak Office, Pall Mall, Dec. 13. 

9th Cinque Ports Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps— Lieut. John Frewen 
to bo capt. 

• 8th Isle of Wight Rifle Volun- 
teer Corps — Thomas Murrow to 
be ens., vice Plumley, promoted. 

3rd Manchester or 40tb Lanca- 
shire Rifle Volunteer Corps — 
Capt. James Bajley to be maj., 
vice Brooks, resigned. 

West Middlesex Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Stephen Harlowe Harlowe 
to Mens., vice Gibson, resigned; 
George Henley Barber, to be ens., 
vice Daniell, promoted; Thomas 
Dane to be assist. -snrg. 

29th Middlesex Rifle Volunteer 
Corps— Ens. George Butler to be 
lieut., vice Stoneham, resigned. 

Memorandum — The 5th Oxford- 
shire Rifle Volunteer Corps having 
been struck out of the Rlecords of 
the War Office will henceforth 
cease to hold any number of de- 
signation in the Volunteer Force 
of the County of Osford. 

War Office, Pall Mall, Dec. 16, 

1st Huntingdonshire Rifle Vo- 
lunteer Corps — Lieut. Dennis Her- 
bert to be capt., vice Anslej, re- 
signed. 

5th Administrative Battalion of 
Cheshire Rifle Volunteers— Ed- 
mund Joseph Tipping, Esq., to bo 
maj. 

16th Cheshire Rifle Volunteer 
Corps — Lieut. Joseph St. John 
Yates to be capt., vice Tipping, 
resigned; Ens. James Blackwell 
to bo lieut., vice Yates, promoted. 

Ist City of Edinburgh Artillery 
Volunteer Corps — First Lieut. 
Alexander Ritchie to be capt., 
vice Findlay, resigned ; First 
Lieut. James Laing to be capt., 
vice Boyd, promoted ; John Patrick 
Wright to be sec. lieut., vice Mo- 
Farlane, promoted. 

Memorandum — The date of Ens. 
Anstruthcr Macadam's Commis- 
sion to a Lieut, in the 1st City of 
Edinburgh Rifle Volunteer Corps, 



159 



noHonom and ATPonnvEins. 



[Jam: 



thotdd be 30tb Jane, and not SOth 
Jntv, as formerly GiaEetted. 

i»th Kent Rifle Volunteer Corps 
— The Bev. Frsnda Cameroii, 
M .A., to be hon. chap, vice the 
Iter. B. C. Smith, rcHigned. 

Liverpool Kiflo Volunteer Bri- 
eade or Ith Lancaahire Bifle Vo- 
lunteer Corps — Arthur Hornby 
I*wiH, gent, to be ensT vice Wil- 
aon, promotod ; Aasiat.-Surg. 
John Slopford Taylor to be surg., 
Tice Skinner, resigned. 

let Manchester or 6th I«nca- 
shire Rifle Volunteer Corps— Wm. 
Wentworth Clapham, gent., to be 
ens., vice Nicluon, resigned. 



15th Iduacaehire Bifle Tolnnteer 
Garp»— William Bnseell Willwia, 
Esq., to be capt, vioe Badenach, 
deceased. 

2ud Boas-shire Bifle Volunteer 
Corps — Ena. Baillie Chisholm 
Munro to be lient., vice Matheson, 
resigned; Peter James Dewar, 
gent, to be ens., vioe Huaro, pro- 
moted. 

10th Snasex Bifle Volunteer 
Corpa— Douglas Hentj to be li«at, 
vice Woods, resigned. 



COLBURN'S 

UNITED SERVICE MAGAZINE 

AND 

NAVAL AND MILITARY JOURNAL. 



No. CCCOXXXV.— FEBRUARY, 1865. 



CONTENTS. 

ComiTs-MABTiAL AMD pEBMiNEBT Judge-Adtocatis 
A Visit to the Couet and People of Siam 
Stbatagehs AMD Tbicks of Waji .... 

Curiosities of Naval Literature .... 

A TODR IS Canada and the Koethebn States . 

The West India Begiuemis akd ih£ Defence of the Colonies 

Manati .......' 

The American Navt ..... 

Oswald Hastings, oa The ADVENiuaES of a Qdbbk'b Aidb-db 

Camp . 

From London to Peebepolib .... 

Foreign Svuhabt ...... 

Editor's Pobtfouo ...,,. 

Correspondence.— The Koyal Artillery 

Critical Noiicbs ...... 

Stations of the Boyal Havt ib Commission 

Stations op the Bkitisd Abmi , . , . 

Prouotiohs a^d Appointments . . . ■ 



159 
170 

189 
200 
202 
211 
217 
224 

230 

250 
264 
273 

283 
285 
288 
291 
293 



LONDON : 

HURST AND BLACKETT, PUBLISHERS. 

SUCCE8S0HS TO HENRY COLBURN, 

13. GREAT MARLBOROUGH STREET. 

(OLD ALSO BV BILL AND BSADFUTE, IDINBDHaH; D. ROBISTSOX, OLABaOW ( 

U'GLASHAH AND OILL, DUBLIN; O. KOBBBTIDH, HILBODBM) 

AND ALL B00KSU.\.1.%«. 



13, Cbiat MABLBDBtiuoa Smtrr. 



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obffer^ anrl d^nvibet irirlL ivtibL tip «<•«< ^' — Aibenmim 

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My Life and Recollections' By the Hon. GaiNTtsr F. Bsueblrt. 

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Life in Java. With Skcldipa of tlie JBYnnese. By WiLl-iAM Babriitii- 

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Cheap Edition of Barbara's History- By Amklia B. Edvardb. 

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Christian's Mistake- By the Author of " John Halifax, Gbstlh- 

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The Hammonds of Holy Gross^ By Lady Blakk. 3 vola. 
Blonut Tempest- By the Rev. J, C. M, Uellbw. Second EdUion, 

hcTised- 3 vuls- 

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pnlpU »r alimr Hi-p 111 ail [he BLlt^at Irnchei ii> Ihli heuulLfiil •lory-"— ^oal. 

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The Three Watches. By W. G- Wilj.h, 3 vols. 

"Thrrr l» a Rembraikdr-hkr tty\e af fiction aa nell »• palnllntf. and Mr. Will* cultlirirei U. 
* The Three M'au hi^a^ In a siory of very corial durable atrrnrrib, Th* hFrolnr and her undv HTfl 
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Shattered Idols- ^ ^*jl3- (lo February.) 

Mr, Stevart^S Intentions- By ibe Aulbor of ^'Grandmolher'a 

Money," &c , 3 loU. 

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work ihat wt conpramlalf blot upon lla loodaett almott without a alnglv ImporlanL reierre. Tba 
ToLmnea abuiind ia r'^nrnua wntin^ and pna-^a^a Ibat ailr the deeper aHe<:tlaiii." — AtheDKum. 

The ftueen of the County. By the Autbor of " Margaret and Her 

Briiirsmaiili," Ar, 3 v.pJi 
*' A ou'el ol Ellr lirvL ijia^a li it i naff cl txcKInc Intrinl."— pHl- 

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Fair, " 3 rob. 
"A trwi i*M oeni, T>* iwrr tiimT i»o4*o«."— lohaBoW. 



1S6*.] 



159 



f 



COUETS-MAETIAL AND PERMANENT JUDGE- 
ADVOCATES. 

NolhiiJg Cjh be more grateful to the feeliiifjs of a soldier and a 
[lalriul, than to find himself an ubjt^ct of solicitude in Ilie eyes of 



IS cuunlrymenj and we think we may vcnlure to say that the interest 
wiiicli iias sprung: u^), and is dail^ increasing in this country in 
rehiliuii tn everytliing connected with llie Army, is resjionded to by 
u general feelinii of pritle and ^raHticaiion uu ibe part of every 
bfiinch of l)ie Military service. But there is »ucli a lliingas killing 
s child vrilli kiniliie.-s; anil a disposition to iiiterlere with the ad- 
minislrnlioii uf militury Uw is at preaciit afloat, which ia fraught 
with mischief tu the discipline of the Army, if it should lend to 
sucli coiicesMons as are |>rop<]unded by some writers who have lakeii 
in hand to discuss the subject. 

Little more I ban a century and a half has elapsed since the muatet 
roll of the whole ngular army iii this cuuiitry fell ehort of 10,1100 
men, and the very idea of any standing urmy at ail was so obnoxious, 
that the Goveri)uieiit could nut venture to ask fur such a sintute aa 
the present Mutiny Bill. Courts-martial w(!re not recognised ; the 
law knew no diaiiiiction between soldier and civilian ; a tieserler wiia 
tried as a felon at the assizes, by a petty jury, on a bill found hy a 
grand jury ; refusing to obey orders, or sleejjing on a post were no 
otTeuccs at all ; aud striking a commanding oiGcer was a mere com- 
mon assault. 

Peoples' minds were at lenfilh avrnkened lo the necessity of 
making a h-gtil distinctiou bctwee'i the soldier and the civilian, 
partly by the mutiny of a regiment, which now claims, deservedly, 
to be one of the most distinguished in the service, and partly by the 
menacing altitude of I'Vance. 

To confront the disi^iplined legions which the French monarch 
might find means of landing' an the coast of England, it was evident 
that sume more cllicieiit body of troops than tlie niiliiia of ihe 
country was required, while the mutiny just alluded to served lo 
show that a sharper and more siringent code than thit of the 
ordinary tribunals was retjiiired to maintain the disci)jliue of troops 
permanently embodied, and prevent their being a terror, instead of 
a protection, to llie country they were intended lo defend. 

Thus, alter much hesiialiun, the first Mutiny Bill was brought 
in, and reluctuntlv passed into a law for sin months ; all'ording by 
Bome of its provijiuns, as Hacuuhiy observes, a singular illuslnition 
ol the manners of the day, for the dinner hour being early in those 
days, and it being probable, that a genileman who had dined would 
not- he in a state in which lie could be sitfely trusted with the livea 
of his fellow cuunlrymen, one of the chiuses of the first Mutiny 
Bill prohibited any sentence of death biiii;; pus>ed liy a courU 
in.irlial after niie o'clock in the altetuoow. 

L'. S. Umi. No. 4^3. Wn \mh. * 



160 



COVHTS-UAKTIAL 



[Fbb. 



The Mutiny Act thus first established, expressly recognises the 
rights of Parlioinent over the military force; fixes tlie number of 
meo whom the aovpreign may rclain or BUmmon under his colours ; 
and eetttblislies the principles of crimiu.il jurispniJence to which it 
is necessary to subject tlie *oltlicr ; and na the same principle which 
leads the Parliament to vole the supplies fur the csigeiicies of 
tiovernment for but one jeiir at a tiaie, hiis induced the Legislnture 
to set like bounds lo tbe power with which they entrust ihc execu- 
tive of maintaining an army by liniiling the duriitioti of the act to 
one year, ibu miiilary law is more essentially a liw eman/ilins from 
tbe people ibiin any other statute. Tlint noble solilier and soldier's 
friend, Sir Charles Napier, in his work on Mililary Law, shows a 
siroug feeling in favour of the foreign system of putting some 
private soldiers on court a- martial as members; but he saw the 
dilBeulties, in the way of such an innovation, arisitig from our 
uational habits, and be admits that to adopt such a measure at once 
would be injudiciuus. Tliroughout his work he is strongly in 
favour of preserving the uiditary charaetei of these courts, esclud- 
ing from ihem as mucli as possible the civil clement. The 
Article of War, which runs thus : " All crimes not espitul, &c.," he 
siiys, "is the most useful of the whole," and quainily terms it the 
" Spine." 

Such is the admiialiim of foreigners for the principles on which 
intiitnry law is established in England, that in the excellent work of 
Mr. Dupiu we find the fullowing p^is-Hge: "How would it rejoice 
me to beiiold a military code esfabliphrd in the same spirit of pni- 
deiiee and liberality for t!ie animal government of llie French army ; 
a code to remind the officer and the soldier that they carry the 
sword ami (he musket but at tbe command of their country, and to 
protect the life, the property, and the liberty of the citizen." 

With respect to the inferior tribunals, constituted urnler the 
Mutiny Act, it ia admitted even by those who have come forward at 
the present time to advocate Mililary Law Reform, that liejjimental 
and District Court-Martiala are fitted fairly enough tu ailminisler 
justice iu the matters which fall under llieir cognisance, and ihnt in 
the trial of those classes of cnses which form nn overwhelming pre- 
ponderuace of the whole number tried, uot one in a thousand con- 
victions is wrong. 

In a recent pamphlet entitled "Suggestions for improving the 
Lnw and Practice of Courts- Martial," the writer. Captain Hale, in 
order lo bring his subject clearly and concisely before his readers, baa 
adopted the plini of supposing the whole catalogue of olfenees, ob- 
noxious lo military ttibunuls, lo be divided into three classes. The 
two first clashes in this supposed division, composing the far greater 
proportion of llie whole catalogue, it is unnecessary to dwell upon, 
as he admits they are in general fairly dealt with by the existing 
forms and procedure of military law courts. 

Proceeding then to the third class in his divisioo, he describee it 



1865,] 



AND PEEMASENT JCDGS-ADVOCATFS. 



161 



a? including cates. the importance of which quite counterbalances 

tlia sinalliiess of tlieir number. " Thej occur mainly in time of 

jience. Tliov involve t)ie moi't imporliirit, tlie mo^t complicatetl, 

.tlie mi'tt ilelicate invcstigiiliuns, not only wlien officers, but hIich 

I Jion-commissioiied officers and private soliliers appear as prisoners, 

iTliey freqNi^nlly approach iu their character to causes in civil court?, 

jin which, il llie pi4iiliff fail lo prove his ca-c, tlie disgrace which he 

niilendeJ to fall on the defendant, recoils on himself. The relations 

Ibctween pro=ecuIor and prisoner, are embittered by pcrson;il con- 

Mile-Miioiis, and tlie issne dues not concern the prisoner alone. The 

(■witnesses on both sides are deeply interested in the result, and ilU 

Mfelings estend «ide and deep. Under these circumstances, mem- 

hers of coarts-inarlials have a difficult taak to perform: the case 

ia iulricaie, eMraiieoua matter is brought before the court, questions 

are otfered by one party, and objected to by the other, and clear 

heads and legal knowledge are required to preserve the diguily and 

reputation of the court." 

The fact tliat lliltiary courts must occa--ionally have to deal with 
Idiflicuil cases, no one will dispute; but doubtful and obscure uoiiits 
in !a* are not nearly of such frequent occurrence ns peiiple ate 
soinelinies given to supjiose. We liearliiy concur with the vriter 
of the article we have quoted, in thinking it expedient to chick, as 
far as possible, the iniruduction of enlraneous motter at a Court- 
Martial ; but a bitter fceiing between opposing parlies at a trinl, is 
ill most cases a notur.d feature iu their rclutive position, winch it 
would he hopeless to attempt to alter; neither do we see ouy means 
of preventing the witnesses from feeling interested, or of preventing 
ill-feelings being engendered and disused among the parties con- 
cerned, or of couiplclely putting a slop to irregular qucslious being 
oftered and objecled to. 

We do not foil into the view taken by Captain Hale of the in- 
competency of a Gt-neral Court-Marlial as at present constituted ; 
neither do we enlirely agree with him in opiuian as to the expediency 
of th« ciiiiugeshe wouhl introduce; but upon the whole, his pamph- 
let is well dvuerving of atleatiou, and is written in a fair spirit uC 
criticism. 

To a very different category belgnga the following caricature of 
niiliiary courts-martiid, which has appeared in an article in thu 
i/ome and Foreign Review. 

Tlie writer commences by observing: "The ultimate parpose for 
which all courts of law exist, is llie dispensing of justice. * He 
tiien proceeds : " As ihcy arc human, it is of course impossible that 
they ehould always succi^ed iu doing tliis, but every failure is so far 



* We «haU not quairel with \\ia dogma. altliDiigh we itiould jirefcr to sty that 
Ilia ullimalfl jiiirpost of a court -niBftifll is the [iteveiiiion of crime, or the nminleo- 
■iice of diiciiiiina on jinncipiei of juitii^e. Tlie olijrcl of milttary Isvc is not lo 
[DBJie men lirtiiuiis and gooi), hul to proitucE prompt o^etlloice i heoce a military 
orffeam may not liCDrime iu \U mural tense. 



102 



COURTS-SIARTUI, 



[Fks. 



a failure to answer tlie very pni] of tliei'r iastitolion. It iloes not 
ilwoys follow that this is a discredit to ihe tribunal coticerned. It 
may arise from circumstances which have their origin outaide tho 
cuurt itself, or from the eiceplioniil operntion of ii rule wliich is 
generally beneficiHl. But if the misciirriage of juslice can in any 
rea[icct bo IraceJ to the conslijution or |irocedure of the court, 
tlifn of necessity that coiislitiilion or that procedure stands con- 
demned. The actual conduct of a trial by a Court- Marliiil, however 
cumberoiiH may be tl:e formality of some of its detail?, is in all lis 
main principles identical wilh that of any other criminal trial. But 
when B'e turn to Ihe constitution and functions of the military courls, 
it must strike everyone, that it a tribunal, so composed and invested 
with such anomalous offices, can be safely enlrusted l.o admiuiater 
llie law, our whole system of civil judicature is a mistake, 

"The officers who compose llie court are at once judges and jury- 
men. In the one capacity they have no knowledj^e, in the other 
they have no assistance. They have to give decisions on all kinds 
of technical difScullies, raised in name by ihe prisoner or the pro- 
secutor, but in fact by the counsel sitting at his side. Tliey have 
the advice, it is true, of the officiating judge-advocate, but he is a 
soldier like themselves, possessing it may be no great legal kuow- 
li'dge, and having only this advantage over them that he is not 
responsible for his o|iinion. The members of the court have to 
decide by the light of their own underslanding, and at their 
individual risk. Embarrassed by the result of their judical incom- 
petency, they proceed to discharge the functions of ajurv- They 
JiQve to disentangle the conflicting details of a mass of evidence, 
half of which possibly has been wrongly n'ceived, and is wholly 
irrelevant to the issue. Wliile the oilier half perhaps is hardly 
intelligible for want of some link in tlte chain which has been 
wrongly rejected. They conie to tliis task with the declamation of 
tlie pophi^^tries of the o]iposing counsel fresh in their ears,* for it 
is only the counsel's voice, and not his argument, thai a Court- 
Marliid is af[atd of; and Ihey have no summing up to guide ihem, 
ni) judge to point out to them the facts which are really in dispute, 
the nature and amount of the evidence which has been adduced on 
each side, or the exact proporlious of the issue upon which they are 
to decide. 

" To argue that there is no danger of justice miscarrv'ing where the 
conditions of the quest after it are such as lhe?e, would be to claim 
for Courls-Martfal either the privilege of inspired kuowledge, or 
the safeguard of miraculous guidance. 

"The imminent danger of a failure of justice is not, however, the 
only evil of the present system of Courts-Martial. The entire 
uncertainty which exists whether the finding on any given trial will 
be right or wrong, combined with the absolute certainty that with 

> tlow ttie di'clamilion cka be ringing la tbeir enra does not ippear, legat gen- 
tUitien Dot being illoirul M idrJrcM a Couit-&Urtial. 



IS65.] 



AND rKKMANEMT JUDOK-AOVOOATES. 



les 



the present conrtitiilion of llie court, the whole weiglit of probability 
iii necessarily Bgiiinst its being riglit, has given birtli to a complete 
wiiiit of confiJetice iti the result. A trial i» an orcliuury civil court 
usually settles llie dtspuled qiitsliiin in the public mind. If the 
evidence i,* very contiicting, nntl llie jury have had lo elect which ^iiie 
they should believe, there may be people who think the decisinn 
wrong; but alill in all ordinary esses, tlie verdict is aece]iled. 
by the public as the best atlaiiiuhle conclusion upon the facta. 
But no such genera! acceptance follows upon the seiileiice of a 
Court-Murtial, Those wlio lake interest enough in the subject to 
read tlie report of the proceedings, weigliihe evidence after a tashion 
for themselves, but tliey do this instead of accepliiig the verdict, 
rather ihau as a preliininiiry to Hjiproving it. It is hardly too much 
to say thiit In geueriil society the jiosition of an officer is uuatfected by 
the result of his trial. 

" Public cpiiiion condemns or acciuiis biu) in a certain rough way, 
but il does this in the majority of cases on its own responsibility, 
and n-iliioiit much troubling itself to inquire whether its conclusions 
are or are nut in liariaony witli those of the courL. And althouf^h 
respect for authority may prevent military men from adinilling tlie 
fact quite so frankly, il ia probolile ihul the opinion of the intelligent 
members of the profession coinctdeD in the main with that of the 
public. 

"Such a elate of things can hardly be satisfuctory lo any of the 
parties concerned. If the prisoner is guilty, he does not feel his 
chance of escape increased ; and if he is innocent, he knows thai an 
acquittal will be deprived of half its value. If the prosecution is 
inslituled on behalf of a private person, he shares the pri?oner'a 
uncertainly as lo the result; if it is in fact as well as in nnme at the 
suit of the Crown, the authorities must be aware that whatever may 
be llie issue, it will involve almost inevitably some new discredit. 
To the members of the court, tlie office must be at the best a 
wearisome and thankless one. Their labour is great, and their 
responsibility is great, and neither can be much lightened to them 
by the occasional fear that they may have gone wrong, or the 
abiding consciousness that they have no knowledge to keep tliem 
riglit. And alter all, it is a poor reward to tiiid that society iias 
taken the ease out of their hands, and pronounced upon it without 
even the ceremony of waiting till their hading has been made knunn. 
One more miscliief of the present system may be mentioned. As 
il is the object of rules of evidence to define and specify the exact 
points to be proved, so it is generally the work of one or other of 
the parties lo extend and amplify tliose points. Notliing is more 
difficult than lo convince either )»lainlill' or defeudanl thai any part 
of Ins story is beside the mark. Now this is just tlie klntl of 
tendency which a Court- Martial is powerless to check. Kvery 
possible grievjnco of the prosecutor against llio prisoner, of ihe 
priaoner against the prosecutor, of both a^ii\\\%\. ^^'e« VxisJiiiSx 



16-t 



COUKTS-MABTIAL 



[Feb. 



officers, and of their brutlier oificere agaiaH both, is dilipenlly 
hunted ijji, and as one piece of evidence of this kiud suggests a 
good many more, the proeeidings of a Court-Marl iul seem lo end 
almost invariably by bewnnirig a sc^iid.ilitiia cbroiiirie of the regi- 
ment to whicli tlie triul relutra. Nov not to spi'ak of the utter 
confufjun to which the court ie reduced by this process, it obviousi/ 
•Irikes directly at the efficiency of thu srmy. Tliese men who 
have been upenly charging eucb other n't!!! malice and slunJer, nud 
perbnps liinting not obscurely at conspiracy anil ])erji]ry, hiid at 
first probibly no very Jee]i sedsc of injury to conleiul aguin't. If 
their quarrels luid btie» let alone, tliey mi^bt lirst have slumbered, 
and then died out. When tliey have once been envenomed by 
publicity, and stereotyped by beinif sworn lo, there is little hope of 
their exiinelion. It would be difficult to exaggerate the ill-eirecta 
of such a result upon the mutual intercourse ot men who have to 
pass their lives together. Yet between the harmony of this inler- 
course, and the proper discharge of their duties, there is an intimate 
coniKxioii ; and ii|)oii the proper dischiirge of their duties depends 
the discipline of the soldiers under tiiein, iind by no remote cou- 
BequcTice the conduct of the regiment in the field. 

"Thus long, and thus formidable is the array of miachicf which 
spring from the existing system of triuls by Courts-Mariial." 

As a specimen of clever writing, thia picture of an imaginary 
pandemonium is good; as a criticism on military courts tre look 
upon it OB a mistake, and we think we mnv venture to lell (he 
writer that if he should ever liave to nppear before a Court-Martial 
as the prisoner's counsel, he will not creat« a panic in the cnurt by 
the sound of his voice, unless he is prepnred to urgue his case mure 
logically tlian he has done in the present insinnee. 

By what process of reasouing, we may ask, does he prove the 
minor premiss in his proposiiion, llmt if an exceptional form ot 
tribunal designed to deal with special eases should be found to 
answer, then the whole syslem of judicature should be altered ? Are 
we to underslaiid that because A is applicuble to the case of B und 
C, A is therefore as a natural consequence applicable alau to liie 
case D, and every other ease that the imagination can conci-ive? 

An officer in iiis capacity of juryman, may certiiinly have to dis- 
entangle the point at issue from a mass of conflicting evidence ; but 
if he is a man of sound apprehension, he. is quite as likely lo arrive 
at a just d>-cision by ijis own unaidt-d counnon sense, as the un- 
fortunate juryman in a civil case, who is bewildered by the counsel 
for the prosecution and the deftiice altermitely, eacli urging on him 
to dismiss from bis mind all the subtle ar^'umcnls and unctuous 
phrn*es of " liis learned friend on the other side." 

Such a mode of assisting jurymen as this writer advocates is a 
step in the wrong dircclioii. No man, let his condition he what it 
may, can live in disregard of the laws of his country; it is, there- 
fore, his interest to have a knowledge of those laws at least which 



1865.] 



AKD PEBUAXENT JODOE-A DT0CATE8, 



165 



concern liimself; but when a man, eitlier by biVih or by his own 
iniluslry, belongs to the middte or upper classes, he cuiinot tJis- 
diurije his duly, either to liimself or to the public, withnut some 
kinj*ledf^ of ihe lnw — as, for iiistnnce, when he ia required to act 
as a juryman. The youths in lloine were obliged to h'arn llm 
twelve tables by heart to imprint on their minds a knowledge of the 
laws and cojislitulion uf their country, and it would be well if 
some sucii cuun-e formed part of the edueation of every youth in 
Ihis country. U is the uegiect of this praclice which gives occasion 
to Sir W. Biackstoiie to aay, that ihrough the ignorance of jurymen 
their aulhorily has become debased and more power has been 
thrown into the bands ni Judges lo direct, control anJ even reverse 
their verdicls than the constitulion intended. 

" Writleii rules of evidence," says Sir Charles Napier, "cannot 
leach us to dive inio men's thoughts, and appreciale the value of 
their words and deeds as they regtird mililary discipline, and to do 
this is the duly of a military judge. Let a jouug officer ti\ liia 
eyes steadily upon the ftice of the witness who is before his court, 
give Ilia whole mind to what is said till he thoroughly understands 
the deposilion, and then use his good sense to distinguish how fur 
probahihty and self-iiiterest appear to alfect the account he hears. 
Let him instantly wriie down the impresMon made upon him by 
the witness, and discarding written authorilies,cousult his conscienco 
as to the guilt of tlie prisoner, remembering that men are liable to 
err ; but winle making due allowance fur human weakness, he must 
recollect also that, as a judge, he has a duty to perform towards the 
service demanding the condemnation of the guillyj let him place 
these Ihiiigs slron^'ly before bis mind, and then decide." 

Although there is no formal proceeding at a Court-Mnrtial 
exactly aualoguua to the summing-up of a judge in a civil courl, it 
is a great n)istake to suppose that the forju of procedure is wholly 
wanting in any substitute for this suraining-np, Afler tlie defence 
has fiiiully closed, and the court is cleared for deliberation, it ia 
usual for the judge-ad vucate to be prepared with a fair copy of the 
proceedings to be read over ; if llie proceetlingi ere very volumi- 
nous, he should be prepared with such notes or index to the 
evidence, as may assiat the court in their reference to the record 
wlicn delibcratuig. If the case is one involving some doubt, it is 
discussed, by which means the younger officers have the advantage 
of hearing the opinions and observations of those of greater ex- 
perience, and it can rarely happen at a General Courl-Martial that 
there are no members c.ipable of putting the whole of tiie case in a 
concise practical shape. If any doubt arises on a point of law, or 
the customs of tlie service, then, as we shnll hereafter point out, it 
is liie fault of those entrusted with the adinENislrution of the atTuirs 
of the army, if there is not a competent judge-advocate on the spot 
to solve (he doubt. 

Let us further consider who are the supreme judges of the laud 



im 



CODnTS-WiBTTAL 



according to (lie constitution — not profrssional lawyers, but tlie 
liirectitary nobility of the l;ind. In tlieir judicial ca]iiicity, lln'y are 
bound tf) decide the nicest and most cnlicul points of l.iw, lo 
exuraine and correct sucli errors as have escaped llie most ex- 
perienced sages of the profession, the Lord Gliaticcllor and I'le 
judges of (be Courts at Westminstpr. Tiieir sentence ia linnl, 
di'cisise, irrevocable, no appeal, no corrccti.iri, not ei-en a revii-w 
Can be had. Tlio ercor of a judi^a may be rectilied, because Ilia 
judgment may be examined. Any error on tlie part of this Bjinl 
Court of Appeal, would be irreparable. Yet as Sir W. l3loek- 
slone says, "vast aa this Iruat is, it can no where be so pro- 
perly reposed as in the noble bands where our corislitulion has 
placed it, because from the indopr'udence of their fortune, and the 
dignity of llipir station, they are presnmcd lo employ that leisure 
which is the consequeiico of both in altaining a more extensive know- 
ledge of the laws tiian persons of an inferior rank ; and because the 
founders of our piility rrlifd upon that delicacy of se^iliment so 
peculiar to noble birth which as on Ihe one band, it will prevent 
either interest or ulfection from interfering in questions of right, so 
on the other it will bind a, peer in honour, an ublij^ation which the 
law esteems equal to another man's onth, to be master of those 
points upon which it is his birthright to decide. 

To argue tliat there is a danger of miscorriupe of justice because 
a member hris not liciird the opinion of a p^ofL■^sional lawyer on the 
question at Issue, is much the s.ime us to argue (hnt uu man can 
safely act in any case in life without a lawyer at his elbow. 

Then again, the thorough contempt for the di-cisions of Conrts- 
Martials alleged to be publicly eniertnincd, has probably no place 
except in the imagination of the writer of the article we are consider- 
ing. Tlie generally receivi'd notion with regard to a diurt- Martial 
is, that it i« a court favourable to the innocent, and unfuvourable to 
the guilty, that is to say, tliat the feeling at a Court Martial is averse 
to convicting, except on Ihe clearest grounds, while on the other 
hand, there is a decided disposition against giving way to any 
lei^al quibbles, where it is evident to common sense that a prisoner 
is guilty. 

It ia not pretended that Couris-Martial are infalliblo, but there 
are no tribunals in the country which can point to their decisions 
with greater satufiiction than the mililary courts." It is hardly 
possible to take up a newspaper without finding in the Law Reports 
some m'ltions in t!ie civil courts for new trials, on the ground of 
misdirection, or of a finding contrary to the evidence. The number 
of judgments of Guurts-Miirtial, which have been afterwards reversed, 
b^iirs no prnpiirfion to Ihe nuinbtT of civil ca-'es in which the judg- 
ment is set aside. 

As lo the opinions which may become current while a Oonrt- 
Marlial is proceeding, are there not olfdiand conjeclures, hazarded 
by a section of the public, as to the issue of every important trial, 
and is it likely it will ever be otherwi«eP 



1865,] 



AND PEBUASEST III DOE- ADVOCATE?, 



107 



But it is nnt necessary to purwiB the exflminaljon of tliis over- 
dr;iH-n picture of llie Jefecis of niilitnry jurisprudi-'iice. In drawiti)* 
alteiittuii to its liigli colouring, it is to be bo|jfJ enough tins been 
done to clicck any dispusilioii to tuaipiT with military diadpliTie 
out of nny spirit ol' coiiteMiuii to writers of this descripLion prcteiiii- 
iiig to represent, public cipiiiion. 

Tliot llie procei-dinir* ol C'lurls-Martiiilare sometimes too discur- 
sive we frei-lv lulmit, but we du not admit that they are su generally, 
and we apprehend thut in llie Articles of War and rules and customs 
of tiie service, the means of checking a tendency to discursiveness 
may be found wilhont inlcrft-ting with (lie present orjiani/.ntion of 
Courta-Martial. For in^tiince, ikiI very long ago, an officer, in an 
oiEci.il letter, uccuscd hi? comiiinndinn uiliccr of absence from parnde 
or rausler on various occasijns monllis before the letter was written; 
the writtr of the letter was tried for insiibordiiLale conduct, and the 
court sjienl a greal deal of time in Irving to find out tlie truth or 
fnlfcliood of the accusation of absence from parade. Now in sucb a 
case we look upon it, that the liuie of the court was wasted in the 
iiive»tisatiim of that point, Au oflicer even if lie has reaaon to 
complain of bis commanding officer, in not permitted to maiie his 
comjilaint lu disrespectful lerms; the lone ihercforc of the letter in 
question made it objeciioiiable, even supposing it to have been 
bona tide intetided to submil a comjdaint; Jurthermure the alleged 
absence of the commanding officer from parade formed no ground 
on wiiicli to prefer 3 cumplaint at the date of the letter, neither 
had it any connection with llie only tangible complaint in the letter, 
which is a hostde feeling exhibiipd on the part of the commanding 
officer, the writer of the letter therefore exjiosed himself to the 
charge of bringing forwaid the allejatiun of absence from pdrade 
maliciously, as well as of using it as a pretext for addressing 
his superior in insubordinate and disrespectful terms. Things 
which wlien said in a moment of excitement may be palliated, 
often become cjuile inexcusable when deliberately committed 
to paper. Li the case now alluded to, the accusnlion, if made 
the moment the fact wus slated to have occurred, migbl have 
been accepted as a charge brought forward for the good of the 
service, aud investigated accordingly, but when brought forward 
after a lapse of time to serve ihe purposes of the accuser, it as- 
sumed quite a diifercnt comjdexion, the composition and trans- 
tnission of the letter became an act of insubordination to the preju- 
dice of military discipline, and the court should have been restricted 
to ascertaining the authorship of tiie letter, and whether the mai- 
ler was put fortli in an insubordinate spirit to llie prejudice of niibt-ary 
discipline, the truth of the accusation conhl not have rebeved the 
prisoner from the iin](utalioii of having framed llie letter in an 
insubordinate spirit; the falsehood of llie accusation, if proved, 
would certainly liave aggravated the otTence, but we look up^n the 
maintenance of discipline as the grand point to keep in view, awd. 



188 



COUllTS-M*BTI4t, 



l?n. 



the trial of tlie simple Hxue of in^uborditintlun in im'ting tlie letter, 
*iiuld liiive sutiitDeil the eiiils of ilisciplitjfi by pulling a plop to 
ofticvrs ki^pin^ a 'log,' and noting duwn incidents to be used 
Hgikiust their cuLnniaiidmi; officer us occasion oKerc'd. The analogy 
between tiie case of an uOicer imd a private soldier dues not iilwavs 
hold good, and, iherefo'e, allhouirh the private soldier's moral ac- 
counts, if we may use llie expression, are balanced every dny, and 
if he does not tind himself a prisoner in ihe gunrd-rouni Hi tlie 
close of the day, the probability is, lliat he will never bo called to 
account for any of the transnciioiis of llie day just ended, or of any 
[irevious portion of lii« lif<', it is impossible lo lay down a rule that 
an officer sliatl never be called lo account for anythinfi which haa 
occurred at a period beyond t)ie preceding tirenty-roiir hours; but 
we do not look upon the case we have just been con.'idi?rinK as one 
in which it was at all ncec^snrv to m^ike tiie coininandiiig officer 
prove where be wus ut a particular hour on a particular day months 
previously. 

During the Inst few years there have been three monster Courts- 
Martial, which have attracted a large share of public attention — it 
is hardly necessary to apecify them more particularly ; in all three 
one common feature may be observed, the uusnlisfaclory state of 
the regiment to which the prisoner belonged, and this, no doubt, is 
the circumstance which has furnished the text enlarged upon by 
those writers v^hose essays have been quoted. 

The state of the Inniskdling Ungoons drew from his Royal Higli- 
nesa, the FielJ-Marslial Commanding, the following remarks aft«r 
the Aldersliot Court- Martial. 

"Tlie general tone and temper evinced by a portion of the officers 
19 most deplorable. When the Field-Miirshal Conimanding-in-Chief 
issued his Meuiorandnm on the Mho* CuurL-Martial, he was not, 
AS he is noff, aware of tlic extent of ill-feeling which actually pre- 
vailed." 

"Discipline cannot be maintained when such views are enter- 
tained by any portion of the officers of a regiment, and il greatly 
reilounds to the credit of the corps generally that its efficiency did 
not siilfiT more by tlie insubordinate and iletiaat toue manifested by 
some of its leading members." 

Now, instead of nBcribmg this deplorable slate of thinf^s to the 
want of a gentlenuin in a horse-hair wig to assist in explaining the 
rules of evidence at the Court-Martial, the first question which 
suggests itself to a military mind is— was (here no general officer at 
the illation wliere all this insaboriliiiation exhibited itself ? If a 
captain of a company fin'ls one of his barrack-rooms in an un- 
salisfactory state, he mukes the non-com missioned officer in charge 
responsible, and if a comniaiidiTig officer of a regiment finds a Irotip 
or company in worse order lh:in the other troops or companies, he 
culls Ihc cnjtlaiii to account. Is the general of a district nut re- 
Bponsiblu in like maimer for the eiHclcncy of the troops under his 



1865.] AND TEBUANIOrT J UDOB- ADVOCATES , 169 

command? He surely does not fnifil the duties of his station if 
he waits to be told that any corps or reginleiit under his command 
is in a state of insubordination. He aliould find it out for himMlf, 
and checic it in the bud. If lengthy investigations of frivolous 
subjects, and eilending over long periods of time, are deemed 
necessary, a gener.il has the power of eraplofing a Court of Enquiry, 
but the issues brought before a Court-Martial should on all oc- 
casions be as concise as possible. It is a perversion of the objects 
of a Court-Martial to make the court the arena for scandalous re- 
crimination. 

With regard to the charge of incompetence which has been 
brought against judge -advocates generally, we do not know of any 
single case upon which such an insinuation can be supported. In 
India, where the office of judge-advocate is a permanent staff ap- 
pointment, the officers of that department are particularly efficient, 
and there can hardly be two opinions on the expediency of establish- 
ing, in like manner, a permanent class of staff officers for the duties 
of judge-advocate in other portions of the British dominions. 
Under the existing system, there are officers certainly in various 
directions, holding warrants, empowering them to act as judge- 
advocates, when required; but if the Government is well served, 
it is certainly more than they deserve, for, although an ofBner, hold- 
ing a warrant as judge -advocate, receives two guineas a day while 
employed on a dourt-Martial, his employment is quite uncertain, 
his services may not be required -two days in the year; and if a man 
devotes his time and talents to acquiring proficiency in any public 
duty upon such remuneration, he deserves credit for being a public 
spirited individual. The late Mr. Commissioner Fane, some years 
ago, ou being appealed to on behalf of the bankrupt before the 
court for some consideration, on the ground that he had rendered 
some gratuituus services, replied, much to the astonishment of the 
person making the appeal, that "he never knew unpaid services 
worth anything," Now, the War Department have certainly been 
more fortunate than the learned Commissioner, as they have got 
very good services from their judge-advocates, for a mere nothing, 
but it is high lime they made a change. The boldest Law reformer 
will hardly be able to maintain that a profession which can furnish 
men fit to command armies, qualified to take the reins of Govern- 
ment as Prime Minister, or to administer the affairs of onr Indian 
Empire, cannot furnish officers fit to attend at Courts-Martial as 
competent authorities on military law, and thus to uphold the 
dignity of our military tribunals, without introducing any civil 
element J but in order to ensure this, judge-advocates should be 
made permanent staB'-officers, and a respectable emolument attached 
to the office. A professorship of military law, and perhaps military 
law and administration combined, should also be instituted at Sand- 
hurst College. 

Tliese measures, to put the appointment of judge-advocate qq. ^ 



no 



TIBIT TO 



[Pkb. 



proper footing, should not, however, be accomiianie^ with any allera- 
tioii in Ills jiojilioM in relation to ihe ciurt; he sliouM remain as 
now an irres|)Oiisibic referee. Werellie wboln re*[)onsibility Ihrottn 
on tlie jiidye-iulvociile, as ii:is been aujigpsled, llie dif,'nitj' of the 
court would be impaired, and tlie iiidividiml members would be 
Bpt to become negligent in the discbarKe of tlieir duties. 

If Ibe Bcquisiti'in of a general knowledije of the common law of 
tbe countrj' fi>rmed part of Ihe educaliiiri of every genlleuian, as 
it sliould, nil officer would jiiiii the service belter prepared to enter 
upon Mip study of that pariicular slnt.vite law, which lie is enjoined 
by the Queen's IVgiilations to sluity, and which it will be an im- 
portant part of the busiine-,=a of bis hie to administer. There arc no 
people more observant of their ."nperiors (ban soldiers are of tlieir 
officers. Every action of the ofScer is scanned, silently it may be, 
but closely by his men, and the result of this scrutiny which 
includes Ooiirt-MarliBl duty, as well as every other duly, is that 
the siildier gives, in his hear!, or witholds Ihat feeling of contidence 
on which so much depends. As a general rule, soldiers have tlio 
highest confidence in their judges nt a Court-Martial, and that 
feeling greatly contributes to the mninlenance of discipline. In 
conclusion, we would remind Military Luw Reformers of h dis- 
tinction between tbe case of n prisoner before a Court-Martial, and 
a criminal before a judge in an ordinary court, ari.'ing from tlia 
element, call it patri.irchal, or feudal, which enters into the relation- 
ship between officer and solrlier, making the two mutoally depciiilant 
on each other. That element forms a sacred bond of union oetween 
the ollicer and the soldier, which cannot be disturbed without 
detriment to the bonds of discipline. We desire to leave it on- 
touched, and llierefore we would remedy any real detects in our 
military jurispniilence, without interfering with the present con- 
Btitutton of the military courts. 



t 



A VISIT TO THE COURT AND PEOPLE OF SIAM. 

PBOM THE jnURNAL OF BTAFF-COMMANDEK JOHN RICnARDS, R.N., 
EDITKD BV WALTER PliRCELL, ESQ., OF TUE INNER TEMPLE. 

CHAPTER IV, 

Arrival in Siani of Mr. II. S. Parke.<, Brithli ConiniUs'oner — M»iuri!inenl nt Ihe 
fnm mile liounilirj-line. — InlerPSl slmwii bj Ihe king in the mrtey of the gulf. — 
Bangkok — Palace of Ihe Fiist King — Chartcter of the First King.— Character 
ami cilHce of tbo Seconil King. 

Leaving tbe Menam on the 12{b of February, tbe " Saracen " 
Bailed for Cape Liant. From Cape Liant to Ihe entrance of the 
Menani, extend about eighty miles of important coast. The 
survey of this line of coast was commenced on the 18tb of Feb- 
ruary, and completed on the 2ud of April. At the latter date tbe 



1965] 



TEE CXIU&T iSD PEOFLB OF SIUT. 



171 



"Saracen" again anchored at the bar of the Menam. Mr. 
Richards fonnd on his returD, that Mr, Harrj Sioith Parkes, her 
Majtaiy's Cominisaioncr, had arrived in Hon. East India Cos 
steamer "Auckland," to eicbaage the ratification of the Treaty 
negutiated llie year before. 

A communiciition was received from Mr. Parke*, inviting Mr. 
Richards' assistance in dtfining the boundary-line tf the " four 
mills' circuit."* Mr. Inskip, second- master, was ordered to 
Bangkok to render the necessary Ds>istanee. It became espeiJieot 
to make a survey of the i-iver ; and the attention of Mr, Richarda 
was diverted from the west coast, whither hu intended to proceed 
had circumstances been favourable. Mr. liiekip, after toiling 
many days beneath a tierce suti, succumbed to a load of hardships, 
which only his zeal eould enable him to suntain so long. He was 
conveyed to bis ship, seriously ill, and hia place waa supplied by 
Mr. Reedj another second- master. By the beginaing of May the 
boundary tine was defined, and the river waa surveyed. Lieu- 
tenants f ibrick Olid Dibelling, of the " Auckland, " ably supported 
Mr. Reed in hia arduous task. '' The country being a dead level, 
and generally covered with thick jungle, we were coaipelled to 
have recourse to direct measurement for the east and west borders. 
The roads were cut through the jungle by a party of natives. The 
king Btnt hia own surveyor to check our proceedinga, and was very 
particular till a number of the mitivea waa seized with fever, when 
at my suggestion he agreed to shorten the work by adopting our 
survey, where it could be made available, instead of direct measure- 
ment." 

Mr. Richards, finding that he had not now sufRcient provisions 
on board to enable him to commence bis survey of the west eoast, 
deen)cd it advisable to go to Singapore to complete his supply. 
He waited till Mr. Parkes was reaJy to embark, in order that the 
"Auckland" might take the "Saracen" in tow. On the 15th, 
both vessels left the Menam ; and in six days they arrived safely 
at Singapore. 

During bis sojourn on the above occasion, our journalist made a 
few interesting records, which may not be out of place if given 
here. 

In the Qrst private interview with the king, on bis return from 
surveying the line of coast to which reference has been mode, Mr. 
Richards was invited to produce tiie survey for his Majeaty'^ In- 
spection. ■' The kinz manifested a greal interest in the work, and 
personally corrected the erruneoua names of places that bad crept 
into the chart. His Majesty desired to possess a copy, but was 
too considerate to expect me to make for him a duplicate of such 
an extensive work. He contented liiraself with expressing a wish 

* Article IV of tlie Trcalf alipulutes, ihat '' British subjccU coming In retidr it 
Rano;! ok csanol piirfhoie IdiiiIb waliiii a circuii of 200 sen (uot tnotc ihun four ini lea 
En^iitk) Trom the cuy walls, unlll lliev shall Iibvu tiveil in Sisii< tiK U.%<.-tuxv. m 
slmll abtsia ipecial »ullionlj tmia llie Siimwi; Gu-seviiuieW.\o«v»!o'*'i^>K>»'^ *^*"- 



in 



A VISIT TO 



[Feb. 



that T would send him a copy, when published." A similar request 
for copies was subsequently made by the second king, and by 
several of (he hi^:h nobles. 

The city of Hiiugkok, ccntnining a population of upwards of 
250,000, extends lor a consiclrrabtc distinice along hutb banks of 
the river. Floating houses continue, with few iuterruptions, for 
three or four miles above the drst king's palace. The principal 
highways for trulBc, are canals, that ramify in every direction. 
The bouses are, in general, of oiean pretetisioDs. Those of the 
nobles are bnilt of stone or brick.; those of the common people 
are wooden or bamboo structures, The temples and the palaces 
of the two kings are the only buddings in the place that deserve 
special notice. 

The palace of the first king consists of various edifices, which 
are contiued by a high wall upwards of a mile in circumference 
Besides his Majesty's residence, there is a military stiition, a 
seraglio, a temple to Gaudama, the royal mint, sundry buildings 
for ofHcial purposes, and a dwelling for the white elephants. The 
pavement is of granite or marble : the roofs of many of the build- 
ings are of plazed tiles. Gilded spires rise here and there, beauti- 
fully oroanientiog the whole. Far surpassing the exterior, the 
arrangements within exhibit substantial splendour; and were it 
not for the violations of taste, natural, so to say, to orientals, 
which resemble the faults of young painters who surcharge with a 
wealth of colour, the display might seem magniSccnt, and not 
unworthy to meet the eye of the ruler of a nation. The temple 
of Gaudama is the repertory of the choicest oll'eringa of a dotmg 
BuperstitiuD. The floor, of inlaid polished brass, is covered with 
mats of silver; ornanK-nts of the precious metals are distributed in 
prol'uaion; whilst among the crowding images of Gaudama, not a 
few are invested with invaluable geii.s. Amidst this waste of 
riches, is a cross-legged figure eightet- n inches high, in appearance 
the least costly, as estimated by the Siamese the most precious 
thing there. This is the sacred image of Gaudama, whose tradi- 
tionary history has been recorded by the king. At different 
seasons of the year, it is robed in particular costumes, for the 
purpose of conferring special marks of grace. The walls of the 
peristyle represent the adventures of Rama, and of his wife, Sita, 
together with the sinister appearance of the tyrant, Kawana, all 
elaborately painted in the best style of Siamese art. 

The stables of the white elephants are not unworthy of the 
dignified occupants.* Their excellencies may truly he said to 
"dwell in marble halls." Separate apartments, and a separate 
staff uf attendants, are alotted to each; and lest their Highnesses 
should feel lonely in their isolated grandeur, and sicken of ennui, 

* Tlit^ wliEte clepKants take prccJ^Hfiif^e of thfl highlit iiatili?^, rnnking nPit to 
prince) or Ibc hloocl. It it * Ugli miaiJcuiGauout lu cull Ibcm deiiliatils, — iiul to 
deiigiiate tticm lij Ihcir lillet. 



1S65.] 



THB CODET AND PKOPLG OP SUU. 



173 



white raoulteys are privileged to live in their company, bdiI 
gambol Tor their amuaement. 

Within the palace enclosure is a wonderful garden, said to be 
Siom in miniature. It is tbe haunt n( the royal princesses, who 
are denied the privilege of marrying Sinmese subjects through 
considerations of state, and are doomed lo pass tbeir time among 
artihcial temples and bazaars, shut in from temptation uud tbe 
archetypal world. 

" Within the palace are supposed to be about three thousand 
women — the king's six hundnrd wives and tbeir attendants, — and 
two tbotisnnd men — the guards and servants of bis Maji-sty. 

"Just without the palace gates isalargcidol manufactory, where 
the activity displavcd is truly astouishing." 

The Diajor king of Siam, bis Miijesty I'hra Bard Somdetch Phra 
Paramendr Maha Mongkut Cbom Klau Cbau Yu Hua, was born 
in iBO-t. He ascended tbe thi-ane in 1852, upon the death of 
his elder illegitimate Drother, who bad been an usurper. The rule 
of succession in Slam, prefers the bL-others to tbe sous, priority 
of birtb determining the order of precedence. But it bappens, 
now and again, that a clevpr intriguing prince, who can manage 
to secure tbe conddeucc and support of tbe nobles, is able to set 
aside this rule in bis own favour. The king's appearance is not 
without dignity. His figure, of middle height, is spare rather than 
worn, and accords well with a severe expreeaion of countenance, 
attributable to his early ascetic habits. In manner, he is courteous 
and afl'able ; and he has tbe air of one who is thoroughly self- 
assured. His disposition is natually mild and benevolent, but the 
posnesstOD of absolute power tends to render him impatient of 
restraint. This impatience of restraint often manifests itself in a 
burst of anger. His choleric displays, however, subside as quickly 
as they arise, and tbe justness of his character shines with utiob- 
scured lustre. Should he have committed any wrong during hia 
passion, he hastens to make reparation, and would blot out the 
remembrance of his fault by the concession of his highest favour. 
He ia an acnotnplished Pall scholar, knows 8;inscrit and Latin, and 
can both write and speak English inti-lligihly. He is purliculsriy 
fond of acionci^, and his museum of models shows that he is hc- 
quaioted witb the improvements that have resulted from its appli- 
cation, 

Tbe second king, Pbra Bard Somdetch Phra Paramendr Hamesr 
Mahiawaritr Pbra Pin Klan Cbau Yu Hua, is three years youngur 
than his royal brother, and aeeius to be in every respect an im- 
proved edition of bim. His address and language is that of an 
English-travelled gentleman. Of a mild aod unassuming disposi- 
tion, be duvotes to the study of tbe sciences those hours nbicb his 
more active brother consumes in the business of tbe State. He 
speaks and writes English lluently, and witb tolerable accuracy, is 
well acquainted with European bistory, and ia famiUa>: ttvvfe. •a^si 



I7i 



A VISIT TO 



[Pbb. 



institutions, which he admires without affectation. lie is not only 
an accomplished gentleman, and a luan of extensive scientific ac- 
quirement, but he is a thinker. He is certainly one of the most 
intelligent Asiatics living. 

The office of second king, is an occasional, not an ealabtished, 
ofGce, and has no executive uuthurity attached to it. If the prince, 
whose birth-right it is, that is to say, the heir appnreat, be a 
person hkcly tu prove ofljciuus, or to attract too great a shore of 
public uttcntion, and if the kin^;, at the same time, be JL'alou^ and 
distrustful, the dignity may remain in abeyance. In the lute reign 
there was no sccouil king, for Phra Mongkut'a usurping brother 
dreaded to have near hini a Wangna,* who, at any moment, might 
assert bia better title to the throne. I'bra Mongkut, upon the 
death of bis brother, was summoned from bis monastery to succeed. 
The Wangna is ex-officio generalissimo of the aniiy tliat repels aa 
invasion, or carries war into a neighbouring State, He boa a 
consultative voice on all questions of moment. Conjointly with 
tbe first king, he signs treaties and sends ambassadoi's to foreign 
courts. 

CHAPTER V. I 

Intprriow wiltt the Rajah of Triiigino. — Atpect of (he (o*n of Trinftsno. — Tha cita- 
del — Tlic rajah's ho^pilahlj-— -V''iait from ihe rajah.— Jiiiervien with Ihc Governor 
(rfSiiigoru. — lucidfriiis uf the vi>il, — A parlj' of iiHtlict iltit the atilp. — Retura 
to the Rivci Menaru. — Uncuniciouily violate a treaty iUpuUlion. — The cante- 
quences 

June 2Ut. — Having received the necessary supplies, sailed from 

SinirupDre, and directed course towards the west coast of Slam. 

June 2Cth. — Arrived at tbe Great ReUang Island. Received a 
visist from the chief personage, who brought us a present of turtle 
and vegetables, and gave us some useful information respecting the 
surrounding islands. 

July 2iid.— At anchor off Printian Island. A I^Ialay chief 
came on board, bringing ua a present of fresh stock from the 
Uajab of Tringano, who bad despatched him to inquire aa to who 
we were, and the nature of our visit to the coast. Tbe Rajah bad 
also sent us an invitation to visit him at Tringano, 

July 10th — Tringano. Despatched an olheer to wnit upon tbe 
Rajah, and ascertain when it would be convenient for bis High- 
ness to receive me. 

July lltb.— Whilst preparing for our visit this morning, saw 
two line bullocks brought on board, a present from tbe Rajah. At 
10 o'clock we landed, and were received by his Hiybnesa with 
much ceremony. The Rajah occupied an elevated platform in the 
centre of a large covered space open at the sides, and had beside 
him two of his cbildren, who were remarkable alike lor their beauty, 
and the elegant simplicity of their attire. After exchanging com- 
plinientB, we partook of some refreshment served up in tlie native 
* Tba SUuicM title uflecund Ling. 



1865.J 



TUE COURT AND PUOPLB 0^ StiJI. 



175 



style. The Kajub intimated his desire to have oar opinion about a 
ahi|i that he was building:. ^Ve accordingly accompanied his High- 
nfsa to Ilia dock-yard. The vessel is of Euiopean model, and of 
Considerable tonnage, and seemed to be nearly complete. The 
Kiijuh is himself the architect. I had much pleasure in telling 
Lim what I thought, that he deserved great credit for bis skill and 
euteriirise. 

As soon BS ne bad inspected the veaael, faie Highness ordered a 
target to be set up, hopiiij; to aiimse us by a display, on tlie part 
of Ills people, of dexterity in thro* in™ the spear. We thanked bia 
Hijihness fur his attention, but could not compiiment his apeariiien 
upon having acquired un Hccoinplishmcnt. Who that has read of 
the perforuiance of Duke William's Normana before Saxon Harold, 
or that has seen Fatie'a troo|)er8 in the camp at Ticu-Sin, could 
admire an undersized Mal.iy propel a dart that wanders a whole 
foot beside the mark. These natives of Triugano appear to have 
but little of the fire and vivacity of the Malayan race. 

We made a circuit of the town, which is of some extent. The 
great ninjority of the houses are constructed of bamboo, thuCched 
with alBp palin-leaf. The market-place seemed well stocked with 
fish and vegetables. We a Iterwards ascended to the citadel, which 
1* on tlie summit of a rocky hill, ttmt rises abruptly to a height of 
JOO feet in the centre of the town. Amongst the guns, of which 
there seemed to be a tolerable fair array, we noticed a brass howit- 
zer, that h;id been preaeutcd by Colonel Bulterworth, wheu gover- 
nor of Singapore. 

HavJDg observed all that was worthy of notice, we returned to 
the Ilajah's palace, where a capital dinner, aerved up a I' Anglais, 
awaited us. We feft quite at home, and did justice to our host's 
good cheer. His Highness, as we svere leaving, expressed bia iutea- 
tion of returning our visit at an early Hour to-morrow. 

July 12th.— At 7 o'clock this morning, the Rajah, with a multi- 
tude of followers, armed with speara and krises,* came on board. 
Hi* Highness seemed to take an interest in everythiug on deck; 
the rockets, and the detonating tubes for the great guns, attracting 
especial attention. When be was conducted into my cabin, bia 
interest increased to a most unpleasant degree. He comuieuced 
to ransack tny drawers, and examine everything portable that he 
could find, admiring those articles which he would like to call his, 
A new gold band, and a cap-crovin, captivated hiiu so muen, [ 
presented thtin to him ; and in lieu of other objects which par- 
^^^^^^cularly charmed birn, which I was unable to bestow, I gave him 
^^^^pK<]uantity of gold lace. Ttie mesa decanters and silver spuous now 
^^^^^^et his eye, and excited such cupiditv, that he lonked us if he 
I could abaadun all else for thcni. He took them up, turned them 

I eni 

I toi 



The ntlivn if Ihe Inillnn Arrhipelsga all iiic ihe spenr anl ktii when \\\tt 
eoinhal lingly. Tne ipear u eniploj'ed ut the lie gi mil "5 >il vWi %-^\, ■*». Vvs* 
toworih the «nt|. 

\J.S AI.*o.Jfo. 435, FtB, 166b. "* 



176 



A VISIT TO 



TFeb. 



round and round, gazed fondly at them, and glanced BiKnificantly 
at nie. My perception wns quite bluuted ; but I relieved him 
tciiiporHrily by liuirying olf svilli him to breukinst, lli^ (rviiluritly 
nppi'eciated the attention we sliuwed liim, and could, no doubt, be 
v.ery happy did not thoac unlucky decanters mar his enjoyment. 
He referred to the subject so often, I could not avoid showing him 
bow distasteful it was to me, when he subsided wilh the remark, 
thnt he wanted tliem, not for hia own use, but merely to entertain 
Eurojiean visi/ora ! 

The Iiajab is rather a dnc, prepossessing-looking fellow. When 
he is not upon a marauding expedition, bis niannera are unexcep- 
tiunabJe. He is tributary to the king of Siam. 

July 26th. — Off Kalan(an river. Sent an offirer to communi- 
CBlc with the Kajah of Kulantan. The Riijali's residence was at 
too great a distance, aud the ofRcer returned alter a fruitlcas 
effort. 

A Chinaman, who commanded a amall schooner that was about 
to Bail up the river, and who spoke Eu^'lish well, promised to 
convey to the llnjah a mc'^aags from us, explaining the nature of 
our Riis^iuu to his coast, and acquainting hJm with our dcleated 
attempt to commuuicate.* 

July 31st — Singoru. A harqueanda achooner, both belonging 
to the Governor, at anchor here. The master of the barque, who 
Spoke Gn,?liab. offered to act as iiilerprctcr iu our coming inter- 
view with the Governor. 

On visitinf; the Governor, we found hia Excellency seated on a 
platform in bis audience chamber, the court-ynrd in front being 
crowded with prostrate attendants. We ascended the platform, 
and shook bands with his Excellency, who motioned us to chaira 
pluci'd in bis vicinity for our accommodation. The Governor in- 
quired why I visited Singoru. On learning my object, and that I 
had no car^o whatever, he made do attempt to conceal his surprise. 
Making a hasty estimate of the expense attending our expedition, 
lie declared his inability to understand why England should expend 
so much money in surveying the coasts of other countries. I 
think I satisfactorily explained the reason. I had to demonstrsle 
the corollary, why England rather than France, Portugal, or any 
other country, which derived equal benefits from trade, should 
undertake the expense. This Siamese Governor recorded our 
replies. 

We dined with his Excellency, and afterwards proceeded to 
explore the place. The Governor furnished us with guides. The 
town presented the diatinguiahing features of all such populous 
places on the coast. A few one-storied brick buildings, numerous 
bamboo dwellings, dirty narrow streets, aod an abundance of 

* Mr. RidinrHa allenivilt learnerl ihol bis mesfiige wai delivered, tnd lliil (ha 
r^jah, bn|i1ng tli^y iniglit f el came, maile great pre^araliona to receive and eiiter- 
tain liil En|nih friend), 



1865,] THE COURT AND PEOPLB OF SIAM. 177 

comestibles, chiefly vegetalilea, constituted these features. The 
Sin^rans have the leaat pretensions of all Siamese to a passing 
manly exterior. They appear as if tbey fed on padar, and lived on 
halt' allowance. 

August 15th. — Anchored off Lem Chong Pra. A party of 
natives visited us, bringio^ a present of fowls and vegetableH. We 
made them a suitable return. One of them presented some silver, 
and ofTertHi, by signs, to exchange it for powder. We replied, in 
the same dumb show, that we had nothing for sale, as ours was a 
ship belonging to the Queen of England. This rather astoniahed 
them, knowing, as they did, that their own sovereign was the 
greatest merchant in the kingdom. We, however, gratuitously 
gave them a little powder. It was amusing to observe their be- 
wildered expression when we declined to receive their money in 
return. 

August 30th.— Arrived at the bar of the Menam. Found here 
his Impprittl French Majesty's frigate " Caprieieuse," and steam- 
vessel " Marceau." Learned that a French ambassador had found 
his way here, and had just concluded a treaty. The treaty is an 
exact copy of ours. Crossed the bar, as it was high nater, and 
anchored above Paknani. Will proceed with the Srst favourable 
breeze to Bangkok, for the purpose of being docked. 

The 7th article of the treaty negotiated by Sir John Bowring, 
provides, that "no British ship of war shall proceed above Faknam 
without the consent of the Siamese Authorities." As the treaty 
had been promulgated since Mr. Richards left Singapore, he was 
unacquainted with its provisions; it must he held, therefore, that 
he violated the article through excusable ignorance. He dis- 
covered bis error to deplore it. But with the daring and pnnc- 
tiliousness characteristic of a British sailor, instead of repairing 
bis fault by a retreat which might seem to tarnish his fiag, be 
pushed on, and anchored below the forts of Bangkok. To show 
how unpremeditated was his offence, he sought the British consul, 
explained the circumstance, and expressed his regret. He re> 
presented to the consul, at the same time, that he was desirous of 
advancing beyond the forts, in order to anchor off the factory, bnt 
was unwilling further to infringe the treaty by passing those forts 
without the "express permission" needed. The consul advised 
the despatch of a private note to the king, requesting permiasioii 
to advance beyond the forts. Mr. Kicbards adopted this advice. 
The king replied, through the consul, that he "must decline to 
entertain any request coming from Captain Richards, till he with- 
drew below Paknam, and obtained leave to pass that harrier, ae- 
cortiing to the stipulation of the treaty." The consul counselled 
obedience to the king's wishes. Tlie « ishes of the king, resolutely 
supported by the consul, were not lightly to be disregarded by one 
who had only liis commission and his good Tv^ma Xa «.vi^.^.■*^.^^.^i^-^sl^ 






A VISIT TO [Feb. 

both of which iiipporta he might lose by a single futse step. His 
»i-ine of duty ur^ed the coLiiriiandcr of the " Saruccn " to nilliere 
t» a line ofcoiiduct of which the cumraon-place priidc-nce of the in- 
dividual would entirely dianii prove. The commander beheld s 
Dioilty group on shore— no native scum — who were chuckling with 
delight at thf priiHpeet of wiLnessiog a rebuff to " En^laml'a naval 
insolence." Rather than that a slioiit of derision should be raiaed 
•gsinit his Aug, the commander was prepared to sacniiee every- 
lhia» — bis interests, his reputation, and his life. 

Contcious of no guilty behaviour, Mr. llichards again wrote to 
the king, soliciting an interview, in order to explain how inadver- 
tently he had offended. He took occasion to assure his Majesty 
that "it would be unwise to- insult the British flag by sending 
the 'Saracen' back on account of a mistake committed by her 
commander;" and, moreover, he inlimnteil that should his Majesty 
PTsist in his arbitrary demands, be woulil leave the river altogether, 
ai.d seek some more hospitable place where he could repair her 
Britannic Majesty's vessel. To tiiis letter, the king vouchsafed no 
reply. A trained diplomatist would yield to the king's wishes, or, 
treating them with scorn, would attempt to hector; but not so 
hoDcst sailor. Mr. Richards regarded not bis ease, nor did 
desire to make capital out of a disturbance. With the instinct 
of a noble nature, he imagined, as be received no answer to bo 
candid and conclusive a note, that the king must be a regular red- 
tapist ; he accordingly re-wrote his letter, and forwarded it through 
the consul. In this letter be added a request for permission to 

nchor above the forts. 
The following day brought a reply. It was from the king bim- 
If. The state barge that pushed off from the palace lauding- 
plsce, was pursued by the anxious gaZe of those who had prognos- 
ticated, from the known determination of ttie king, and the 
doggcdness of the Knglisb commander, some calamitous result. 
The barge reached the " Saracen," and the king's letter, written 
in English, was placed in Mr. Richards' hands. No sooner had 
the commander read tbe note, than the order was given, " up 
anchor." And shortly the tramp of men at the capstan responded 
to the call of tbe boatswain's mate The simultaneous tread- 
ing of the men was lond enough to be heard ashore. For a 
moment it seemed as if tbe unusual stir boded death and destruc- 
tion to the timorous natives ; but the denizens assembled to witness 
Mr. Richards' diseomfiture shared not the groundless alarm. They 
fceived that the vessel was going to sail, and a titter escaped 
im, proclaiming their triumph. The " Saracen's" sails were un- 

'urled, they arrested the breeze, and the struggling wind drove on 
the vessel. With what blank looks of astonishment did the un- 
worthy denizens then rrgard one another. The vessel moved tip 

be river, not duu-n ! The king's reply had been favourable ! 



ca 
ta 




1865.] 



THE CODRT AND PSOPLK OP SUM. 



179 



CHAPTER VI. 

Appeariince Bn<l cpBturao of the Siamese. — Marks of genlilily. — Personal bili'its. — 
An epiiode ubout ihe king. — The ceremony qf shaving for Uip hair-luft. — Mar- 
riBge sod its rclalioni. — Tlic prieally iio»iliaie and what pertains to it- 

Tlie Siamese are a Bmall, wcll-jiroportioned, tlark-skinned race, 

inhahitint; a territory of considerable, though uiitlelined extent, 

which has its bit'ak ami eiiniiy views. They are Dot a numerous 

people,* nor cau they expect to become mimeroua while a host of 

priestJi aud slaves btk conUemned to celibacy, and the harems of 

polygamists are filled with barren women. The object of ajiparel 

to a Siamese ia just what the object of the Hgk-af apron was to our 

I father Adam. Three yards of chintz wrapped round the loins, or- 

'dinarily constitutes the only vesture of the vulgar mule. To this 

garment, called the panvng, the more dt-licate female adds a long 

wide scarf, which she names Yxer pahum. The pahoni is worn thus : 

the middle of the scarf, which is folded in large plaits, is placed 

under the left arm; one end is passed np in front, the other 

behind to cross over the right shoulder, aod both hang down as 

far as the hips. The ladies frequently discard their pahoms alter 

marriage, as then tbey seldom feel abashed in the presence of 

Lstrangera. Having but one master, whose shadow is always before 

rthem, they can see no gaze but his. 

It niuat not be supposed that the nobles go to court in this 
primitive and easy costume. In addition to a silk panun^, they 
invest themselves with a richly ornamented jacket of iiiie texture. 
They throw aside this jacket as incommodious immediately after 
they leave the I'i'eaencc. In winter, puhonis are worn by the men, 
whilst the nobles wear jackets of rich material. 

The men shave the head, excepting the crown, where is left 
a brush-like coronal of hair. The women, unlike the men, pre- 
serve their hair uncut, which they bind in a peculiar fashion; 
I again, unlike the meu, they trim their eyebrows; sometimes they 
' bIso trim their foreheads. It is only when the suu's rays are 
fiercest, that either sex regards the unprotected bead. Beneath 
a vertical sun, both men and women wear a sort of teut-shaped 
hat made of wicker-work. Bare feet is a fashion so universal, that 
the only encroachment witnessed, is when a high noble, through 
a fn-ak, or love of dash, assumes sandals for an oceasioii. 

The several marks of high breeding, arc a yellow skin, black 
teeth, long finger nails, and adaptability of the left arm to an un- 
natural protrusion. Artificial aids are, of course, in requisition to 
improve and preserve those features. lo the palaces of the kings, 
and in the houses of the nobility, there is hardly a child to be seen, 
who is not rubbed over with turmeric. Our sailor friend invariably 
steered clear of the Royal children whenever he visited the palace, 
as be dreaded the contact that might both rob the httle princes of 
* Lena than ii% millions, aceordiTig to Bishop Pallegoii, who it a giad autlsQ^v^. 



tk«r fantil^r, and »[)oiI hi* best clothes. To promote (he prtiwlh 
uf ihr n»il», h'-^'i )»f(l and gorlic arc eiii|>l'>jed. H_v ihp wiijilipn- 
tiun of (tie dark llmJ niiicti iriiiiJrB fniiu ■ Imriit mcnn nut ahi-ll, 
» beantilnl jirC bbck i> iiii[>urli-<l to tlic teeth. Tliv ^rareFul ac- 
cofliphahnicnt.of piotru-lmK the e!bo*, the ()i«iifi^iii»tiiiiK niark 
par exctllencr. it to be acquired only by lon^ ind ciirt-t'iil tri>ii)>iig> 

\Vlift: tubkcro i« V' tin t^iriipeaii, bsii^iie to » lliii(lat>, ufiiutn 
to « Chiimman, ■ml khii*l>i«li to an Arabian, the br(el i« to « 
BMmeae, Iii rutnTnoti with the M»layii, thu Sinmt^se iiae this 
nuiiralory )n<]i*rrii»inn(L-ly. Alule and fL-irialr-, oUl iiixl yunn^, 
rich •Dil poor, alt alike jiirierit ((r- rcddrned li[is ejt^ctin^ b [iii[i-d 
ailirary (ccrction. A noble without liis urob-bcarcr is like a iiiaa 
in a Jonely wante, an uticoniroitiible-looki'i^ objt-ct inrely to be 
met with. Thia ramuus iitaitlicaKiry conaittii of areca-nut and {liiilc 
chnnHm, — r|tiii'kliiue coluurcd uilh turmuiic, — HTBpped together 
With htrld li-avf».* 

It ia aiiid lu have a tranqiiilliiing etfirct. As it [imdu^es less 
previnu* cxcilvTiiFiit lh»n opium, or hiMiip, it is le'S delcteiioua, 
Tbe arrca-boi oi the nolJe la u»iiully ol' (;nld, nnd sorHetiiiKS is 
■ludded wiili prrciou* »[oiieii ; indeed lioin its def;ree of costliness 
tbe rank of ihe (uriiir niiiy he known, us we rtcoguise from bia 
conrnctteil ciirrii.(*c the grade of un Kri^lmb peer. 

The SiiKuei"; betray a ttreiil ioiidneas fm- lloners and jewellery, 
Full-^ruwn iiieii iimv be sreii WMlkin<; about villi uTi'utlia of 
fluwi-ni upon their uritt*. VVndthy persons, on -^reat uccaftiuns, 
■iiniilnle u riclity adorned iuijiki", invesied, bs ihi y me, willi p'nis 
•tiduriiRineiilaorgold. Upon the children ia displayed, in an eminent 
degree, tin* pruvmling taale for cxthasic uinaiiicut. Fragrant 

• Til* qlilrk'llmr (» »ii'(ifl)' mpjioied l^ imparl piingplc)'. Bml nolhiog mnrc. 
Tt>Lt k 1 mliliilo. Th'! Iniir' mil llie itieiitial oil uf llie aieu (oiiu u iajioiiaccaui 
cofnpDuixl vl'li *ii Fiillcif w" |irii|irtt>. 

Til" (vWieminf ■nrciloip. Imni a vrcrliblp aoiiroe. may anil)' be told here: — "A 
forinluhl ir< 'tuni Ki'gUnil in^ nil lljc liqiinr kdiib ! Uh, Ju|iiter !" Such wat llia 

•irlamallxii linnl m ilic xi'rl-rmi ii of li.M S. C on a nieiiiorBble day in 

Julj \*fi2. ■nhrn ilir luki linnle i>( imrl wu fifmluwrt by llie slewuril, nml ilie Mji, 
oil litir lioiiii-wuicl i''>)a|rr, wat )el many da)a froin Sfiilbf^nd^ Th^* expcn^Wu mir- 
dlalt «<i"n nciit, and at lcii)|lli t'loeic'a LoiitUiiliat, the crlcbrated Cdih' xiiies. in- 
Itn'M f'lr III* |«lilii oC itiemh s( liomc, neie relutianily liroiiglil Torlli. Tl>e 
enrdlnli and ContiaiiiiM lailed nell ; ilie; conducted to ibc bugiiiuiog d( llie lecund 
wsrk. 

Tllff fcrlilfl brain of lbs psvniMter ii litiiy. Kurrab; be diuovert a mine. Tbe 
Ca|iUln but lbi(« or four iXnira of old diiret »blch be will let tbeni bave. 

ir hinFiily and |i'i[i be til foe men and birract. cur lailnit nbo loU nilb a will 
by niH'il and hy iliy, In every uhinnle. Tor Ibc pteiprvution uf our bumei and the 
glory nf our counlly, are entainly emilled lo cloim wbul ii lil Tur them. 

■■'Clafel !• all vrr» well wben llie tempfralurc is boiling." cried one. sippiug ihe 
unpnlal wine. " ' Tli winby-wiiiby tlulf." added onolhci " Very," eihoed a Ihird, 
'■Snnnd lliR bind ■•■■•brel. 1 bave it," cbinled a founh. suddenly precipitaling him- 
■elf upon the Cajrnne jiepiier bolllo ; " I Imvcn't teen Ihe hlxla^t cliew quicli'lime 
fur init]ii>*gi" hn cuniJiUKil. nbiiking an nlanninic ijUEiiiiirv of ihe iiepper into his 
vla'ri. Ml' irDnUixiily iriilpil liii! nrw huverBge, wagged bit head oppifivingly, and 
piuixiuiiced Ihi liviildeaiit wuidi. " Good I II hlf .'" Mott ouuredly Johnton'l 
eclatiialcil dictum nai a maniing I 




1S65.] 



THE COURT iffT> FBOPLB Of SUM. 



and variouB tinted llowcra garland their ht^adx, and their lep;s and 
arms are encircled by clanking rings of gold and silver whicli, 
Milliout being ainuk-lic, are supposed to Lave a cborm beyond 
llieir mmkct price. Young girls wtar necklaces composed of 
seven iuiiips of a precious metal, Their neckiiiees, having been 
dipped in water, blessed by the Tulapoins, exercise a genuine pi-o- 
tectivu induence, and this new quality greatly eDhsnccs their 
moneyed and urnaDieDting qualities, to the glory and the gain 
of the priesthood.* 

When 1 add, to complete onr deacriplioo of a Thai's appenrnnce, 
the men are as devoid of beards and whiskers as their spouses 
(marring nature's ellbrts by pluckmgout the young Lairs), i trust 
we shall nut fail to recognize the ciiinpact, durk-skinntd, scantily- 
covered fiirm, with that remarkable brush-like coronal of hair, and 
those bluik incisors curtained by such ruby lips, ahuuUl we 
chance to meet tLc combination on the painter's tablet, or in the 
flesh. In the llesh ! shrink not aghast, fair reader, those hideous 
teeth ond hlood-red lips devour no tender weanlings. The Thaif 
is not a ghoul unearthing with those long finger-nails of his, 
a banquet from Ihc graves. He is a gentle timorous thing, and can 
feel, as well as yon, solicitude about a sick lambkin, or soothe, 
though not with skill like yours, a baby maiden in her grief. lie 
is capable of deeds of tcndercst pathos. Here is a Thai, the 
ruler of men, fondling his motherless cliild, a tiny princess whom 
he calls his httle cosset, for be indeed had nurtured h?r with 
his own hand. In public and in private, in sickness and in hcnlth, 
this Arbiter of deatiuica manifesivd bis great love, and when the 
tender child began to lisp in English, the joy of his big heart 
seemed unbounded. Poor King! when the sbudow of death hid 
his little offspring from bim, great was hie fall from the height 
of merriment to the very depth of grief. A mournful circular, 
at this moment., announces his bereavement to bis friends in 
the various regions they inhabit, and he invites a sympathizing 
world to nitness that there is no sorrow like unto his. We know 
a sorrow sacred as his sorrow, and deeper by the distance that 
intervenes between feelings like his and feelings the most sensi- 
tive and relined. Upon such holy grief let there be no intrusion, 
for man cannot fashion the work of God's hands ! 

What a career is to a man, or marriage is to a woman, among us, 
a few ceremonials of easy attainment is to a Siamese. The grand 
aim in iLe life of a Thui is to have hie head shaved, to be 
admitted into the priestly novitiate, and to marry. The life of a 
woman is wholly without aim. Verily in mneh wisdom is much 
grief, and he that increaseth knowledge increaselh sorrow. l''rom 
such life-embittering disappointments as vfc may know, the Sia- 
mese arc exempt I Let us not be too reedy to extend our pity to lliia 

* Biabop PaJIrgalx slates lliii fact. 

t Thi nslive Dime (or ■ Siimeie, iccotiling ta Buhaji Psllegoii. 



A VISIT TO 



[FtB. 



pcnpic by-Biid-bv ; if they arc incnpable of our higb enjoyment 

they are not liable to our heort-remJing miseries. 

Tlie ceremonv of sbnving the head to form tiie hnir-tnft of the 
young Siamese, oecasions a great <lis|j|ay on llie part of his family 
and Jriends. The lavish expenditure attending a Cliinaniaii's 
exit from tbe world, scarcely exeeciU tht- cost of the ceremony in- 
augurating a vnung Thai's entry upon tlie duties of life. A feast 
is prepared, tbe relatione all assemble, nmsic enlivens tbe scene; 
t!ie young Thai is loaded with costly ornaments, the priests 
enter, nash the boy's head with lu^triil water and superintend the 
process of shaving. The hair «hich covers the croivn is lel't to 
form a circuhr patch. Banqueting begins, and theatrieal repre- 
sentations follow; and the fi'stivities are sustained till the guests 
sre sated, which doea not happen, sometitnes, till after two or 
three days. 

To ('inch liifhtly the hair-tuFt of a Thai is an unpardonable in- 
Bult. The young Siamese bas now an obligation imposed upon 
him, to cherish and preserve intact bis sacred tuft. He bas en- 
tered upon hia first duty, and is now admissible to the temple 
where tlie priests will t(.-acb him Sanscrit iu return for personal 
Berviee. 

Marriage is a civil contract. Like other contracts it is a nego- 
tiable alTuir. Where there is no interchange of sentiment, and 
no creative fancy to supjdy a w;mt, there can be no love beyond 
the brutal instincts of our nature; a yearning for companionship, 
for a tie like (hat which fuses mind and body, half heuvenlv, half 
earthly, and a craving for some sordid gratification such as a greedy 
beast might feel, are essentially different, vet how like in their 
origin, iu man's primeval time I We have escaped from tlie 
antique slongh, and arc capable of a bolv feeling, uhilat with passion, 
degrading passion, still linger tbe drowsy children of the sultry East. 
Love to a Siamese is what light ia to the blind, an unapproachable 
source of happiness. The Thai never flutters in the sunshine of 
a lady's eye, never reflects the smile of an enchantress, never 
hangs upon a look like a sky-lark floating in a radrant atmosphere 
above its cherished nest, n::ver trembles ut a pouting lip, bai- 
anecd between hope and fear, never quakes and eurps at bis un- 
steady gait «hen withdrawing from a lover's quarrel to experience 
Bt his recall a buoyancy as if happiness had given bim nascent 
wings. Oh, no ! wuman to him is but a plaything attuned 
to his desires ! Her voice and her movement are not her own, hers 
to give or bers to withhold, so the Thai pays court to the parents 
who are the owners oj the pretty bauble. The father of the crav- 
ing awiiin appoints a third party to approach the parents of the 
intended bride and negotiate a marriage. If the matter should 
be satisfactorily arranged, a gay procession forms at the bride- 
groom's house, and hearing lood, raiment, and a hngh pyramidal 
cake, wends its way to the bride's, amid tbe strains of lively 



136i.] 



THK COI-RT AKD PIOPLT! OF ?IAM. 



irt3 



music, and beueath the bridegroom's slolid look. The ceremony 
which is but a public assent expressed over a feast, atlt'iided <ir 
not hy a few idle farmsj lakes place in a month or so afterwards, 
during [his iuterval ihi; bridefjroom resides in the neip;hbimrliood 
that he may have an oppurl unity of frequently seeing bif Isdy-bird 
and *o aceiistoming her to hia presence A few days before the 
feoat, the maiden is couinianded to convey his meals to her future 
lord, just aa »onie African dam.'eU are ordered to take a pitcher 
to the well and felch water. The Siamese bride, however, receives 
no cruL-l stroke I'roai a Icalliur thnng to teach her obedience to 
her new master, like the unhappy African spouse. 

Marriage is permitted beyond the first degree of consanguinity. 
The king, who is above all lusv, may marry whom he will; but no 
Siame»e monarch ever exercises the privilege of Lot aud some of 
the Egyptian I'toloniies, unless the royal stock demands the measure 
for its preservation. A man may marry bis dec(-astd wife's sister, 
or his deceased brothei's wife. 

There are three classes of wives, the wife presented by the 
kitig, the wife by contract, and the wife of atfeetion. The law 
recognises but one wife, the wife by contract, called the Khun 
Mak. A man may repudiate his lawful wife, but cannot sell her 
unless on account of her hability lor debts, contracted with her 
assent for their common henetit. She is responsible for her own 
share of the debts, and in satisfaction thereof may be sold into 
slavery. Concubines are bought and sold like every ordinary 
purchasable eomuiodity. Coneubinaries dcclure ihcniselvea H'heu 
they possess the means of indulijiiig their propensity, the extent 
of their hurems being regulated solely by the degrt-euf their wealth 
and inclination. Concubinage is considered honourable, not as an 
evidence of prurience, but as an indication of afBuence, wealth, 
it would appear, being everywhere the great recummcudatioa 
to distinction. 

When a man repudiates his wife, if there be but one child of 
the marriage the mother takes it, in conformity with the rule of 
nature, partus seqiti/ui' ventrem, — the offspring follows the daui. 
If there be several children, the eldest, third, iil'th, and so on, in 
a series of odd numbers, go to the discarded mother. 

The wife is eiitiiled to a third of her husband's property at hia 
death, the remaining two-tbirda being apportionable among the 
children and their paternal grand-parents, and great-grand- 
parents, if any. Il the period of her cohabitation had been less 
than three years, or if she had been previously thrice married, she 
receives only wliat she brought with her, and what bIic may have 
personally acquired. The mu.xim, vbi nullum malriiuoniiim, ibi 
nulla dot — no marriage, no dower — is as rigidly applied by the 
Siamese as by as. 

The condition of wives in Siam is preferable to that of women 
in most eastern countries.'* A wife's duties are to attend to do- 
• Bi«ho|i P«llegoix mantion* a singular c«iWnni\uc\\\o«««A^\^»*«K»V*'«*''^ 



184 A vrsrr to [Feb. 

niestic aflairs and to entertain her lord nnH his piiests willi music. 
In tbe rural diNtricts she L-niiB};es in agricultiiral purauits, in8(<rnd 
of iiivukiag ihe St Ctcilm uf r.he Timis. 

InciKitincncj/ is a ci'iriie liltle knoMii amoTi>; lliese women. The 
Laos ladies, indeed, have llie re]iiilaLi(jn of being not unlike the 
churming crealiires encountered by the Squyce of Dames in bia 
Beareli alter cliasle women; bnt if thi^y have the propensity they 
seldom find tiie opportunity to err. The nobles usimlly select 
their wives among tho$e Laos Hoinen wlio are niore lively and 
fascinating than the ordinary Siamese. 

At some period of his life every Tliai becomes a candidate forthe 
priesthood. The period usually selected is when he attnins the 
age of puberty and is still unmarried. In some parts of the 
country a mark i^ si't upon a man who has never been an aspirant 
fur the priesily olfice ; be is called S/ian-dih, the profane, and it is 
with ditiieuity that he can obtain even a wife. 

Clothed in white, and attended by liia telatives and friends, the 
candidate for the tonsure betakes himself to a neigbbuuririg temple, 
where by a process of significant manipulatioti bis hair, [uft ia re- 
moved. He IS at once initiated into the exoteric teaching of tbe 
Buddhist philosophy. Having obeyed ibi- precept, tbe novice may re- 
enter the world the next day. But sliouk) he deisire to be lilted out 
of the walk of common men, and to be taken up into sedes discrelts 
piorum, or, in other words, should he love ease and celibacy better 
than their opposites, he remains the full lime alotted for probarion, 
and with much ceremony dons the yellow robe that exempts bim 
from the homage due lo kings. 

CHAPTER Vri. 

A Britiih reside n t dUrrgnrds ■ Trenly ohligniiDa — Arrciland panlihimtnt of the In< 
lerpreler la (he Uiiliia Cuasulnte. — .^VJacni ind riim<iiolioii oonicquf nt ttierenn.-^ 
Inttiiipernie real of ihc tlriiith Cuiisul.— .Adn^lralileeunduet uf Ibe L'Dmmaiider of 
the ■ Sar>cen,' — Tlie nc>)iles3rlilrrn ihu kmg.— Meelinifiioil [irntetl of tUe coaiiiU 
Bt Baiigkrik. — Tbe king leeks und dI>Uiiii> advice. — CuncJuct uf Ilia Mujeity. — A 
fe«£t ill the p^ilacc to celebraie Ihe klitg'a bjrihijay. 

We have seen how Mr. Richards' pardonable non-observance 
of a treaty etipiilatioii raised a storm that well nigh stranded him. 
We will now proceed to show how tbe waulon infraction, on the 
part of a British resident, of an important provision of the treaty 
so exasperated the king, as to threaten the destruction of our 
frienil's best interests. 

The fourth article of the treaty denies to British subjects coming 
to reside at Bangkok the right " to purchase lands witbiu a circuit 
of 200 sen (not more than four miles English) from the city walls, 
until tbey siialt have lived in Siam for ten years, or shall obtain 

neclion wilh (hi« subject. After the event, ilya Ihe bithop, the malher i« plftced 
near A large tire, where the U compelled to reiuaiii for wreka. Sutili lengthened 
exposure lo great hr;ai oflen reiults in death. Connected berewilb U iiime ui;>- 
lerjoui idea of purllicatian. 



1865.] TUB couBT akd people op siam. ' 1H5 

special authority from the Siamese Government to enable them to 
do so." The object of this provision is evidently to reserve to the 
Government the profits that were exjwcted to accrue from the 
augmentation in value of the land within this limit, aa trade be- 
came developed. A Mr. Puddicumbe (a retired shipmaster of 
respectable antecedents) who had lately arrived at Bangkok, bring- 
ing with him more enterprise than money, perceived that docks 
would be needed by the numerous aliipping invited by a liberal 
treaty. He determined to anticipate the demand, and his mea- 
sures were prompt and decisive. To avoid payment of a fine for 
permission to build his docks at Bangkok, the most eligible site, 
be employed a friendly native to purchase the ground required. 
He supplied the money. The ground was then leased to bim, 
at a nominal rent, for a period of ninety-nine years. Both deeds 
were formally drawn up, and the deed of lease was registered at 
the British Consulate. 

When the king became cognisant of the transaction, he felt 
furious, not at finding himelf outwitted as our journalist suggests, 
for that would be an insufficient cause to rouse the anger of 
a philosopher, but in believing himself to be grossly insulted and 
befooled before his whole people. He gave orders fur the apprehension 
of every native concerned in the matter, and the investigation into 
their conduct be directed himself. Two only were criminally con< 
victed, the man who purchased the land mala fide, and he who 
drew up the deeds. Upon the latter the king's vengeance chicHy 
fell. As Interpreter to the British Consulate and as one of the 
Royal writers, he could not plead ignorance of the treaty obligation, 
or of the law which limited the term of a lease to thirty years. 
" His offence is inexcusable," said the king. "Let him receive 
Dinety-niue stripes from the bamboo, one stripe for every year of 
the lease, and be will remember the character of his crime." The 
blous were inflicted in the king's presence. 

As soon aa it was noised abroad that the king bad thus dealt 
summarily with the offending interpreter, a panic seized upon 
the natives in the employment of foreigners. They all deserted. 
The impetus of this movement swayed the multitude, and a com- 
motion was the result. 

The first intimation that Mr. Richards received of this state of 
things, was a requisition for an armed party to protect the British 
Consulate from threatened demolition. The requisition came from 
Mr. Bell, the consul's assistant, the consul himself being ill 
of dysentery on board a merchant ahip at the bar of the river. An 
armed party waa landed.* The consul was summoned to bis post. 

* Tliii proceeding wu unwamntibte. The proper conru for Ihe conaul'i 
■iiisUni to B(io|>t KBi, to ipply for protection to the Siameie tuihorlLiei, and if 
this were denied, lo seek refuge on board the ' Saracen.' The Siamese government 
would be reiponiible, sccordiug to tbe 1i« of naliom, for the diautrous conie- 
quencei of a lumnlt (hat they were unwilling or unable lo lupprMi. — Ed. 



198 



A VISIT TO 



The imnishment of the interpreter took place oa the 28th Septem- 
ber; the landing of the blue jackets occurred on October 1 si. The 
consul arrJveii on the evening of the ^iid, in a most broken condi- 
tion Irom his malady. HU strength and energy had fled, but it 
seemed as if they returned for the occHsion. " Move the 'Saracen' 
to the palace gates,"* said the consul to Mr. llichards, " give 
me an arnied escort, and 1 ivill sei-k the king and demand the 
iuunediate release of ihe prisoners." Rtt»hne»a seems to be no 
part of Mr, Richards' character. He declined to proceed in this 
manner. The consul abruptly withdrew, and wrote an official letter 
demanding the aid of the Commander of the ' Saracen' in ihe form 
set forth. To this formal requisition the Commander of the 
' Saracen' replied ; " I cannot venture to take a step that would be 
regarded by every dispassionate person as a direct insult and 
threat to the king. Should ynu fail in obtaining what you desire 
through the proper channel, the kinf-'^s ministers, I will furnish 
a guard to escort you to the palace for the purpose of demanding 
an audience and explanation of the king." 

The reply of Mr. Richards, firm and respectful, and the tem- 
perate ads ice couched therein, found favour with the consul when 
his ebullition of passion had sub^di-d. 

"After mounting the pinnace's gun, and preparing other hoatB, 
I accompanied Mr. HillJer (the consul) to the Phra Klang's The 
consul demanded, that the Siamese who Here imprisoned by order of 
the king should be transferred to his custody; and notice was 
given, that the demand, if not complied with during ibe day, 
would be preferred at the foot of the throne, supported by an 
armed band from the ' Saracen.' " 

The Fhra Klang sought Ihe Prime Minister. \ number of the 
principal nobles was assembled at the palace of Prince Krumolong 
Wong S a, the king's youngest brother, and a letter of respectful 
remonstrance was addressed to the king. This letter appeared 
to have the desired effect, fur the king ordered the imprisoned native 
who had accomodately purchased the land, to be translerred to 
the custody of the consul. Aa for the interpreter, he was beyond all 
human control. "After receiving his puniahuient, the poor victim 
was removed to the residence of Prince Krumolong Wong Sa, 
who pretends to have some knowledge of medLcine. Here by the 
prince's order his lacerated back was covert^d with a large opium 
plaster. The effect of this iipplicalion was that ihc patient shortly 
became insensible. The plaster was then removed. I visited him 
just before his death, which took place within a few days, and 
found hid back dreadfully mangled and discoloured. BVom the 
upper part of the shoulders to the small of the back the skin ap- 
peared to have been scored across, like pork dressed for the table." 

Our journalist would have ui believe that it was the remonstrance 

* Tbe riTer entrance, it will be remaiDbered, wai tbe ^»nd entrance lo the 
palncB. 



l!i65.] 



THB CoraT AND PBOPT^ OF SUM. 



187 



of the noblea which assuaged the king and efTected the liberation 
of the prisoner. In this attempt to delude others, I fear lie but 
deludes himself, lie forgets that there ia siich a liiiuij as justice 
to one's self, and that if it be wrong to niHgiiify the faults, or to 
detract from the nierila of auother, it is alsu wrong not to claim 
for one's self the just praise which one risks his reputation and 
his interests to desLTve, It was not ibe renioiistranee of the nobles 
which aoiilhed the king, hut a cause antecediiU, the firm, respect- 
ful, straightforward conduct of the Couimauder of the ' Saracen,' 
The king had his enussaries abroad, and was acc|uaiuted with 
the cunaui'fl influnimatory endeavours, as well as «ith the behaviour 
that counteracted them. He felt grateful towards the boue»t 
sailor; and his indignation towards the high-handed official, who 
coidd venture to humiliate him in bis own stronghold before a 
people that regard him as a dcmi-god, gave way tu the gentler 
feeling, as anger sonietioies is seen to yield to one kind word. 
The king wanted but a decent prt-text, and this the ministers 
knew, for within three hour.'' the I'hra Klang had given an audience, 
the Phi's Knlohom had summoned the uohles, the remonstraoce was 
addressed, the prisoner set free and at the British consulate. 
Orientals are not accustomed to quch despatch unpremeditntely. 
The influence aubsequently displayed by Mr, Kicliards, afi wdl 
presently appear, and the warm friindship which exists to this day 
between the king and him, snlhciently atlest the gratitude of a 
monarch who owea to the preserver of his dignity the maintenance 
of the friindly relations between England and Siam. 

When the consul found himself keeper of the Siamese, who to 
please an enterprising Englishman had forgotten hie obligations to 
Ilia country, he invited his brother consuls to a conference, A 
document, purporting to be a protest against the king's con- 
duct, was signed by them all ; and before it was despatched, 
Mr. Uichurds was induced to append his signature. To this 
gratuitous tissue of animadversions upon bis conduct, the king 
rephed aa became him, He regretted the occurrences complained 
of, without advi-rtin;^ to the injustice and presumption that pru- 
voked them, but maintained the right tu puniah bis own subjecta 
who transgressed the law. His Majesty, at the same time, addressed 
B letter to Mr. Uichards, alike expressive of regret, and containing 
further a request for "advice on the suhjict in its ultimale bear- 
inga." Mr. Richards withheld not his advice. The gallant officer 
must now admit that his prefatory flourish appealing to conatiroce, 
reasim, and accusing the king ot having set at detiauce the laws of 
civilised nations, is all twaddle. To address His Majesty in this 
manner, under these circumstances, is like twitching a man by the 
jioae and subjecting him to ridicule for attempting to resist the 
outrage. The concluding part of our friend's letter certainly has 
a meaning. "Notwithstanding that your Majesty disputes Mr. 
I'uddicombe'H title to the land purchased b^ b\\a\yVe 4\jWw.tVi?^«S. 



188 A vtsrr to [Feb. 

the lease is IiPie hoKlly (luog aside] our consul oonwders the tiile 
valid, and lie hns rcrqiiested me tu protcrt Air. Fuddicombe jn the 
possession of his property I'y an armed force. If your Mujesly be 
really desiroas ot' niakinp; aniends for your former ruxliness, and 
wdl relieve me from a diaagrecHbli; duty, yoii must leave Mr. 
I'lulJicombe in quiet poBsefsioii o( his groiiiiJ till the qiieNtion of 
tille ttin betried by commisaioiiers »p|JoiiitL'il for the purpose, Your 
Mejirsty must also ptibHsh forihwith u proelamHtion, dirt-ctinj; your 
subjuc'.s in the employment of foreigners to return witliout delayJ 
to their niastei-s, l''«itbcr, your Mujesty srould do well to pardon 1 
the man now in eu^tody of the consul, as Mr. IlilHer's ilhiess 
precludes the necessary inquiry into the eircumslanecs of the 
arrest for an indelinite period. Uy doing all in your ptiwer to 
retrieve the past, you may rest assured that Her Most firacions 
Majesty, my nogust Sovereign, will not be indisposed to accept 
your apology." An apology is demanded whei-e an apology la 
due. At any other time this letter would have bpen a mo»t im- 
pudent effusion ; but see bow admirably fitted it was for the oc- 
casion, di3|]laying, as it did, no eouimou instinct on the part of 
the writer. "On the following morning a royal proebimnlion 
appeared, commanding all Siamese subjects lately in the employ- 
Tneiit of foreigners to return at once to their masters; and in the 
evening cni-uing I received a note from the king, thanking me 
for my advice, and informing me tiiat the proclamation sug- 
|;ested was alreadv issued, and that no attempt would be made to 
oust Mr. I'otidicombe." This was not all. The twaddle had not 
only been swallowed, it was assimilated, and it now displayed 
itself as a constituent part of the man "As some atonement," 
the liing further wrote, " for the insult which, you say, I offered 
the English flag, I will purchase a plot of ground convenient for 
yjur consular establishment, aud present i[ to your government. 
In a conspicuous spot thei'con I will erect a tablet, which shall 
brar this inscription : " I'rescnted by Sunidetch I'hra Paramendr 
Maba Mongkut, First King of Siam, to Her Majesty Vitlorio, 
Queen of Great Britaiu and Ireland, to mark his regret for an' 
insult offered to her Hag,'" One would think the king hud been 
beivitched. The conelusion of his letter, however, shows pretty 
clearly that His Majesty retained the powerof withholding an assent. 
"'As to the pardon of the man in custody at the British consu- 
liite,'" concludes His Mnje^ty, "'this offender against the laws of 
his country must be arraigned before a Siamese tribunal. I will 
promise, however, that should he be eonvicied, I myself will 
solicit his pardon from the judges.' " 

The king's monitor laughed outright at this most awliward at- 
tempt of His Majpsty to tergiversate, " Solicit his pardon from the 
judges !" rej'iinr-d Mr. Uiehards. "It i" well known that the First 
King ofSinm is possessed of absolute power, and can pardon as 
Well as condemn. We have recentlv witnessed the nianitestation 



1865,] THE COURT AND PEOPLE O^ SIAIC. IStf 

of his power to condemn; & displav of hia pardoning authority 
would now be exceedingly gratifying. 

The (jflrdon was at leugtb pronounced. Mr, Richards' triumph 
was complete. 

" Whilst the point [touching the pardon] was still in dispute, 
the king's birthday occurred. It is customary for His Majesty to 
celebrate the anniversary of his birth by inviting to a grand feast 
in his palace the principal European residents," On this oecasioa 
the king took unusual trouble in prRparing the entertainment, for 
he resolved to show by a surpassing liberality that if he could ofiend, 
healsocould conciliate. The commander of the 'Saracen' and the 
king's friend was, of course, invited. But he " begged to be ex- 
cused on account of the unsettled state of the last point." 

"The king makes his appearance at these festivals when the 
cloth is removed, and his health has been proposed. He walks 
Tound the table, couversing freely with the guests ; but he partakes 
of nothing, as it is not lawful for him to eat or drink in public. 
After imparting to the circle of his admirers a zest for new enjoy- 
ment, he retires. The banquet is quite in the European style, and 
is presided over by one of the principal ministers of state." 
{To be coHtinued.) 



STRATAGEMS AND TRICKS OP "WAR, 

BX LEBUTEXANT A. STEINMETZ, OFFiCKB INSTHDUTOE OF MnSKETKT, 
THE queen's own LIGHT INFANTRY. 

Introtluciion. 

The game of chess may be played in application of the principles 
of Straiepy, and the game of billiards in application of Tactics. 
Indeed, all man's faruurile diversions and pastimes most signifi- 
cantly relate to war, whicli has been called his natural state, exem- 
plifying always either the brute force that crushes, the skill that 
foils, tlie stratagem (hat surpri^ei', or tite ruse thai deceives; and 
such is war to nil intents and purposes, l'>en our philosophic 
diversions in science, ballooning, for instance, come in and lend 
their aid in the game of war — Ibe pastime of heroes, and the neces- 
sary defence of nations. 

Ancient generals, conforming to the superstitions of their times, 
appealed frequently to fate, destiny, and foriutie, or as we translaie 
it, "luck," On a memorable occiision, in a storm, when his pilot 
was terrified, Cicsar exclaimed, "Why fear you? You are carrying 
Cfesxr mid his good fortune ;" and the man was re-as^ured and did 
his duty. Napoleon, one of the most cunning of men, pretended 
to believe in destiny, in his "star," and all that sort of thing, 
which is thoroughly appreciated by the Celtic mind, but which in 
ttia Anglo-Saxon mode of thinking, ia set do^vi ■». vl.\\'!Kt^.^'^5^-^^ 



100 



STIUTAGEMS AND TRICKS OF WAR. 



[Pkb. 



humbug. It auawered Napoleon's purpose, however, on all occa- 
siiius. 

^u the otlier hand, the Duke of Wellinj^ton diJ not believe in 
luck, tie had no luilli in hnppy accidents. He ttusted uuDnni; 
to chuiice. lie never Talked about his " slur" or liis "destiiiv," 
as if the iiitlueiice of the one wiis (o " accomplisli" tlie other, what- 
ever lie did, or did not. Tlie Dutce believed that in war, ns in 
everything else, maitcrs in the long run come out ]iretly much 
according to aetlled laws, physical or inorwl, and that the best way 
to secure ulliinute success is to keep in liarinoiiy with llmse lu*s, 
to look fur result commt-nsurate with the cuuses whtcli are brought 
inlo pliiy. 

With these views, he never risked anything if he could avuid it. 
He omitted no uppurtunity of colltciing krn>wledi;e that uiiglii one 
day be serviceable, ibal he miL-'ht luake himself fully prepared forall 
possible emergencies or pos>ible openings. He was thus ready for 
anything that arose; was always found by others to be "a c^ipablo 
man," and I'unnd himself that the tools came to the hands lliat 
could handle them. He went to work with the utmost caution, 
Ibe cotile.'t sagacity, the greatest pasaible forethought. He included 
in his ciilculutions everything lie could think of that bore on the 
case in hand. He did nut wish tu be surpilsi^il, and so he could 
not depend upon somelhing happening that miglil favour his pur- 
pose. He WHS aa wise and prudtnt as he was bold and Diug- 
iiaiiirnou!. 

Bouiiparle used to say Ihut no man ever lost a game ot chess bat 
by his own fuult. As a game of skill, the result at cUess depends, 
of course, ou tlie player himself, on his forethought and caution, 
on his mental lijbit>, lits intflhgeiice and titleiilion, on his puner 
to divine thought and purpo-^^e, to nnlieipate movL-menls, improve 
an advantage, and oihcr qu:ililicd which imply knowledge, vigilance, 
sagacity and toci, wliieli are oidy to be acquired by study and 
care, and wliicli lead the individu.d to leave nolhitig to inspiiatiou 
or genius, but to expect re.-uUs according to law, the law that 
regulates thought and action in an intelligent agent, soviiiig aud 
reaping in lliiiigs done. 

Such i? the biisint'ss of every-day life. Such is the ginernl rule 
with re.'pect lo success and Hdvaneemenl in the world. The Ruth- 
chilils bi-came iuilli(muires al'tt-r that fashion. Such was the prinei- 
ph- on which Willingloii acted, even in that science in whicli it is 
tlinught that, more than anywhere elt<e, "the race is not to the 
swift, nor the battle to tiie strong," On this prnieiple, he quickly 
Morkcduu, slowly advancing slop bj sleii, but gradually gaining 
on liis raiire impetuous adversary, in the persons of his generals, 
uiitd he confoundi'd him bv the rtjioit of his successes, alarmed 
htm by the progress of bis arms, pursin-d him to tlie centre of liis 
iJominions, and at last showed the siipiriority of plan!" regulated bj 
canliuus calculation, and pursued on the level of law, over reckleu 
dependence on Furlurie, or a supersiitious beV\e( uu Dc'^tiw^. 



1865.] 



STHATACeifS AND TRICKS OP WAR. 



101 



In nine cnses out of ten, we may clepend upon it, the grand secret 
of appiirent luck ii siinfily a man's thorovgh liislielief of any such 
Ikhiff ; Ill's tnipting, ihorerorp, to no cxtriiorcliii^irv or fortmiaLe 
inliTposiliii'na in his favour; hut, inslrail of ihal, just i|uii-Lly re- 
lieving ihc goiliiess of her funcliojis, snJ taking Ihp pnrt of Forlune 
on himself. It is LJiuf that we pmvi' that " kuowlpd^-e u power," 
the power to do wliat we please in al! the walks of hfe, in liuilOing 
up on empire of nnlioos or of wfalliu* 

So, it 18 impossible for a soldier to know too raucli. If a long 
hro'i be npci-ssiiry for a lawyer, it is inlinitely more so for a soldiiT, 
who lifts frequently to dcppnd more upon liis aits than his wciipona 
for snccess or safety. MilHaiy hi^lory is full of example? which 
support lliis averment, and we pmiio-e to treat of this imptirtant 
branch of the Art of War, wliich has not hitherto received the 
utienlion which il ih-stTVcs. 

It has been ?aid Hint tlie Arl of War is llie art of cheating and 
deceiving on principle and by tni'tliod ; and limt the general who 
can play off mid neutralize all the designs of the enemy by h's 
intellect, and the sa^aciiy of his raoveioerits, is a man of tlie hi;^host 
order and worthy of the greatest conlidence. Auda, Gengts Khan, 
Tameilane, nnd other barbarimis succeeded bv their numbers ; but 
Annibal, to borrow the French phrase "arranged" the llomaus by 
craft, ounnin;.,', and the audacious s.igicity of hin plana. 

We have numerous works on the art and nielhod of war, 
Strategy and Tactics, but lliere does not esisl, we believe, a single 
work in English, es|>ecially devoted to the inculcniion of the method 
and the means of surprising an enemy, inveigling him into am- 
bush, turning against him tlie very snares he lias set for os, in 
short, the endless schemes and shifts wilh which, " by hook or by 
crook," we may get the upper hand of him, foiling him if we are 
on the defensive, or crusbins; him if we o|icr8te on llie ofl'ensive. 

Everything in war depend* upon concealing the truth from the 
enemy, or making liim believe what ia fahe ; and therefore we re- 
commend to all military aspirants, the serious study of all the 
stratagems and Iricks of war, which have been perpetrated in all 
times and countries. 

Doubilei^s ihe most instructive military manual would be that 
which ehoidd show how baltles have been lost, by the errors nf 
leaders in every grade, and we propose ere long to write it, but 
not less indispensable is a tre;itisB on mililary stratagems and ruses, 
which by liieir very nature, must bi; as aniusing as tliey are iu- 
slniclivc, for in the latter point of view, by knowing them before- 
band, we can play them off if practised again,*t us, or o.'e them 
ourselves on occuaiou. Mimy ol' them seem to be endowed with 
everlasting novelty, for allhougU practised over and over again, they 
bavu always succeeded. 

■ For Ihe vnriouB poinis of Iliii enmparisnn hctwten Nspoleon »aiJ Wcllinjjtonj 
we are clikfly inilftitFcl to Mr. Biiincy't ■' WcUtagtgn." 

U. S. Mab. No. 13I>, Feb. 1805. ^ 



1I»! 



STBATAGhUS AKD TBLCK3 OF Wtll. 



[Tib. 



I. 



9TRATAOBW3 PHACTIBED IN CAMPAIGNS AND STBATEGIOAL 

OPERATIONS. 



The vooden horse filled with soldii 



by 



j( nliicli the 



means 
Rot into Tfov, wa«, doubtless, a clever trick; but tbo 
8|iaiiiards, in 1597, got into Amiens by means of a slratngc-in slill 
more curious and deceptive. Their leader, Fi-nlinand Tello, t^eni 
into Amiens a waggon loaded viih stratr and tiut^, led by soldiers 
di>gui»ed as peasants. At soon as llie ^ntes were opened, llie 
toldiers managed to let out the nuts from the waggon as ihnii^h 
by accident, and the citizens wlio were mounting guard at iTie 
gntes begun lo scrnmblc for ihem. Thereupon tbe aidiliera fell on 
the former with sudden »iau£;hter, and being soon followed by llie 
Spanish army, ihey took posse.*sion of the town. 

Even in Ibe altfred cuudiliuns of modern warfare, occasion may 
occur in which a Bimiliir ruse may be employed lo secure an im- 
porlant success; but false intelligence as to liie exii^ting stale of 
tilings is mosl likely to influence the movemeuls of modem belli- 
gi- rents. 

By spreading tlie report that formidable miues were kid on the 
aoulh approaches to Scbsstopol, tlie Russians managed to protract 
a siege a* dam.iging lo tbe invaders as to thetnselve* ; for it is ni)w 
quite cerlaiu that the Allies, after the Bailie of Alma, could hava 
marched into the city or carried it by assault. " The works on Ihe 
South side," says Todleben, in his recent work on the Defence of 
Sebastopol, "being so feeble, and the garrison se small, it waa 
impossible to hope, even supposini; the bravest resistance, that we 
could succeed in repelling an enemy so superior iu numbers." In 
fict, it is ccrlttin that Menschikotf left the town willi his nrmy, 
tinder the impression thst it was not defensible. The ciiutioii of 
the Allied leaders cost both coutilries the loss of the llnest armies 
they ever sent to battle, decim.it«d and worried out of exii-tence in 
& siegp which may be considered the greatest bungle, on our side, 
in military annals. 

In 179t, General Dumonceau, who had to allack the lines of 
Breda, seized them by stratagem and almost without a shot. Ills 
brigade consisted of a battalion of Belgian light infantry, and eight 
French battalions, Dumonceau ordered some carabineers of ihe 
Belginn battalion to approach one of ihe halteries of the lines, and 
enter into conversation with the sentinels niid the Dutch gunners, 
to complain of the hardships of the service in which they were 
engaged, pretending lo wish to desert, announcing, moreove', lliat 
thrir example would be followed by many more of their comrades. 
During this interesting conversation, wliich took place as ordered 
by ihe General, Ihe carabineera began ami continued to slide on 
the ice, as though to keep themselves warm, but in reality to get 
nearer and nearer. 



1865.] BTBATAQEllS A>>D TB.IQKS OP WAB. 193 

Tile wliol^ tiling was managed ao nalurally, tbat at leii^h ihe 

whole company soon got together, sUdiiiB away apparently for no 

otlirr purpose than to keep tliemselvcs warm. At lenjjlh, liowfTer, 

the Diitclititen got soiipiciouB and began to take nienaurps to fire 

upon the visitors; but it was too Inte, for at the instant a discharge 

L of cnrinon gave the signal for the geur'ral altnek of tlie liiiei. 

I Thereupon, tlie csrabineers rushed upon the guns of tiie battery, 

I which tliey surrounded, and gave the gunners no lime to fire. The 

l< remainder of the droops winch had been well posted in readiness 

Lfor the altacfc, dashed in and finished the affair almost before the 

Dnleh could recover from their surprise at the whole |iri)cceding. 

Eapid and entire success crowned the enterprise, and thus were 

L the lines of Breda carried without the aid of the columns of attack, 

I'Wliich did nut come up until aTtcr the inlrenchments had been 

■ forced by the advanced guard as described. 

I The I'olloHing incident would be incredible were it not well- 

I sttcEted. If there be one quality more necessary than any other 

I'in a soldier it is presence of mind. No man ever gave greater 

I, proof of possessing it in the highest degree than one of Prince 

Eugene's capbiins, by name Mothieu. After the defeat of the 

corps of General Jellaclneh (pronounced, Yellowitch) at the battle 

Lof San Miciiele in IhO^, Cn|)tBin Mathieu was sent by Prince 

rEugeue en reconnais»ance in the direction of Salzburg. Tliis 

officer, accompanied by a single dragoon, had reached, during the 

night, the positions of Hottenrnann, when he fell upon the enemy's 

post and was made prisoner. In this critical conjuncture, with 

wonderful presence of mind he announced himself as the bearer of 

a flag of truce, and said he wns sent by the Viceroy to announce 

L to the enemy into whose hand.t he had fallen, the complete defeat 

pof General Jellachich, and thus succeeded in inducini; 3,000 men, 

under the orders of Major^General Plunkett, to lay down their 

arm?, and allow him to return to report the success of his brilhant 

hBlratngem. 

L Spies are miserable but useful creatures when we can get them, 
Ito serve our turn. Tliey are always to be found in every camp, 
■take what precautions we like. It is well, therefore, to know how 
Lto play ihcin off if we cannot get rid of the race entirely. The 
Kfioman Grnend Venlidius plavcd off ihe Parthians in excellent 

■ ■tyleby means of one nf llieirsjiirs. Being informed timt there wasa 
Bpy amongst his troops who betrayed his dciigns to the enemy, he 
re.wlved to take advantage of tiie f:ict to promote tliem. He pre- 
tended to desire what he feared and to fear what he desired, for he 
circulated a report that he feared nothing more than that the 
Parthians should invest him with all their cavalry by the route of 
the pliiin, whereas if they cime by ihnt of llie niounlains he would 
take advantage of tlie position to post liis infanlry. Tlie creiJnlons 
apy conveyed (he report lo the credulous Parthian?, who, :iccord- 
ingly took the route of the plain, which was mucli longer, and 

oX 



lU 



STEATAOeua AMD TttlCKS O? WAK. 



[PlB. 



tliu9 gave Ventirlias time to collect his forces and take moans to 
secure a succe^alul dereiice. 

An accurale knowledge of the character of our opponent maj, 
in a similar vnv, be tLiriK'd to our account when in critical poM- 
tioris, as iras iLe ease with Wellington, Juring llic l-'eniii*ulur War, 
on one occasion when ho suddenly cume up vilh the enemy. As 
he entered the village of Sonoren, he saw (.'lnusel's division moving 
along the crest of the mountain oppoeilc, which made nn alteralion 
in his plans advisable. He imniediulely dismounted, vrole ihe 
necessary orders in pencil on the p.inpet of the bridjte, sent them 
off by Lord Fitzroy Sumersel, the only one of his staff who had 
bepn able to keep up with bis racing speed, and rode alone up the 
oaceiit to join the British troops. The moment he was described, 
a shout wus raised by ihe nearest battalion, which spread along 
the line till tlie mounlains re-echoed with the clang; and the 
French generals, slarlled by ihe sound, paused in their advance 
until they ascertaiued the cause of the tumult. The gt-neraU oh 
both *ide were within sight of each other. Soult was so near tliat 
even hia fealures were visible uilli the aid of the telescope. With 
his habitual sagacity, Wellington at once perceived his advantage; 
he thoroughly knew Souk's eharactiT, and exclaimed: — "Yonder 
is a great commander, but he is a 'cautious one, and will delay his 
attack until he ascertains the cause of these clieirs; that «iU give 
time for the sixth division to arrive, and [ shall beat him." And 
BO in effect it proved. No srrious attack, except one on a hill held 
by the Spaniards, which was repulsed, was made thai day ; and before 
the next, sucli reinforcements arrived as enabled Wellington to 
ri'surae the offensive and secure the victory. The crowing of a 
Cock is said to friyhten a lion, the British cheer on this occasion, 
as planned by Wellington, had the same effect on Soult and secured 
victory to his wily opponent, 

In like manner Bonaparte's presence of mind stood htm in good 
stead on a very critical occasion. It wiis at Lonato in 1796. At 
the very moment when he was occupied in planning llie disposi- 
tions of the general engagement which he intended for the morrow, 
the enemy's flag of truce was announced, summoning him to sur- 
render. At the same time he was informed that the enemy's 
advanced guard was approaching the town, and that the road to 
Brescia was already intercejited. 

On being iniroduced, tiie officer bearing the flag of truce told 
Bonaparte that Lonato being surrounded ou all sides, nothing 
remuined for the French in the town to do but to lay down their 
arms and surrender at discretion, 

Uodnparte had only from 1,000 to 1,200 men in Lonato. The 
situation was eminently critical. Soon, however, recovering 
from his surprise, his presence of mind, by a stroke of audacitv, 
extricated him from his ddemma. Li an angry tone, but not 
wtlliout dignity, he asked the flag of truce how he dared to summon 



J865.] 



STRATAGBua AND TRICKS OF WAA. 



ins 



to surrender s victoriunsi general, in tlie midst of his bead -quart era, 

Slid surrounded by liis ariuy. "Go," said Up, "and udl tlie 
Oeiiera! fflio sent jou, tijat il" lie Ims timus^lit of iii?ulliiig tlie 
IVeiicli army, I biii beru lo avenge itj that he is liiiiiself my 
Iirir<oiicr to^'ctlier with bis soldiers. I know llial hia troop is ouly 
one of ihe ooluuiiis cut ofl' by divisions of my army, which occupy 
Sulo and tlie road from BfescJii to Trent. Ttll him that if, in 
eight iiiiimlw, hn does not lay down bis arms, and if a single 
nmski't is Bred, I'll have him shot, together with all his Uoop#." 
Then turning to the olUcera who b^d brought in tlie flag of trucL-, 
he said, " Ilemuve the bandage from this gcnlleman's eyes," and 
continuing to address t!ie laller, he exclaimed, "Behold General 
Bonupurle in tbe midst of bis Stall' aud tbe Army of ibc Republic. 
^^H Tell your Oenerul that he can come and try to make them 
^^H prisoners." 

^^^^^K The ollicer retired, and Bonaparte instantly ordered Dctlliier to 
^^^^y sdvaiice the grenadiers, who were on guard at the beHd-<]uurtcrB, 
W all liie olber trocps in Lonato, and a few pieces of arlilliTj. 

^^^ Tiio tabbp were turned ; when tiie leader of the enemy's column 

^^H discovered that Bonaparte and his SioJT were in Lonnto, lie at 
^^" ouce, in his turn, bejjged to capitulate. "No, no," rtjiiied Bona- 

W psitp, with fierce dctermiuatiou, "1 cannot capitulate «ith men 

^^K who are my prisoners." 

^^f The Austrian insisted, and then Bonaparte ordered a dcmonstra- 

9 tion of immediate attack. The hostile general did not ivait for 

I the elTcft, but surrendered at discretion. Three Austrian battalions, 

I about 6,()(JU strong, and 30 hulans laid down their arms, with 

' three colours aud four pieces of cannon. 

There is a disease called Nostalgia or homesickness, tbe hanker- 
ing after home, to which soldiers are subject. However strongly 
it may have been fidt by the British army, we believe it has never 
inlerfc-red effeciujlly with discipline. It is not so, however, with 
continental armies, and a very remarkable instance occurred in the 
French army during the campaign of Italy, in 18(H). Tbe corps 
d'anitee undur General Gouvion Saint Cyr, occupifd Genoa and 
tbe defiles of the Apennines, All supplies were iuiercepled by tbe 
rigorous blocltade; scarcity ensued, and famine was at hand. 
After protracted sufferings, supported with courageous re^igoalion, 
the soldiers gave way to exasperation at the slate of inertia lo 
which they were condemned, and longing for liomc, they tore tbeir 
colours from the hands of their cllicers, abandoned the inlrench- 
meuti, and hurried pell-mell into Genoa. " We shall die of hunger," 
they cried, "What are we doing here? We are deserted, left for- 
lorn, Bacriliced ! Let us march lo France! To I'rancel To 
France !" 

Nothing conhi be more frightful than this spectacle of veterans 
demanding nith one accord to return lo thtir homes, sinasliiiii^ 
llieir arms Ij pieces, trampling tlicir colt)U.i&\\v V\\s: iasS., ■ss&Ss-^- 



198 



sraaTAQEAo and tsicks of war. 



[Pkb. 



Bulling their ofGcere. The fortitude of the mott ddermined com- 
mander iiii^'ht well auccuinb at the dreadful scene. Gouvion Snint 
CjT, boweverj was equul to it. Calm in the midst of the mutinous 
mob, lie nJdresscd lliein as follows: — 

"Whither are you goinf!, soldiers?" "To Prance I to Fraiicp 1" 
remunded on all sides. " Well I" resumed the General, "if jour 
duty no longer retains yuu, if the call of honour ib no lonf^er 
listened lo, wrelches thiit you are, listen to the voice of reiison and 
your own irileresfs, for your destraction is certain. Just look at 
the road you have to take, the length of the jnuriiey, the perils 
that await you. Can you doubt tliat the enemy in pursuit vtill 
overtake you in the disorder of your mnichP Have you forgotten 
that you have made a desert betweeu you and T" ranee ? Who will 
feed you in these vulleysP Will you, like snvau'e beasts, devour the 
inhabitants, women aud children, all whose food you have already 
devoured? Away with you, cowards, lo that shameful death, but 
do not desecrate our colours. Leave them behind, at least rn ih© 
hands of the brave who prefer to fall with them on the field of 
battle. No, no! your only salvation is in your bayonets! If yoQ 
would live and see your native land once more, rout the enemy far 
from these wall? and ihe port to which the tirstfair wind will bring 
our convoys, our provisions, our clothing, and our lammuniliou 
which your cowardice surrenders to the enemy." 

Electrilied by this vigorous appeal, the soldiers at once submitted 
and begged to be led against the enemy. Thereupon the General, 
improving his advantagi', continued: — " Uetuni lo your posts 
which your officers have been keeping for you; but 1 shall not 
restore your colours to you until you have made amends for your 
execrable conduct and make the enemy pay for it." 

The French have rarely been deaf to such generous appeals. In 
his disastrous retreat through the valley of the Upper Uidassoa, 
Soult owed his safely and tluit of his troops to his vigorous apiieal 
to the honour of the latter. In their lai-t march to the di-hles of 
Eehular, when the allied army was hurrying forward to win the 
pass before the enemy, great part of the French army, now tho- 
roughly discouraged, broke its ranks and dispersed. Soult, who 
was endeavouring lo form a rear-guard lo arrest the pursuit of the 
enemy, was seized with indignation when he beheld the disorderly 
hands winch, in wild confusion, came hurrying forward. 
"Cowards!" he exclaimed, "Where are you flying to? You are 
Frenchmen, and yet you are running away ! In the name of honour, 
halt and face the enemy !" Stung by these reproaches, twelve 
hundred men rallied under the direction of the marshal and his 
aides-de-camp, and formed a sort of rear-gtiard to tlie discomfited 
army. 

Stronger measures have, however, been found necessary on other 
occasions. In IQH, when the Duke de Guise took command uf 
the Neapolitan forces, to drive the Spaniards from the kingdom. 



1865.] 



9TIIATA0EM3 4S0 TRICKS OF WAR. 



Ilis aoMters, on tlie pretext of arrears of pay, mnliiiieJ and refused 
to ni,ircli. " Which uf yon refuse to obey ine P" asked ihe Duke 
fiercely. "I niid all llie rest," replied one of lliem. Iii?larit)y 
the Duke rushed upon him and ran him thrtiu;;!! nith hi» 8«ord. 
"Does any other of you wish to die by my hands?" he tben ex- 
cluimed. " I do," replied another. "You don't deserve it," said 
the duke, " but you sliall die by the hands of ihe hangman," and 
be liad liim hanged on llie ^pot. That was suHicient, tbu tnutiiiecra 
at once giive in and begi^ed pardon. 

Demadotte had a dilticidty of the same kind, when in cOTiimsnd 
of a corps of 20,000 men, and ]iroeeediiig to re-enrorce the Arcnjr 
of Italy and the opening of the fumous campaign of 1700, He 
had crossed tlie Alps and reached Milan. Afler leaving that town, 
a regiment, under preteit of arrears of pay, refused lo march ; and 
its example spread sedi linn loa part of Bi-rnadotte's diviwoH. Tliey 
refused to obey tbetr colonel ; he ordered the officers and non- 
commissioned officers lo advance with their colours ; but the 
iBoldiers refused to stir. When infonoed of Ihe fact, Berniidotte 
1 rode up, he was recognised, and commamlcd iheni to advance. 
They obeyed, but soon I hey hesitated aj^ain and suddenly halted. 
Instantly, Bcmadolte rushed to Ihe company of Grenadiers, drew 
his awordjjand seizing the front rank man, exclaimed, " March, or 
I'll run you through !" Then turning to the remaindtr of the 
regiment, lie continued, " Wretches ! I should not have led yon 
BO far to witness your disgrace. You must obey me on the spot 
or assassinate me. Bat vou will not sirike the general to whom 
you owe your lives. Hdve you forgotten, that without him joa 
would have ceased to exist, or as slaves of a lioftile king your 
victorious hands would have had to drain the marshes of Hungary p 
I command you to deliver up to me the leaders of this mutiny, or 
I have you decimated on the spot." A solemn silence ensued, 
but repentince aiiovied itself on every face, and the men rejoined 
jtiieir colours. Thereupon UernaduLle ordeied the C;iptains lo |wint 
l.out the guilty leaders; they were ordered out of the ranks and 
Tdelivered over lo a guard composed of iheircomrades. " Forward !" 
fitaid the General, and the whole regiment obeyed without a 
ii murmur. 

The secret of command resides in the mast«ry of the pasfioiis of 
the soldier. It consists in knowing how to set thein in action, 
BO as to raise them to Ihe highest intensity, and thus to develop 
, to the utmost all the power of liis physicid forces. As the passions 
rjufloence the wdl, we must conclude llint the stronger ihe passions 
[of an army, the greater will be its coura.^e. Hence Hclvelius said, 
'If Ihe strong passions, such as pride and patriotism amongst the 
Gteeks and Komans, fanaticism amongst the Arabs, avarice amongst 
the Buccaneers, produced Ibe most rcdonbtable warriors, a general 
or captain wlio should lead against such soldiers only men without 
passions, would only oppose timid larabs to the fut'j o( ^^}is.«»'.' 



19S 



«TIIATAaE»S ASD THICKS OP WAH. 



(Tbb. 



It WHS to rnu<e these pa<sionK thai ancient lenders, ami Niipiileon 
•ni«ii(^t liie (iimlprri!!, iinliilged in those 6tie s|ifpclie3 birfore but- 
tle, "t'lcli niny W stmlied as models of rhi'loric and i-lnqiienre. 
TliP iJiiiish, liowcviT, are scarcel_v "soliiiets fur ptuclamiititiiis" 
(dtM lulilaU It proclamalioim) a* dwircl bj NnptileQn. It must 
be adrniltcd lliat altbougli tlie An^lo-ISiiiiou likes a gi'ud speech 
U well a^ Ills nciglibouri>, yet gomrliow the $tern sense of 
dm? tiitpiruH by his very miturc, togetlier with the Mutiny Act 
Bna Ihc Articles of Wur, di^iien^es villi the giirring iippeals so 
oR^n Uvislicd on continenlnl soldiers, lie knons rii^hl well what 
is his duty on every i)cca?ion of war, and that it must be done; 
BO Iherc'a mi end of it. Indeed if auvlliini; iiiten^iBes bis pluck, 
it is u goiid joke on such ocosions, — a remarkaWi; instance of 
wliicii occurrrd during the Peiiiusulor War, and was related in our 
bst nuiiilier.* 

There can be no donbt that all appeals of British officers to their 
men will ever be conniiicuous for ttieir bluntness anil directness. 
For iiirt.ince, in 1702, wh^n our furccs altiicked CaiJi/, one of the 
commanders. Sir Gi-orge R.ioke, or Ihe Duke of Ornmnd, we forfti't 
which, nntdc an apjicil to the ^tuMic'rs in which the natloial honour 
on both sides whs ccunpared lo the diirerciice between beefsteak 
and oranges. " Engli-'linien !" exclaimed ihe general, "you who 
eat every day good beef and good soup, remernbet well that it will 
be llie height of inTHiny if you allow yourselves lo be beaten by 
these rascally Spaniards who feed only on oranijes and lemons." 

Our bu^le cidls huve this inconvenience that, in a Cinnpaign, 
they may becomi' known to the enemy. Consequently, it will be 
Weil for a caminaiider lo transpose them fnim lime to time, so 
that the enemy may not be always ncqniiinted wilh wlint we are 
doing at miy given lime. This knoivleiige i^ of tlie utmost iiii- 
portanee in warfare, and it should be scrupulously [irevenled. The 
Jrvncli pot into tiie MrtlakolV of Stbastopol by finding out when 
the Kussiims took their sicsia or after dinner nap. There is 
nothing neiv in this, however, as the following old story teslilies. 

Wiien Cleomenes was encamped before Arijos, he remarked that 
tlie Argives observed all his movements with marked attention, 
following his example in everything thut he did. If he armed, 
they armed; if he advanced, they did tlie same; and ihey 
look their rest exactly at the time when they knew be was doing 
the same. Cleomenes resolved to take nilvaitlage of this slale of 
things, and ordered his men secrellv lo be at arms and ready for 
ncti'm when llie heralds cried "dinner." lie was obeyed, and the 
Argives went to dinner. Thereupon Uieomenes rushed upon them 
with ail his forces, and of course finding tlieui unarmed, routed 
lliem completely. 

There is nothing like pulling on the best face on every occasion; 
in war, just as in the common walka of life, according lo the pro- 
• " On the MilJUcy Spirit ii( Nationi." p. 3Z. 




I!i65.3 BTRATAGRUB AKD THICKS OR WAS. 199 

verb, it will nerer do to be a beggar and appenr a be^ar at the 
same time. At the very time when Arinib^il wjs encamped round 
about ihfi walls of Rome, the Romans, in ordfr to evince a greater . 
sense of security, octur.lly sent off re-enforcements to Spain. On 
the same occasion, also, the proprietor of tlie field on which Anuibal 
was encamiwd, died, and it was immediately sold, when the price 
was actually a* Ini-li ns before the «ar. 

In the face of these glorious indications of national pluck and 
tenacity, is it not humilialitig to find so repeatedly that a chance 
or rumour of war topple* down our jiublic securities like nine piiia 
by a skilful bowler? The fact is, our fortitude and self-confidence 
are less than those of our great prototypes in world-wide cunquest. 
The causes of these deficieucieii are numerous, and we shall do well 
to remember that all our weiilth and warUke material are nothing 
to that exalted pluck which we should foster to the utmost, and 
which alone will carry us triumphant out of every difficulty. 

Defective governmenla ' and incompetent commanders ruin a 
nation. Take an instance, from the e:irtiest time*, French bravery 
was an universal proverb. The French invented chivalry. But 
in the middle of the last century their army was reduced to the 
lowest state of degradation. A base courtezan had sacri^ced it to 
ignorant officers, men without character and morality. The sword 
of France was prostituted and became the price of dishonour and 
Court favour. Every one knows the humiliting defeat of the 
French at the Battle of Rosbach, of wbich Napoleon said : " It is 
most astonishing and a burninir shame that an army of 50,00U 
men was defeated by ?ix battalions of infantry and thirty squadrons 
of Cijvalry !" 

During that dreadful day of France, a French grenadier, after 
the retreat of the army, was defending himself single-handed against 
eight Prussian horsemen, and obstinately refused to surrender. 
The King of Prussia, who was riding over the field of battle, was 
enriiptured with admiration at the sight, stopped the unequal 
combat, and exclaimed to the French hero; "Then you think 
yourself invincible?" " Decidedly I would be so, sire," the aoWier 
boldly replied, "if you were my general !" It were useless to add 
the obvious conclusions from this striking reply, so eloquent in its 
simplicity, the cry of the heart indignantly bursting from the breast 
of a brave soldier, protesting, in the name of the army, against thu 
humiliations to which it was subjected by the ignorance, incom- 
petence, and unfitness of its commanders. 

Now, tiie armies of the Republic and the Empire, were formed 
of the same elements as that of Louis XV ; the only real difference 
was in the command, and we know the prodigies of valour they 
performed during that immortal period of three- and -twenty years. 
aud the Prussian Army was the very first to find out the dilference. 
At Valmy it fell back terror-stricken before the sons of the con- 
quered at Roabacii ; and a few years after, iu thft 6*14. c^ X'sw*. «ss.^ 



200 



CDBOiajTIEB Of N4V4L UTKBATDBE. 



[Pk». 



AacraUdt, the differeuct! nae atiti more terribl)' proved. Bat on 
(hut occasion it whs decisive — Prussia liHd ctused to exist. 

U is, tltc-ret'un;, ab»ululol)' true tiint a iiulion is secure if iL is 
wcll-guvrnied ; tijiit mi armj' is good if it is well-cominauded j and 
tliat llie quulity of an army, or h company gives ihe exact Dieasure 
of its coiniiiaiidcr'B laleiits aud fitness for cummaiid. 



CURIOSITIES OF NAVAL LITERATURE. 

THH LEGION OP HONODB. 

It, is cuHoQs to observe the diiference wliich exists between (he 
iintioriai cliuraclers of iieiglibouring tialions. AV!ience this dill'cr- 
cnce arises, wiitthtr it be iibsiiluiuly iiuiale, or to what deprive it is 
modified bv religion, climate, or government, it is nut our present 
bueiuess to in(|uire. Suffice it for our purpose, that this ddfereiice 
really does exist. Triihng indications sometimes portend great 
events; straws shew which way the wind blows ; and, perhaps, the 
niitionid pccuhorilies of which we Imvc been speiikinp, ure not more 
strikingly — not to say ridiculously — shewn, than by compBring the 
bidh-tins and despatches of the naval and military commanders of 
England and France. Let the following examples illustrate our 
position. 

Ill the year 1839, the Preiioh Admiral Uaudin, with the squadron 
under his orders, captured the city of Vera Cruz.* "The affnir, as 
oui renders know, was tlie Hpikinf; of guns, anil the scampering off 
of those engaged in it ihe moment it was over; yet we find in the 
order of ilie day ilnsc expressions ; — ' Honour to the Ipbigenia ! 
Honour to the Eclipse ! Honour to the Laurier I Honour to tli6 
commanders and the crews of tliose vessels, who displayed an ardour 
BO noble ill the setvice of their country 1 Vive le RoiP' 

It may he cJifjing lo compare this specimen of gnndiloquence 
with the official accoutit of a not less ioiportniit aifair in which the 
Eiighsh were engaged. We allude lo a " Victory as per margin." 
TliB occasion was as follows: — Admiral Walloii, having been de- 
tached with the Canterbury aud five other ships, against the Spanish 
fleet, succeeded in takini; the Spanish Admiral Mari prisoner, and 
capturing or burning eight men-of-war, varying in force fioui 60 
to 24 guns, a ship laileu with arms, two bomb-vessels, aud a firo 
Bhip. This success was announced lo Admiral Byiig iti the follow- 
ing letler: — 

"Sir, — We have taken and destroyed all the Spanish ships and 
vessels whicii were upon the coast. The number as per margin. 

" I am, &c., 
" Canterbury, off Syracuse,! " GtoUQE WALTOM.t 

"16th August, 1718." 

• "TiiDa." illh Febnurj. 1B39. 

t Lim of Ihe Admirsli, if. 389, and llaae'a Vear.Dook. 

; Thit the filUai Aduiir*! mu gifted nilh & quaint uiit o( humaai aeV'^s') f^uoi 



IS65.] 



CtnttOMTtES OF NAVAL UTEIlAtDRB. 



aoi 



Here is a brevity wliidi might almost tliame a Spartan, and if it 
IS di-ficient in coMci>eiii-s8 to llie crlibrated despaicli, " f'ifni, vidi, 
vici," it, at. lea-^t. equals it in moHesty, 

To relurri tn tlie uilack on Vera Cruz. It may be deseruing of 
remark thut, allliou^h lliis, and mony oilier like adairs, may be uu- 
iinpiirtiiut ill a naLional point ol' view, yet they frequently elicit traila 
of iiidividuul heroism, as wurthy of admiralioii ss if thi'y had bbin 
performed on far more memorable occaaiuiis ; and many a brave man, 
uuknoH-u to fame, has shon-ii a courage in tlie capt.urc of a humble 
gun-boat, or a intlinf^ redoubt, wliith, hud it been displayed on the 
sea of Trafalgar, or the plain of Waterloo, would have endeared his 
name in the memory of liis countrymen. Example being better llian 
precept, perhaps the following anecdote may not be the less devoid 
of interest because it recorils tlie merit of a Frenchman. Valour, 
like virtue, should be bonuured for its own sake, irrespective of 
bigoted prejudices ; and, surely, if one nation c:tn afford a gerieroas 
concession to the merits of a rival, that concession is peculiarly due 
from England to France. Our simple narralive is still eoniiected 
with the taking of "Vera Cruz, and conferring ou a young seaman 
tile decoration of the 

LEOIOK OF UO.VOUR. 

In one of the sea-port towns on the northern coas*. of France, 
lived an old soldier, wlm^e only child, a son, so fsr from being, in 
homely language, " ibe hope of the family," was a continual source 
of anxiely and vexation. The youth had no particular vice, if W8 
may except his besetting sin, whidi was habitual idU'iiess, not of an 
active, but of a passive nature. Hla chnruoler forcibly proved that 
inertness belongs as much to organic as fo inorjjaiiic mutter; in 
fact, lie was incorrigibly lazy. Hu hud been placed in various situo- 
lious, having had tiic choice of any profession he might select ; but 
all in v;iin. The alTeciion of a molher, the authority of a fatlier, 
and the persuasion of friends wcr^alike fruitless. What was to be 
done under such disheartening circumstances!' Some philosopher 
has said that human nature is everywhere the same; our tale corro- 
borates the maxim, for the French father prescribed the same recipe 
for the disorder which has been so succeasfullj adopted by many an 
Knglish father; the boy was sent to sea, blessed by her who bore 
him, cursed — no, not cursed — unforgiven by him who begat him. 

Time rolled on, and new hopes and fears, new joys and sorrows, 
bt'CAme the lot of our young friend. Still, his general character 
appeared unchanged. lie did his duty certainly, but it was dune 

>Q inccdute related, if we miitake dqI, in " Brentnn's Life of St. Vlni^riil/' " Sir 
George Wuliou Imd bii Rig. or tirond pendant, flying al St'''l"""'i when u noliletuDD 
in tbe ndghhonrlimd senl tiia gamekeeper wiiti bait a fut buck. Sir Geurga sent 
buck a siiiL-ible luesiage o( tliankt, but itie kecpct liej^ged tlic itewitrd lu itilariii tlic 
Aitmirul itial lie cxpccled a cDiu/i/imcn' fnr tiiniBclf. 'A cutupbiiienl for liiiiisi'll,' 
oaid (he Admiral, wbo was nn>fe cconomicivi of bit money thait bit powder, ' Iben 
he ihall bave one; go and tell ihe ciptun to laluie hini willi five gutii wliea lie 
leavM the ihip.' " 



202 



CVKlaMTDJ op KAVAL LtTEKATORE. 



[Fbb. 



fAniiffi'Uy, obedience iiud cheerfulritrBS did not go hand in hunii; 
dutjir «mi ]ile.isiire wctc nut tivii'iniidous Icrms. Al lenulh lie wns or* 
drrol, Hill) llir^i.'utiirii of llii> K[iiLidruii, lo llic allatk uii Vera Cruz. 
Oil this orniaiiiii, a singular cliiiMjic iippt-iLrcU in the clmracler ol tlie 
Ltd. His leadi'ii cj'cs bt'CAnie Biiiumleil, his lisLh'SS Hubs sc-eaied 
BudtJeiily struri^ wiih bmss, and ricrveil wilh Metl. He led on his 
cmruik-H, and ullhungh wuuiidid in llie allack, was tlic Kr»t to plant 
the otiinJurd of Frunce on the bultleuienls of tlie enemy. He wiis 
pronounced " /e phu brave dts byav-s," arid was aw*arded the — lo a 
I'rtncliinau — sacri'd, though aiiiiple decoration of the Legiou of 
Honour. 

In the meantime, his sged foClier was languishing; on a bed of 
tickiii'ss. One inoruin^, iichs nns bruuifht him of the exemplary 
conduct of his son, and of Ihe rewurd which bad been eonrerred on 
him. His freling'4 appeared more allied lo thankfulness than joy. 
As before remarktd, be had been a soldier, one of the veterans of 
Niipcjleon's aruiy. He also hud received the siar of the Legion of 
Honour. Itaising him-clf on liis pillow, lie asked for his eoni, on 
which llie cherished ribbon was alliiclied. Wilh glislening eyes the 
old man pressed the relic lo his i-carrcd breast, prayed lo be forgiven 
for having judged loo harshly of his boy, and likewise prayed that 
lie might see him once more before he died. May we Aaie assert 
that both prayers were answered ? At least one wus, for the prodigal 
xeturntd ibree days aficrwards, in lime to reciive a father's blessing, 
ill time lo close a falhci's eyes. 

UOIIAL. 

Every story ha*, or ought to have, a moral. Oure tenches us 
that till! great mor.ib'st was wrong in suppasing that the yuulhrul 
mind is of that plastic qindiiy Ihat it can be iiulilferenlly moulded 
into any form. It also cimtiims tlie p:irticular fad lli.il a bad lands- 
man may make a gimd seaman, ll further cunHrms the general 
fact that, B gloomy morn mny be the liiirbingcr of a bright meridian ; 
thut unpropitiuus youth is sometimes matured into honourable 
manhoiid ; mid reminds us of iiutanci-s in which the wayward, nay, 
the vicious boy, lias, in artrr-life, nobly redeemed his mis-spent time 
by vindicating the honour of his couulry in the seDate or the Gvid. 



k TOUa IN CANADA AND THE NORTHERN STATES. 

At New Yorlt we took leave of our estimable friend, Mr. Gilles- 
pie, and on our nluru up the Hudson, we visited Wtstpoiut, the 
Mililary College of the United Slalea, The river at that point baa 
all the appearance of a lake, embosomed in hills covered willi a 
mantle ot forest; aliogether the scenery is charming, and if every- 
thing else about the college is equally delightful, the students must 
always look buck with pieasure to the period of life spent in their 



1835.] A TODini^ASAT1^?^l!^tOBTmB^TATES^^^203 

niililnrv studies. Westpoint is nlso d place of fome niililary im- 
liortanee, to vliicli a meiniicliolj intcrtsi ollafiii-s, from its being Uic 
prize svlijch poor Andre hail in view when eiigngfd on tlie duty 
wliieli cost liira bis life. Tlie pluce of liia capture anil execution 
are pointed out as llie (ravelipr sail? alon-; the Ilmlgiin, also the 
place where Arnold succceeded in getting on board jin English 
vessel. 

Having picked up our lajpage nt Troy, we proceeded by the 
usu.il route through Scheneclady and Uiiea to Auburn. The line 
passes through the roniaiilic vjllej of the Mohawk, which, though 
peaceful to look upon, retains a sort of tr.igic odour from it,s con- 
nexion with the hisliiry of many a thrilling scene in Indian warfare, 
At Auhurn we visited the tamOLis State prison, where the silent 
sysUim is in force, but not carried to such im extreme point as in 
some other American prisons, wliere (lie convicts do not even see 
each oilier. I'roin Auburn our route Ciirried ua through Geneva, 
Canandugiiia, Rocliester, and liatiivia (o Lockporl, where ihcre are 
aome wonderful locks, by which the caiinl is carried over the ridge, 
Ds it is called, a rocky ridt;e running for many miles near the shore 
of Lake Oulario, and supposed to have constituted a barrier between 
that lake and Lake Krie, until the moment that the torrent burst 
through it, and formed the great Fidls of Ningnrn. 

We got to Niagara in the evcuing, so that we could only for 
that night realize to ourselves, by llie siiisc of hearing, that we had 
at lengtli reached the famiius cataract which we had so oflen wished 
to see. We reraairied on the Yankee side of the river fur that 
night, and found our hotel very comfortable. In the morning we 
commenced oat survey of Itiis ext r.iordinary place, by ramhling 
about Gout Island, which divides the Kallg. We had heard of the 
rapids above the FalU, but we little expected the gratification which 
we esperienced on seeing them; no description can give any idea 
of the impression of beauty, as well as the feeling of the sublime 
which is created by the rapids rolling and foaming onwards in their 
course, seemingly vying with each other in speed to reach ihc goal, 
where in one great volume they are to be pncipilaled iu'o the abyss 
beneath. The contrast is very great belwci'ii 'he activity displayed 
bv the waters here, and its sullen kind of movement dowu tlie rivrr 
a'litlle below the Falls, streaked all over with frolli, formed by the 
violent descent it has just made. 

In the vicinity of Niagara, some sharp fighting took place in 
1814., although the whole of the forces engiged on both sides did 
not altogether amount to the inimber rep.irled to he killed and 
wounded in a niere ordinary every-day skirmish in the present Civil 
war between North and Souih, if we are to credit the bulletins 
issued. Ttie battle fields of Lun.ly's Lane, Fort Krie, atid Qneeiis- 
towu are also within an easy distance of Niagara. According to a 
return of the forces at the disposal of Gener.d Brock when lie tuolc 
command in Upper Uanadd in LS12, Ins aiitiy amuuiilud to: 4>V*t 



Tors nt CATTAOA 



[Feb. 




Bfjjimpnt, 900; lOtli W'terann, 250; Newfoiindlatid Bi'^ment, 
250; Ui.^al ArtilltT.v, 50; Provincial Seamen, 50; tol»ri.50U. 
With this force he had to preserve !iis cominutiications, and defend 
an a»sniinble frontier of nearly 800 miles. 

Ktutn NJHgttra tre proceeded to the great city of BiifTalo, which 
has been burnt and rebuilt perhaps oflener than any citv in the 
world. We then traversed the exirepe length of Lake Erie ia 
one uf the lur^e Buffahi steamers, Innding at Detroit, a krtre and 
fliiurishing place st.indifiji ou tlie Slutes bank of the Detroit River, 
exactly opposite to n miserable vilbjie called Windsor, on the 
Cnnadinn bank. In ascemling the Detroit Channel, we passed 
Am he ret burg, ihe most remote military setllement in Canada West, 
allbnngh not perhaps actually situated at the western extremity of 
Canada, elrietly speaking. At AmIioruLburg there is a thriving 
wUiement of military pensioners, located on a government reserve, 
very notable land, from the dispntes which havs taken plucc abimt 
Ihcae leserves nt other places. There is a very sensible ilitferenee in 
llie temperature on the banks of the Detroit, and the winter? arc said 
to be sometimes almost b5 mild as in ICugland. From Windsor on the 
Detroit to Hamilton on Luke Ontario, this part of Canada takes the 
form of a peninsula ubout 150 miles in length, washed on the north 
by Lake St. Clair and Lake Dnroii, und on the south by the waters 
of Lake lirie. Great part of this peninsula is a tine agricullural 
ouuntry, perhaps the richest and most promising part of the pro- 
vince. The town of London, situated in the middle of the southern 
portion of the peninsula, ia a place of some military importance, 
from its central situation, and the number of runds radiuting from 
it in dilTerent directions; but not being seated on the lake, it will 
probably never rise to more commercial iniportance than that of s 
large market town fot the rich ailjaceni district. 

Fhimillon, on Burlington Buy at the head of Lake Ontario, to 
which we next proceeded, occupies ns line a situation for a town 
aa any in Canada, except Quchec. Some of its enthusiastic ad* 
U)irer» have even compared it to Naples, but such a comparison 
gives rather an extreme idea of the beauty of Burlington Bay, Our 
next resting point was Toronto, which, as a town, ranks in impor- 
tance after Montreal and Quebec. Prevroiia to the union of the 
provinces, Toronto was the seat of the Goverinmnl uf Upper 
C'Uiiida, and since the union the Government has been located 
aliernati.ly at Toronto and Qui-bec; but its prosperity is lillle 
affected either by the absence or presence of the Canadian Parlia- 
ment ; it is in itself well situated commercially, and seems destined 
to be an important place as the colony advances. 

Our progress, hitherto devoid of any remarkable incident, was 
now to be marked by an occiitrenco which must ever remain deeply 
impressed on my memory, from its inliuence on the destiny of my 
dear friend and fellow inivcller. 

According to our usual habit, in the towns where we reeled, we 



1865.] 



AWD THB KOnTtntRN STATTfl. 



were exploring some of the Blreeta of Toronln, wln?n we benrd an 
alHrin given ut alilile distance. On looking; iti llie direction of llie 
pound, we (lerceived a liorse charging alonjf tlieroud, dramnug nfler 
liirn pari of a country waggon, from wliicli ilie nhec-U liud been 
dutaclied. As Hie infuriated animal appruaclied us, a genlleuiari, 
appDrcntly somewliat advanced in years, fell in llie middle of the 
ro!id nt a sjint where at the uexl iiisiant the horse in !iis career misht 
be expected to pass. The itioment wa.'' a critic.il one, for another 
life seemed in danger, that of n younfr Uidy lij whom tlie gentleman 
was accompanied, mid who in her solicitude for his safety was in an 
equiilly perdons position. At one bound my friend Godfrey was at 
the animal'^ bead, and with an iron grjsp brought him to a stond- 
Blill just in time. 

As soon as he had handed over the horse to one of the lookers- 
on, who 90 quickly assemble on these occasion?, we accosted tbo 
old gentleman and iiis fuir coiopatiion, ciipressing a hope that no 
injury had been sustiiined by either, and we then accompanied them 
to their hotel, which was not far distant. 

Godfrey called again at the hotel on the following morning, and 
lie afterwards told me that the name of our new friends was Chis- 
hoim. Mr. Duncan Chisholm, who was the father of the young 
lady, was the proprietor of a farm in a remote township, and had 
come to Toronto for a few dava on business, which being ended, he 
should now have been on his return home hiid he not byeu so much 
shaken by (he fall he bad met with, that his daughter urged him to 
rest for a day. Godfrey then poured forth a stream of encoraiuras 
on the young lady. No one, he said, had ever made such an im- 
pression on him, indeed he bad never seen any one like her. Her 
face and ligure were cast in nature's finest mould ; but what gave 
an inexpreaiible charm to so much beauty was, that she seemed so 
unconscious of her own lovdiueaa. The dress she wore of the 
Bimplest kind, while it became her in every respect, seemed never to 
have given her a thought. 

Our time, however, pressed, and it was neees?ary we should think 
of returning to La Prairie. Godfrey could ill bear the idea of 
taking leave of Lucy Ciiisholra, but he was obliged to console him- 
self by revolving in his mind a scheme for visiting the Cbisholm 
farm, as he had ascertiiined that they resided at no great distance 
from some of the btat duck-sliooliug in Canada. 

Prom Toronto we took the stenm-boat to Kingalon, where we 
entered the famous Itideau Canal, which connects the St. Lawrence 
wiMi the Ottawa; a very important mililary work, as it secures a 
water communication between the upper and lower pnivincea in 
time of war, when the St Lan'rrnce route would not be available 
from the itittrrupiion to which it is exposed by its proximity to the 
States. In the coiislruction of the Rideau Canal, the streams and 
hikes of the country, almost in their natural stale, contribntp largely 
to form the communication. At the sume lime great engineering 



1 tOtlU m TANADi 



ptt^ 



sVill is sliown in tlie npplication of locks nnd iloms to ovetcome t^e 
iliffieullii's prcsciiled by the tfifffri-iit elevutioiis of lliise tintural 
watiTii. The country tbrougli wliicli the caiinl passes is generally 
ttil'l in the extreme ; no sii-'ii of liuinnn creatures visible, excppt 
liere and tUor« a temporary fishing eslablislnnent of Indians, or a 
desiited nigvinm. Tlie fores!?, nliich boriler the lakes quite to tiie 
niar(;in of ibc waler?, arc in nmny pnrls in a dicajiuj^ state, or 
have bfeii dcstroved by ihe great conflufrrotiuns wliicli are common 
in the Canadiau woods, and the dull grey hue of these wnods ndds 
to the sombre cust of the scenery. On approach ini; Bytown {or 
Ottawa, as it is now callrd) the banks are more tullivnied. We 
thought we jierceived evidence here of a more rigorous climate, the 
cliniiije of the leaf wiis further advanced, Bud we observed in full 
perfection all [hose wonderlul lints of purple, acirlel, and oraiit;**, 
which give the Ciitiadian woods ihe appearance of bdnfj on lire. 
Some of Turner's wild pictures, oiotlting ihe Grecian temples, uliord 
a tolerable re pre sent at ion of fore>t scenery iu America in ibe 
niitumn season. 

On our passage along the Ollnwa to Montreal, the steamer stppped 
to take in wood at a small place called Carillon, where several 
passengers ciime on board ivfio 'xert returning from liie Caledonian 
Springs, a favourite place of resort from Montreal in the summer 
months. The all engrossing topic of conversation willi lliein was 
the loss of a trnnk bilongiiig to one of the pnrly, a young lady 
travelling with her aunt, Mrs. D- — — , wife of Captain and Pay- 
master t) . Mrs. D laid nil the blame on her unforlu- 

nale husband, be evidently had had the subject ringing in his ears 
for some time before lie got. to Ciitilloii, but it wos qniie as evident 
Ibat. lie had not iieard the hist ol it. On the advice ol one of the 
party, he admilted himself to blame, and thus alliyei! the storm for 
a time, but at tea it broke out nfneh. Nothing could then exceed 
tlie tvnder attention he showed to his amiable partner. *' My dear, 
here is Bolugna sausage, I know jou like it, and you have not 
lasted it for some time, &c." In this way the vexation was for a 
time again allayed; but the poor man, by his attentions, lost his 
own supper. After the ladies retired to their own oibin, he was 
endeavouring to make up for lost lime, when there wa^ a tup at the 
duor and his name called. Hastily putting down his tt-a-cup, he 
exclaimed, " What ibe d— 1 can she wunl now?" Hovtver, he had 
no alternaiive bul lo obey the summons. At breakfast next morn- 
ing, we had the Inst trunk again, and Mai^aaie accusrd the gallaut 
Captain of having once lost a trunk worth £100, which she did not 
recover for live years. "Oh, I beg your pardon, my dear," he said, 
" we have not been five years in the country, it wus only missing 
for three years." 

After our relurn to La Prnirie, Godfrey was very restless until it 
was time for him to start on his contemplated shouting expedilton. 
I was not able to accompany liiin, bul two other Ijiolln-r ufBccra 



Aim THB NORTHBEH STATBS. 



joinwl bim, and tdeir adventures will servo to sIjow tlie risks to be 
provided ogaiiist by sportsmen ju Canada. The Ciiisholm's farm 
was situated at a distance of about fifteen miles from llie iuke. 
After cjdling al [lie farm, lliey reached the li.ke, and luivitig ile|iosiled 
tlii'ir blartkelB and sucli tbijigs as iUcy would n^ t rrf[iiire befoie 
evrujng, in ati empty sliantj- on tbe lake sliore, tliry tlirn gut inio 
one of tile Siit-boltcimed bunis culled sco»s in Canada, ninl pushed 
tlic'ir way ibrongli tlie neds ill llie diceciion of a spot repulid to 
abound in ducks. It «as fcetzins; bard at tlie time, ac\d lliey 
found some difficulty in muving ibe boat, but in the euijerness of 
the sport, ibL'y did not pay attention tu the warning atfordcd by the 
difBcuUy ihey had in udviincing, and at last tiit-y found themselves 
cnmpleltly locked in, and incapable of iiiyving in anv direclion. 
The ice not bein;; strong enou^li tu bear, their situalion was any- 
tliing but iigfi;caiil.'. Tliey had ducks enoujib lo remove any bji- 
prebensiou ol having to eat their booths "'iJ they biie^' bow well a 
duck tfl.ites cooked in the simple fashion of the Indian?, but then 
they had no fire or means of cooking anything whatever. During 
the jiight they suffered exlremidy from cold, and having no blankets 
they could not go to sleep without the risk of being frost biltei). 
Thi-ir only hope of extrication seemed to rest on a change in ihe 
wealher. Tiiey had heard that in that pari of the country a change 
generally t:ikes place every three days, and at that early season they 
might hope that tbe frost winild nol last, 

in this miserable plight tliey had Id pass niiolber nightj and the 
second morning of their captivity dawned without much appearance 
of a thaw, but "the little cheruh who sils up aloft to waleb over 
the life of poor Jack" was Ijpified on tills occasion bj our friend 
Lucy Cbisbolm. It was impossible that she could be blind to 
Gudi'rcy's atlenlion, and her own heart biid yielded a response lo 
the atl'eclion which she saw ciiie had created. In such Cii^ea (he 
H:ime is nsually fed during absence by little messages and presents, 
for which excuses can always rendily he found. Thus it was tliat 
althongh Godfrey and his friends had taken with them from Cliis- 
hohn's farm ei ough, including their own slores, to last them in a 
rough way for the tour days they intended lo stay, un the following 
mcirning after they left Lucy bethought her of some little things 
which migbl add to tlieir comfort when ibey relurned to iheir shanly 
ill the evening, andsliedes.]mtched a boy from llie farm with a basket 
anil a message. The boy returned late in the evening, and said 
that from tlie stale in which he saw the things in the shanty, ho 
was sure that no one had slept tliere the night before, and that 
although be had beard shots, he had not been able to see anything 
of Godfrey and his party, or make out where they were. From the 
lateness of the hour, it was impos.xible (o re:idev any assistance, or 
gain any further inleiligence hel'oie tbe moniing, bui as the hoy's 
story criati'd considerable uneasiness at the fario, Mr. Ciiisliolm 
deleraiiiied to start before dawn for ihe lake shoie. On arcw^wj^*.*. 

U. S. Mah. No. 4a6, Fkb, 1K65. ■« 



208 



A TOtnt IK CANADA 



I^BII. 



the ihanty, he began to suspect that Godfrey and his friends had 
(fot liied in the reeds, and he at once set to work to get the means 
of rtlesMTig them. One person was emplojed to watch for tlie 
sound of a ehot, and ninrlc Ihc direction from whioli it came, while 
two small Ciinoes were oblnined whicli could penctnite where tbo 
ctam.''r scow could not move, and which alao would enable them to 
keep passage ciciir after they made it, by using one to advance 
with and the other to keep moving up and down the channel as it 
was mode. These operations were also assisted in the coarse of the 
day by a slight change in the weather, but it wee not until the even- 
idg that the prisoners reached the shore. 

Godfrey having cnught a very severe cold, was laid up for some 
time at Chisholra's farm, and the tenderness with which he was 
nursed did not help, it miiy be supposed, to abate the flame which 
had been excited in his breast. The result mny be punimed up in 
a verv few words, he became deeply and irretrievably in love. 

When he relumed to Ln Prairie, he gave me some account of 
the previous history of Chi«holra and his family, 

Duncan Chisholm was descended from a respectable family in 
the Highlands, and in early hfe he had pliiced his alfections on the 
daughlfr of a sra:ill I.airH, whose pride was greater than his wealth. 
Tlie young girl returned his afl'eclion, but the father would not 
hear of such a match, and Unncan left the country, and enlisted as 
a soldier in the Eoyal Artillery. At the conclnsion of the Penin- 
sular war, through which he had served, discharges were not 
dilBcult to obtain, owing fo the reduction ol the armv, and Duncan 
Chisholm, having been slightly wounded, was discliarged on a 
pension of 5d. a dav, with a grant of 200 acres of land in Canada, 
He at once started lo take possession of his grant, and by dml of 
induslrj' and his knowledge of fanning, in a few yfurs he had clmred 
aud brought under cultivation enough of the land to place him in a 
state of independence. Some idea of the increase which takes place 
in that country in the course of time, may be formed from the fact 
that in one season when we were in Canada, Chisholm got a 
thousand bushels of apples From his orchard, every tree of whicii had 
been put into the ground ns a seed by himself. As soon as Chis- 
holm found himself in cotnfortable circumstances, he took means to 
coramunic.ite his condition lo his early love, and ns she still re- 
tained the sentiments of her youthful life towards him, she was 
easily induced to join a party of Scotch emigrants, and married the 
Canadian farmer on her arrival in the country. One child was the 
fruit of this nnion. Old Chisholm would have been glad of some 
sons to assist bim on his fiirni, but he was devotedly attached lo 
his daughter, and Mrs. Chisholm being well qualified to be the 
insitnctress of her daughter from the care bestowed on herself in her 
youth, Lucy had received a superior education lo that of the 
dnughters of Canadian farmer in general, but all the attention to 
whicli she hud been uocuatomed from both father and mother had 



1885.] ASB THl SOBTHEnS STATES. 209 

not spoilt her, she woa still the child of tlie bnckwooda ; she could 
bake mid milb t)ic cons when required, and fully understood every- 
thinfj *itli »hicli a farmer's wife should be acquai?ited. With 
s ciinrmiii^ voice and nstursl tn^te for music, and gullicient know- 
ledge to be able to play an accompnniineiit, Lucy could beguile 
the long winter evenings wilb some simple airs, much cherished by 
both her father and mother. In li^ure, Lucy was mtber ubuve the 
middle height, herfentiires were quite regular, the noseslraight, and 
the mouth and chin beaulifully chiselled, blue eyes full of expression, 
and a profiinion of rich brown hair, were in perfect harmony with 
the tint of the complexion, which wa9 rather fair. Her head and 
neck were well shaped, and formed a gmcerul outline with the 
ahouldcrs, and the whole contour of face aud figure was fiiultless. 
It was, therefore, not surprising to those who had seen her that 
Godfrey had purreiidered up liia heiirt ; but the issue of the affair 
■eemed beaet with diiticulties and irupedimenis which would try the 
constancy of the h>vers, and task their ingenuity to overcome. 

Duncan Chisholm was now a magistrate for the county in which 

he lived, and a captain of Militia Artillery, and it was impossible 

for any man to stand higher ihaiL he did in the esteem of ail who 

knew bini ; but Godfrey's father was a proud man, and there seemed 

no hope that he would ever consent to such a m»(ch. Independent 

of the other grounds on which it was likely he would offer opposi- 

, tion, it was well known that he enteitoined umbilious views tor his 

I Boii on the score of matrimony, and had more than once pointed out 

. the match he desired his son to make. Tlie eon, unfortunately, had 

no inclination to eiiler on the wooiiig which his father had planned, 

and it was less likely than ever thai he would do so now timt Lucy 

had stepped into the vacant corner of his heart. 

"Slie is the light of my life," he said to me one day, and really I 
could not deny him the credit of good lasle in his choice. 

During my stay in Canada, I only met Lucy once after our first 
encounter iit Toronto. Thu second occasion on which we met, was 
during the time I was quartered at Hamilton. Lucy at that time 
rpent a few days on a visit to some fricnda in Hamilton, and was 
asked to join a sltighing party at which I was also present. These 
parties are of the nature of picnics. Each owner of a sleigh vies 
with his neighbour in the symmetry of his equipage, the ricline$» of 
his robcB, ns the furs are called, and of course llie beauty of hia 
Iior-ea. The sleighs all assemble at a point previously agrerd upon, 
find drive oil' in procession to some favourite locultty tit a distance of 
t perhaps ton or twelve milee from the starting point. A light repast 
is there served, in which I reiiieinber gingerbread -nuts and mulled 
port are strongly recommended. A time fur »uch an cxcurrion is 
f eneraliy chosen so that the parly ehall have the advantage of a fine 
luoouhglit on their return. 

Godirej's sleigh contained two of Lucy's friends in the back 
seat, and Lucy hvrseU sat beside him on the driving Boat,iwd.%% 



210 



I TOCR ni CANADA 



ther pured mc in (heir pictateaqne winter costume, I thoDght I 
baa never teen a haiidimiHcr i^oiiple. 

With the iiiciiltrii » t.f the cnurlsbip during the nest few months, 
I am not verv wril tici|(injrite<l, bi^ynd knowing th.it it canliuaecl, 
ami liint «ome kin>l of an en^'a^: anient diil cxi^t at the time the 
Critnran war broke out. CJodl'rej's father □i)tnined for him a stuff 
apjiuinlment al tlie commencement of the war, and when circum- 
•taaee* afu-rvi AT'h led ine to tliiit part of the vorld on tem|X)rary 
dotf, I «ii» cnnblcil to visit my friend in bis but on the plateau 
befnre Sobaxtopol. 

ill! very suun turned ilie conversalion to Ihe subject which 
evidciitl* was nearest to his heart, and it seemed quite a relief to 
bim to be nb!e lu lulii of l.ucy lo one who had seen her anrl really 
fully iipjircciattd lier worth. While difieoursinft on thi*sul)ject, he 
allowed me wilh a smile a small brown cotton glove, and a^ked me 
if I bad rver seen ii before. I could not say I had, but 1 easily 
((iieML'd to wbuui it belonged. He then said: "Tlierehy hangs b 
Isle. Do you rememb'-r the sleighing party at Hamilton .'" "Per- 
fectly," ] xaid. "Well, when we were to B"Brt to return home, 
that wicked lellow, Kvnii Hughes, bid my glovef, thinking I would 
never attempt to drive without Ihein on llmt cold nighl, and that 
if 1 anked some one lo drive while I remained to look for my glovea, 
lie wduM volunteer, and sit beside Luey ail the way home, t 
cuBpected soirelliiiig of the kind, and not choosing (o be the dupe 
of such a clumsy trick, I ^tarled wilboul my gloves, and if it had 
not been that Lucy lent me this to put on the driving hand, I tliink 
I slitiuld have been frozru. 1 have kept it ever since, and would 
not give it for worlds. I )iad il with me at the Alma, and sirnnge 
to say, pour L^vun was killed within twenty yards of me as we 
mounted the Mope." 

Wliilfi Godfrey o'a« in the Crimea, he obtained promolion, and hia 
father died rallier unexpectedly, leaving bira enough lo make him 
independent with his pay, or lo make him a rich man in Canada if 
he chose lo leave the army and settle in that country. 

Thus all obetiicles to his union wilh Lucy were removed, and at 
the concloaimi of ihe war, be commiinicntrd lo her his resolution 
tu embark for O^innda, and make her his wile as soon as some affairs 
requiting ntlcntion in London were arrnnged. 

The vessel which bore Lucy's treiisuro had been signalled, the 
very dny, nay, the very hour almost when she should welcome his 
arrival wn^ Bxed in her mind's eye, when in common with many 
others in Canada she waa plunged into an abyss of grief by the fate 
of the unfortunate Circa'^iao. 

Wlieii l.i?t seen, the vessel waa off the Newfoundland coast, show- 
ing signals of distress, a few articles belonging to passengers sufE- 
cu-nt to identify the vessel were washed nsliore, but not a aoul waa 
Mved to tell the tale. 

Dy a wonderful chain of fortuitous eircumst^nces, although 



1S65.] 



A!ID TUB NOKTHEBN STATES. 



Godfrey hud written to Lncy that she might expect him by iho 

CircaMiati, he was not on boiird that vcssi'l. When he found lie 
CEiuhl not fiili'il his intention of leaving llliiglaiid by that packer, he 
wrote to iier, ami his letter wjis on board the Circws:ii:i)i, but na 
none of Die iiniils were saved, it never r jacheil lier ; nnd thi-fffora 
she mourned his lofl-i fur four or tivo day!*, until the arrival of Hie 
next Cunard ship from Bngiand, in which Godfrey arrived us a 
passengiT. Iinmedialely on Ilia arriviil, on hearing the fate of the 
(Circassian, he wrote to Lucy that she mij^lU be apprized of his 
safely liefore lie came to clusp liet in liis aruis. Tlie stquel ia soon 
told— 

Across the tliresliuld led 
And every te«r kiss'd off as soon as shed, 
His house she eiitcrc, there to be a light 
Shining within, when all without is night, 
A liuafdian angel o'er his life i)resi(iing 
Doubling his pleasure, and his cares dividing. 



« 



THE WEST INDIA REGIMENTS AND THE DEFENCE 
OF THE COLONIES. 

Tlie decay into which the West Indian colonics of Great Britain 
have fullen, has been attributed chielly to the absence of a labouring 
popolatiou in proportion to the extent of the soil; and partly to the 
necessity of niaintniiiing a costly esliiblishinent of Government em- 
ploy& on a precarious revenue. This latter evil has indeed reached 
such a pitch, ihat it has almost been contemplated, in one of the 
islands, to pay (he representatives of the people fur their atleudunce 
on liie Assembly. 

In ordrr lo remove some of the embarrassDicnls arising from these 
causes, it might be well to consider what means of relief are available, 
buth for the local and for the home government. And with this iu 
view, tlie first consideration to be dealt with is the reduction of the 
militiiry e.-tablishmeut. 

In Jamaica, for exam|)le, it has been urged that the presence of 
an European regiment is absolutely nece.-sary, not so much for 
actual coercion, as for the moral effect on the civil population. It 
13, however, scarcely disputed, tliat, fur military operations, the 
Blation of Newcastle, on a lofty spur of the St. Andrew Mnuutains, 
is a mistake, and that long before the Mliile troops there cuuld 
traverse the distance of sixteen miles to Kini;Bton, or to Up Park 
Camp, the neighbouring cantonment, the former might be reduced 
to Bslics by a mob, and the latter witness the perpetration of the 
worst outrages of the Indium Mutiny, 

Moreover, Newcastle commands none of the great llioroughijirea 
of the island, and might easily be cut off Etovn \V.» %\i-^>^w,%\i-^ ■ik'awct'si ^ 




eie 



TBE VEST INDIAN RBGIUENTS 



[PtB. 



insurgents, and, to a certain extent, be reducefi to b post of obser- 
vation, when it should ratlier be tlic k^y of a position. 

Turnint; In Kitif;fton, Up Park Citmp, Spnnisli Tuwn, nnd Port 
Boyal, all Ijing along the plains of Lifjiiain-a, and ihe base of the 
mountains, tlie last-nnmcd on a spit of land running far into the 
sea, we find detachments of one of tiic five West Iinlin Ri'girneiiti 
distributed ainong*t them for tlie purpose of supplying Bentrirs for 
public buildings, &o. Tbe head-quurtiTS of tlie corpa ia usually 
stationed at Up Park Camp, where the men are cxfrci?cd like tlie 
regular troojis of tlic line, but surely for aiiotlier purpose than tliat 
of ultimate emplojment in the lietd. 

The task of civilizing and disciplining this body is entrusted to 
European officerc, wlio, be their zeal wUut it may, can only hope to 
infuse for a time their own energy, to be lost again tbe moment 
that their vigilance relaxes. 

Not oidj do these black troops require to be watclied with the 
utmost care and solicitmle, so as to prevent their losing the lessons 
80 diflicultly taught tliein, but tlieir very uniform^ have to be 
goarJeil against tbe depredations of l!ie females who are generally 
found in such uombei'S about their barracks, and who incite to 
the making awaj wilh necessaries, and even their rations. 80 
Eituated, indeed, are Ibeii otBceiB, that, to the discredit of Uer 
Majesty's commission, they have often to discharge duties which 
elsewhere appertain solely to the non-commiasiouod grade. But 
tbis is apart from t!io present question. 

Supposing it were absolutely necessary to estabhab a new ayatem 
in Jamaica, for instance, thougb our reasoning applies to nil the 
islands, ve would suggest tbnt it would be advisable, in tbe iirst 
place, to di3|)ense with the present European regiment at Newcoslle, 
Bnbaliluling for it detachments of Marines,* in the manner about to 
be described, and to dinpa^jc of the West India regiment stationed 
in the plain*, as follows : — 

Three hundred of llie beat men of the latter corpa migbt be 
selected to form a consinbulnTy force, under three superinionding 
officers, while the remaining 500, In a cheaper and more serviceable 
uniform tlian that of the Ziiuave, could, under the stvie of pioneers, 
be employed in clearing the great forests and bush ; thus obviating 
any inconvenience arising from summurjiy disbanding and pension- 
ing. The latter might receive their rations as usual, or an allowance 
in lieu thereof, and their ordinary pay — leas the good conduct re- 
wards. Each party of twenty-live men might be underthe immcdiote 
orders of a atatl'-scrgoant overseer, armed with a brace of revolvers, 
who would take them to their superintending officer bi-monthly to 
receive tlieir pay, and at other times superintend their labours. 
In the meantime, Govcrnraent could farm the labour of these 
pioneers to the planters, say at sixpence, or even ninepence a head, 
per diem, and thus save a large amount of the expeuiie of maintain- 

* We hare utidenlood that Itus prnpoial wbb oncB brouglit before Partiamcat bf 
a dittiu^uialied nival oOieiM'. 



1S65.] 



AND THE UBPIiNCE OP TUK COLONICS. 



213 



in^ tliem; nay, almost make a pio&l, if tbe reduction of the wliole 
fori^e, iticluJin^ officers, be conaidered, &c. 

TiiB siiviiig ill ilie inutler of uniform aiotia wuuld be very con- 
Bidersble. A riid sruolieii sliirl, diiii^Hree Jtnickeibuckers, bouts as 
u^ual, a black wa)ft-belt uiid iez, or a Xilmariiock bLiniiet, fur 
these military' labourers, wouM be a useful subsiilute for tin; ZuuHve 
uiiiforui, Willi iis mniiy detuils, Biubarrosfing lo tlie sloverUy Negro 
mind, and wliicb requires so iDiiny trivial but essential appliances, 
Bucli as pipe-clay, blacking, cbrome and ochre, the latter necessitating 
a unit'onnily of tint not always lo be insured wJtliout indefutigoble 
non-coinmissioDed otHccra. 

In lieu of pensions, men ao lonj^er fit for field labour might bo 
granted, on certain conditions, sinsll lols of wuste Crown lands. 

By these arrangements, tbe pUnter, or colonist, would obtain 
labour ot the cheapest possible rate, without injury to the labourer, 
while, at the same time, the tiix-paving public of England would be 
ligiitened of, at least, a considerable portion of their burden, and if 
B (itradual extinction of the force in question were contemplated, 
Government would no longer be called upon Co inajntaiu a n-cruit- 
Ling establishment, involving an outlay of ut least £5 per man, in the 
^■imple act of enlistment; but, on the contrary, would yield to the 
aeemingly reasonable complaint of the planters, who miirmtir at the 
dtcimaiiun, by the recruiting party, of their dilficulily imjiorled 
labourers (such as the Coolies], or wliat comes to the s&mc thing, 
the abstraction of the Creoles, whose numbers it is sought to in- 
crease by the addition of new races, and the maintenance of the 
previously existing state of affairs by an incessant drain, thus 
neutralizing, in a great measure, the elforts made by the landowners 
to supply a working populationj aud that, too, without any ooia- 
pensating advantage. 

Sucli B labouring force as we have suggested should, of course, 
be under military law, and all caaca of druaketine-ss and insubordi- 
naiiou would then be dealt with according to the provisions of the 
Mutiny Act and Articles of War. It would, nevertheless, be well 
to consider the expediency of subslituting, in certain cases, (as in 
our mercantile marine), pecuniary lines, or stoppage of pay, for the 
usnal punishment of imprisonment or conlinement, within circum- 
scribuil limits, Doither of which latter are much regarded by & 
slothful race. 

To ensure protection, and to maintain the local goverameiit in its 
authority, the Royal Marines might be augmented to supply the 
place of the withdrawn regiment of the line, but under a ttill'erent 
system of dislribution. The fleet on the West India station could 
supply nn inexpensive relief, quarterly or half-yearly, without any 
financial complication,* while the men, thus frequently interchanged, 
would be always fresh for their duties, and avoid the contamination 
of an iudoleut and immoral population.f 

* The (CCoonts could euil;; be kept b; tlie nnkl ^iv^muVet. H 

t " Tbe muBei," of courte, onlj bem^ caeial. fl 



S14 



THE WEST ISDUS RKOIUESTS 



[PEB. 



I 



This force mifrbt consist of detnciinients of from 50 to 100 men. 
with a proporlioii of offi^-eis, acid be detailed to garrison tUe fallow- 
i"H Ijinces, viz. : — Kiti<;»lon, Up Pnrk Camp, Purt Royul, Spjnisb 
Town, MoneaijiiP, Fnlmmilli, Muiit^gu li:iy, Marofin Town {»s a 
saiiilarimii), Lucen, SjvuNiin la M^r {BlueMds Mouiita'n), Port 
Mann, l-'orl Atitonio, Port Murint, iind Newcuaile; the Liltet 
rnlher, perhaps, as a sniiilariam atn) depdt. 

By tbis anaiigcineni, tnoricv nonld be more genemlly circulnted, 
and a liveline.'s imparttd to tlie loc:il markets. Trade would become 
brisker, and when tlie proposed railwap came lo encircle the island, 
the facilities for the Ininsport of produce being thus immensely in- 
creased, there would be no difBcuIly in supjiijiiig these oulposta 
with fresh jiroTistons, while, at llie fame lime, the rail would enable 
BQch lit-tachinents mpidly to coticeiitrnte on any point where ihey 
mighi be req'iired, and thua counterbaUnce the disadvantage of 
paucity of nuQLbcrfi. 

Perb:>ps ii might be found de^irablo to make the barracks occupied 
by these detadiments capable of defence at a moment's notice. 
Thrre are the remain", at any rate, of GoTernment buiUings at all 
the stations we i>ave indicated, and at ^^ome, of course, there are 
barracks in thorough rep^iir, which could at once be incsjiensively 
convi'ited inlo defensible positions, the oulhy, in the first instance, 
being covered by the saving eli'ected in another direction— the farm- 
ing the labour of the men. 

The infusion of military discipline, or e»en its wide-spread ex- 
ample, might be expected gradually to exert a salutary tffect on the 
lower classes around thci^e posto, and thus lead, if anything would, 
to lite elevating of a people sunk in the worst vices, but which, 
although, perhaps, incapable of solid progress to any considerable 
eiteni, mi^hl, nevertheless, by their imitative talent, satisfy practical 
le^i'laiors in a measare, by at least affecting virtues they do not 
possess. 

In order the belter lo estimate the advantages of the system pro- 
posed, it may be desirable to consider it in connection with other 
eijierimenls. 

By mi>re narrowly lucalising the West India regiments, and 
limiting the tour of service of each to a certain istuud, or to a group 
of islands, the expense of the present system of periodical reliefs 
would, to a great estent, be avoided. But were it ever decided on 
to abolish altogether a class of regiment* lo which a certain, though 
probiiblr undeserved, obloquy is attached, in public opinion, and to 
replace them by strong detachments of marines, the same special 
svslem of economy would be perfected, for tlie latter, habituated to 
life on board of ship, would, even in the simple matter of necessaries 
for a voyage, mure readily economise their means, and oecnsion less 
wear and tear of Government property than an equal number of not 
only black troops, but even of white soldiers. Besides which. 
Marines, having no wives with them, would be more readily accom- 



1865.] 



AND THE OBFK.\0B OP TaU COLOTIILS. 



2iti 



modaled, while tlii-ir subjection to naval disdpltne would render 

impossible auy of those foulish niisiiuderstitiidirigs (we allude, u{ 

the lister 



irigs 
uri3e betweea 



courst-, to the ufficerih) which suiattimes 
wrvices. 

B^ tlie 55lh clause of tlio Muti'iy Aet, it is provided thnt "all 

kUc^rueu wlio have bini stizeil oiid condemned as priKe, nnder the 

'Slave Tr.ide Acts, and appoinled lo serve in iler Majesty's army, 

bIihII be di-erai'd lo be and shall be entiiled tu all the privdeges of 

Negroes or iierauns of colour volunlBiilj enlisted to serve as aoldlers 

in any of Her Milje^ty's Culnnial forces." 

Thus, it would seem that no dej^nidution could possibly beim|)licd 
by altering Uie natuie of llie duties of ihe bbck troops, so as tu meet 
the exigencies of the colonies in « liich t!iej laiy be servinn;. British 
troops, no doubt, ere often employed, not only on public works, but, 
at ccrtiiin seasons, a? during harvest, even as farm servants, and lield 
. labourers; but as audi tiisy receive special remuneration, which 
I would not be called for in the West India colonies. 

The question of enforced labour being opposed to the principles 
of Ent;lisli law, mav be di^cust^ed with rt'feience to Britisb-born 
.subjects, but, in the cnloiiies, the real tjuestiou is, should laws, 
I however elastic, enacted fur the governiueut of tiie most highly 
Icivilized races, be slrained to suit biirbarians, wlio, surely, cannot be 
I tnuglit in a day lo onderstand highly complicated legsl systems, and 
who Lave, aa in llie case of Iloyli, instead of impioving under them, 
I gradually retrograded, aud perverted the intentions of the original 
I legislators. 

Tlie French of the present day have made a nearer approach to a 
ancd'Ssful coniprumiseby liieir system of enforced labour in tlieir 
West Indian colonies, and we, on a smaller scale, adopt the same 
principle, by making compulsory soldiers of captured slaves, as tbe 
Mutiny Act allows. 

A savage reduced to slavery in Central Africa, carried to the 
coast, where, for the first time, he sees the great ocean, aud is sold 
to the captain of a ship, who slows him away between decks, and 
starts on his voyage, is, at length, liberated by one of our cruisers, 
and t^>keri to a Britisli port, wliere lie is at once obliged to become 
a soldier — -such a savage, with his total ignorance of geography, and 
the means by which his lot has been so rapidly, so tu speak, altered, 
is still virtually u slave. He is told of privileges which he has 
acquired, in a language which he dues not understand, and haa 
" greatness thrust upon him," while he is totally incapable of nppre- 
cialintr tiie change. What to him is the Habeas Corpus Act, or any 
of the other great bulwarks uf E)>j<lish liberty ? He reciives the 
name (if a hero — say, Guslavns AJolphus— and a regimental num- 
ber, which, to bis comprehensiun, has no meaning, and thus enters 
tlie pale of civilization, us u joke in tle»h and bluod I 

Such a savage's impressions, under so many rapid and novel 
transformations, we can only measure by the sisiidard. est ttv^i Kx.vlKivbVv 
Nights Eutertaiumciils. 



sie 



THE VEST IKDIAN BEGIMBNTS 



[Tm* 



In coloQie.*, like fJciiierara. where litlle, if any, recruiting is 

pmcticable, and where consi'quenllj tlie block troo]is are coinjKira- 
tivelv iaulnted, and liiive nci lanil tien, it ia possible, thai they may 
be roiijid useful in (|ii('liiiif^' an enieute : but in uni»!und like Jnmaica, 
80 exten^ivi; as to iitfiird nt any rale teiniiorary tefiige in ils wilds to 
deserters and otiicir oHt'nders fi^:iinst the law, and wbem the moral 
pi-rci'p turns of the lower ordf-ra are so obscure, black troops, and 
cfipecially the Creoles, would probiibly be found wauling in the hour 
of trini ; and if not nettial f inter niters with tbe mob, they would 
most likely remain passive s|}eatator9 of the oultagea they were 
culled OQ to suppress. 

The mutiny of tiie black troops in Jamaica at the commencement 
of the presfTil century, U an in^itnuce of what mifsht at any moment. 
be expected of a cliiss that has not really progressed with the rest of 
the world, however much it may have imitated the exterimts of civi- 
lization. In proof of this, we may refer to the bold which Obeah, 
liotwithstandins; the eETorta nf our missionaries, still has on the 
minds of the majority even of the Christianised blacks. 

Regiments ot the Line in tlie West Indies are for the most part 
slalioiiary, and thus cause less expense to Qovetnmeiit in the item 
of reliefs than the Cidnuial corps, which appear to be constantly 
on the move. In tliis respect, Marines would be still more conve- 
nient from the nature of their service. 

By a reference to the Army Estimates of lSfl1t-6 it will be observed 
tliat the establishment of West India rpgiments, numbering in 
officers and men 4,329, costs no leas a sum than £131,0 15 annually, 
or Very nearly aa much, if not actually more than an equal number 
of while Iroops of the Line, (not that we propose to subslitute the 
one force for tile other ) To institute a comparison between these 
corps, of course, is hardly possible, fur we have in juxta-posilion the 
picked soldiers of Great Britain and the off-scoiiringj of Africn and 
the West India Islands, and yet we find tlint the last costs hb much 
as the first; hut who will venture to compare their services? 

If, agoin, we consider these two classes of tnen in the light of 
labourers, and suppose them working for a livelihood ill civil life, 
what do wo find? thut the one is worth, per man, at least thirty 
shillings a week, while the other is scarcely able to earn more than 
seven sliilliugs, and yet, as soldiers, they are paid very nearly alike, 
and this, too, in face of the fact that the disproportion between the 
two is greatly increased by contrasting thera as soldiers. 

Theorists iiave, however, in a philanthropic spirit, measured all 
alike by the same standard, and tlie Afri&iu savnge is, while in the 
ranks, assumed to require all the necessaries which constitute the 
comfort of awhile soldier, born and bred amongst noble iiislilulious, 
and fully aenaiblu to all tlio wants of a highly civilized polity. 

Even in the simple details of a razor and pocket ledger, the Afri- 
can soldier, to whom both are useless practically, is caused to oou- 
Form to the example of his more favoured fellow soldier ; there ia 



1865 .J 



A!ID TUB DKI-KNCE OF THE COLONIBa. 



217 



iiideeil but QUe standard for all. But il is aeedless to go into niHiute 
detuil to prove tliut we ciiiiiiot acconiiiioduli! our linlf sBvaife blacks 
to lliK Prucrusleiiii bed of llie Miiiiiij Act, bihI k-gisliitu for (he L*o 
raCL's as if llicy uttu botiKii-eiieoiia. If ibeii, wl- c^.niiot hope to 
do so witli niiv useful rpiiiills, irii^lit we nut, witb Hdvniitn^r, mudify 
our syslem aud model our Coloiiinl regimeiits on llie Roman plan, 
by wliicb luililnry service aiiJ field Libour were usefully combined, 
niakitig tlie ariu Ibul proLectud llie soil, also oojilributeto developing 
its rc-iyiiroes. 

Tins is, liowever, ufler all, but a compromise with an old estab- 
lislied ovil, and in sucb ea^es, eiperience has sliomn that it is wiser 
at once to lay ihe uxe to the Itee. If Parliament would consent to 
absorb the existiii!^ West India regiments grndually in die aurrouud- 
iiifl masses, dealing liberally with their European ofRcers, tbey 
would go far lo supply ihe culuDie^ [Jamaica especially) with useful 
labourers, and, a point of impurlance lo Knglish tax-payers, save 
some £90,000 a year on the Army E^limaies. The duties now 
assigned to llie co*lly and inellicicnt " Zouave:'," and only half done, 
would be sutisfactorily dinoharged by tin- Marines, supported by the 
uaviil squadron on the station, it being necessary only to make a 
very moderate addition to the numbers now carried by tlie various 
ships of war. 




MANATI. 

Now-a-days, pleasure-liunterF travel everywherp, and few nooks 
and crevices of the earth's service are unknown to sportsmen who 
seem to glory in baggnig Algerian |)art ridges iu the declining 
flutinnn, or delight to spend llie vernal equinox amid the vermin- 
i]lFe^ted boulders of tlie Ilocky Mountains. 

We read of rambles in tiie neighbourhood of Timbuotoo, and 
sojourns in Kamtchalka, with as liltle surprise as in our young days 
the recital of an oft-tuld nursery tale might excite, interested merely 
in proportion as the actual incidents of savage life may be thrilling 
or ulherwi?e. I cannot hope, therefore, for much indulgence in the 
perusal of the following tame description of what in dilierent hands 
miglit be rendered sensatioual; indeed, its claims on the reader's 
atlenlioii had better, fur the present, rest upon its rather ambiguous, 
Dot to say amphibious title. 

Perhaps there is no military station in the ubiquitous realms of 
England, not excluding our graveyard settlements on the West 
Coast of Africa, regarded with such dread by British ofhcers as 
Belize- Honduras ; but perhaps, also, there is no town in the Queen's 
dominions whose site has been so improperly and cruelly chosen lo 
merit this abhorrence. On landing, we soon ascertain the cause of 
the evil report which, from lime to time, appals the relatives of tbosa 



213 



MANATI. 



[Pkb. 



ill'Staneil exiles wlio happen to be quartered in Newtown Barrnck*. 
(loM ill rrttr of tlie teiipnient<i t'n (iccu|iii'(l sta^ntes n manirrrive 
•«Biti|i, ovfr H'iiicli llic laMvily-irrijirpiftiJilcil nlrnospliere luzilj' flonta, 
»nij yicl'ljiig to tlie lij^lili-ft linlf, ciirrit's liijcase and cle;itli inlo I he 
liinilrJ cpiife nlliiUcil to ciicli olliwr. Wliy is il ihat our i-nj^ineers 
M-cm to have clio^en, willi fulnl iin'oisinti, (lie very worst situnlions 
in our worat loctitioiia ? UitI tliey glorv in ihtir sliHine ? or was it a 
wanton recltlesfuirsa of life Hint lliey delighted to exhibit? Thfft it 
i« a necesHiiy to lix upon tnililurv positions, in order to jirotect what 
lias to be protected, we fcTH'it, but why pince the protectors in lethal 
dcim exjTOwd to a rever-lnden mia?ina P Why siiils tliousands in the 
iwampi of a DuKa, wlipu, wilhin ea'v n-acli by boat or steamer, 
»trrt:;li nwiiy hculthy highlands, wliereori might ride impregnable 
citadel' of r«fugr? If niercliants and such like will persist in 
hugi^ing the sliure, is that any reason why our troops should suffer, 
nrid our bmve officers allowed to pine away and die like dogs in a 
dilcii ? 

At Batburst and Lagos, as at Belize, the "Demon of the Marsh" 
holds n-morseless sway, and cruelly numbers his victims— Legion — 
jet, ("traiige incon*istencj !) the present good Governor of the 
Oarnbia is thwarted in Itis laudable deaire to have it drained I 
Will the local financiers never perceive their false economy? Will 
the medical profession always keep silent on this point? Will no 
hoiit'sL rngincer suggest the obvious remedy? la fine, will the 
Knglish (iovernment continue lo retain such military stations, and 
not iii?i*^l on (borough draining?* 

All this by the way, but wi[hout apology, for the matter is impor- 
lanl, although having no connection with the adventures which I 
shall now proceed to relate. 

Some y^ara since I was one of a parly invited by the then 
Governor of British llcmdurns tojoin hi[n in a shooting excursion 
to cerlain bills abounding in game, which lay about sixty miles to 
the south of Belize. 

The seiison of the year being rather unfavourable to the bush life 
which His Excellency informed us wc should have to endure, active 
preparaiions for every emergency went on daily, until that fixed for 
departure. 

It was arranged to leave early on the morning of the 26th of 
Octobf-r, hut BiTcas blew fierce and boisterous, bringing with it a 
downfall of sucli rain as is only known in the torrid zone. The 
dull, iiices,''anl plash fell with dismal cadence on the rough sea, and 
the inundated esplanade in front of the officers' quarters. 

Now and then, a Uock of wild ducks mistook the parade-ground 
for their favourite lagoon, and fell an easy prey lo some ungenerous 
sportsman, who sat in his doorway, gun in hand. 

* We AFA gUd to tav thai rtJTQtle'pHy it pow ^laled to otRccra serving on tht 
WotCout of Afiiw — a aoaceuion thcwriter rraqueatljr urged ia thit U&guine. — 
Ed, 




1888.] 



UiJIATI. 



219 



Yonder, at the end of that curious long narrow platform, or stel- 
ling, julting into tlit- sea, rode ut ancbor tlie little sloop wliicli was 
to convey us to our destination. Tlie liaslily lowered s.uls, M-etand 
dtrly, flapped noisily in the increasiiia: storm, ulnle Hie salile master 
added to (lie general din bj railing angrily at liis dull crew, as tliey 
endeavoured to make nil fast, niid prevent theircraft ilrilting o-sliore. 
Vain were their attempts, however, for, lowards mid-day, the 
Marianne lay high arid dry, de.'erted by licr men, who, no doulii, 
wislied the party of reckless lourisla at Jericho, since, not content 
with admiring from land the devastating effect of the lornadn. aa it 
uprooted giaut tree*, and dashed the sliippiiig about in the offing, 
we re'olved on etarling despite the rLiging storm, the late hrjur, oiid 
the drunken stale in which the cuptain and lii^ mea at length 
relnrned to their duly. The lide seconded our wishes, and the 
sloop floated off into deep water ju4 as the frightened moon shed 
her tirst timid r.'^ys through the darkening night, and struggled to 
disperse the leaden clouds. 

What sufferings wa endured — what fortitude we displayed — what 
risks we ran in that cocicle-shell boat, throughout the long dreary 
hours of that awful gloom around us, are they not chronicled in the 
memories of the Manati excursionisia ? 

" What for you go ?" asked our sobered skipper, as daylight dis- 
closed a courial bearing up towards a^. 

"Gubnor send me for see if Buccra drowned," returned hia 
coadjutor, impssTiively, and continued his course. 

The low-lying coast now emerged from behind the surf, which 
ran mountaina high at the entrance of the Gulf or Creek of Matiali, 
and beyond appeared, in gradual succession, a range of bills rejoicing 
in the name of Coxcombs. 

Like most rivers in this part of the world, the Manati Creek ia 
girded on eitlier side by dense bush, intercepting all view of the 
surrounding country, whUe tlie maTigrove, with its inverted vegeta- 
tion, the courida, and the cordage-hke tendril? of numerous parasites, 
render the banks irapcnetrahlo. Hence, the burst of scenery that 
greeted the sight as we emerged into an exlen-iive ami beautiful 
lagoon, after an hour's slow progress by warping, was attended with 
ma^lical effect. 

On the opposite margin of the 1 ike arose, as from the water's 
edge, a few Indian huts, gratefully shaded by tamarind and other 
fruit trees; beyond lay a succession of the volcanic-looking Cox- 
combs, and in the blue dis'anee, u Beriea of uiounlain ranges si-'emed 
to trend away into the kingdom of Currera. All around us and 
along the b^riks of the lagoon, far as the eye could reach, numbers 
of Ihat ungamly animal wiieuee the locality derives ila name dis- 
ported in the turbid water, or lay basking in the nys of the rising 
sun. One huge brute, more nudacious than the rest, cndeavoure'l 
to up-^et the boat lowered by the crew to luko us ashore, and re- 
ceived, as was his due, the well-directed bullet from the virgin rifle 



S20 



MANiTI. 



[Fbb. 



of our tnosli youtlifiil Bportaman. Tbe unwiL-ldj animal was spcured 
with ilifficulty, nnil <re found liim to measure tliirteeii feet in len^lli. 

The akin of tlie sea-cow ia reiimrkably tou^h, of a dark Iiup, iind 
thinly covered «itli brialliiin; liair, Tlie flesli is not iinliko pork, 
and, from recollfclioti, 1 tliink it may be pronounced good. On 
thii occasion, the tenderer portions served ss a capital addition lu 
the Oovernor'a cuisine. 

We were received with all the cordiality accorded sliipwrecked 
mariners, and as the day was line, and the chniige likely to continue, 
we amused oorselves with larget-shuoting in I he neiglihourhood, by 
way of bringing in our hands for the sport in prospect. Thus, 
lounging throiigiiout the day, many were improvident enough t43 
neglect throwing up a shelter for ihe night. 

Startling intelligence awaited us of the nightly incursions of an 
onnsurtlly large jajjuar, into the cuti le-foid of tlie poor Carib Indians 
close bv, whence the voracious brute snaiched many a meal, and the 
little Bclllement were consequently in high glee at our visit, auguring 
the destruction of their enemy from our martial appearance. 

Moat of our party had equipped themselves with short Eiifields; 
mine was a double-barrelled " Jacob," and tiie remaining rifle 
among the party was a breechloader, belunging to an American 
gentleman, who distinguished liiuiself by tUe accuracy and rapidity 
of his fire at the shorter ranges in our amateur contest. This 
Yankee was not a likeable character; his boastlul expressions ^«crQ 
Americanior AmericanU, if I may be allowed the term, and tliat is 
going a long vay. He was extremely ugly, loo, and the corrugated 
fralures, as well as a lurid glare that lurked in his greeiL eyes, inten- 
sified the malignant ensemble. 

How he came among us was a mystery, as he was self-invited, 
having excused his intrusion by decliiring himself the " lord of the 
manor, and delighted to entertain us." Our worlhy host, however, 
conceiving the fellow to be a character, oveilooked his questionable 
claims, and welcomed htm with hearty good-humour. 

Kight now began to set in, and all engaged in slinging hammocks, 
adjusting mosquito-nets, and collecting wood for the camp fire. 
This done, we assembled at the festive board (a log of uiuliogany 
extemporized for the oecasinn), and proceeded to discuss as sump- 
tuous a banquet as ever fell to the tot of hungry exeursiimists. 
Then followed the "flowing bowl," and mirth and jest ruled the 
bour. Nothing, in fact, disturbed ttie hurmony of the evening, 
except one circtimslauce scarcely noticeable at the time, yet sadlf 
productive of results. 

Among our party was an Iriahm.m, named Dawson, of Bunting 
proportions, who, more than once during the evening, had playfully 
alluded to Yankee sparenciis of figure. 

" Nothing personal, old hny," lie exrlaiine<l, slapping our pseudo- 
host mllier forcibly on the back, "but I wish to propose a toast to 
your country. Gentlemen, till your glasses, — 'AmiTicii iiiid the 



1865.J 



HAHATI. 



221 



Americans; more flesh, to their bonea, and more power to their 
elbows ;' for ihey have neither I" 

" 1 guesB tlie day isn't far distant," returned the Yankee, snap- 
pishly, as we laughingly rose to obey, "when Great Dritain will 
have to kuuckle under to the bone and s.\ne« of my country, and I 
reckon it won't be such Mariati defenders as you'll save iier. Sir." 
Wliereupou our friend was called to order, and we separated for the 
night. 

An hour later, I took a stroll through the camp, now hnshed in 
sleep, and was amused to note the dilTerent atlitudea assumed by the 
wearied occupants of the haioniocks. Dawson alone seemed to rest 
easy in his position, as ^e lay croas-wise, his feet protruding from 
under the mosquito-net, which the closeness of the night induced 
liioi to forego. Having thrown a few more logs on the smouldering 
fire, I, too, retired to sach rest as migiit be procurable in regions 
where 

*' Sandflies and mosquitoes swarra to banish all our sleep ;" 
but those who have experienced it will 9ym|jathize with me when I 
add that hours passed in sleepless agony, until suddenly uprose a 
terrible howl in the woods, which for the time ilisiracled iLe atten- 
tion and rendered me keenly alive to present sport. Again silence 
reigned around, unbroken except by (he hum of insects and the 
croaking of innumerable frogs, and from pure exhaustion sleep at 
length closed my eyelids, when a shout and a curse, followed almost 
inslantaneonsly by the report of a rifle, aroused the whole en- 
campment. 

All was confusion, since no one knew the cause, yet every man 
seized his rifle, which, like East Indian cadets in the olden times 
expecting to meet tigers in the streets of Calcutta, we had one and 
all carefully loaded the evening before. Judge our horror, however, 
when otir most sanguine hopes were realized, and we heard tliat the 
jaguar had entered our lines, and had actually made free to smell at 
the feet of our stout friend^ The quarry could not be far distant, 
for the half demolished carcnsu of a fat calf was found hard by, and 
the Indian settlers joined in tiie hot pursuit in which we immediately 
engaged. 

Traces of the monster's pawa directed oar course to a narrow 
gorge leading towards a pine forest, beyond which lay the open 
country. To |irevent the jaguar's escape several of tiie party now 
aiAiie a circuit through the wood, while a few of us followed up the 
fool prints, and in the consequent excitement soon lost sight of time 
and distance. Gradually, however, the more lazy, or the less 
ardent, dropiwd behind, and as the cold streaks of morning faintly 
illumined the path, I observed that four only continued on the 
jaguar's trail. 

The American geulleraaii led the chase, top|)ing the nneven and 
briar-covered ground with long, noiseless strides. Close upon liis 
heels came an Indian boy, n child of the foreft, and willi uu«tnQ% 



step swiTtly followed every movement o' his master, D,iw*on and 
myself btoagiit up tlio rear, ende.iwourin^ to keep pice witliout 
treading on crackling brushwood, or olher opposing obauclea. 

Occasionally we came ujion di-er trolling quietly luwards the 
BavannBh in front, or browning the dewy gras^i in the gl.ides of the 
forest: but. tlie sijjlit failed lo tnuke us swerve from the race liiat 
was set before os; sternly and silently we trod the devious pallia, 
slo*ly and slcaltiiily we creot along, now skirling ihe more dense 
bu-li, now lightly o'er pnssing the rustling leaves, and anon 
moving rapidly across an open apace into ihe mytterious Inliyriiuha 
of the sombre forest. 

As we neared ihe prey our leader's pace quickened almost into a 
run i his sinews seemed taut, and liis eye-balis strained engerly 
forward as he grasped his breech-loader, with tlie confidence of 
practice and long training in such aiivenlures. Our cautious and 
prudent advance was likely to be crowned willi success, for once the 
jaguar entered the open country, unconscious of our presence, hia 
death was inevitable, when sudderdy a crusliiug, rushing sound 
reverberated through the forest, and a drove of startled peceari 
cleared our front, champing as they went. Tlie temptation bms too 
strong for amaleurs, the shock too electric, and simullaneonsly 
Dawson and myself discharged our riCes, rolling over a br;ice of the 
bristling animals ; yet hi^li above the dving squeal of the gruiitera 
issued a Yankee outh of such intensity and blu^'phemous itnporL as 
made the blood curdle in our veins, and we stond aghast. Back he 
stalked towards us brandishing his rifle, n very fiend in appearance, 
the veins on his foi-ehend and neck almost bursting with ungovern- 
able rage and with choked utterance, thus at length he spoke : 
" Ye while livercd, cursed Britishers, how dare je fire ? how dare a 
trigger be drawn without my leave? am I not the lord of the 
manor? I^n't llonduras a free Republic of my countrymen? 
Filibuster did ye Cidl ine? Is it mure beef to our bones now ? have 
/ no power in my clhow ? Did ver infarnal governor help Lo net our 
noble Walker down below here? But I'm to the fore yet, ami I'm 
the last man to stand an insult ; back ye go oif my laud. I'll chaw 
you up, the jaguar first, then ye 1" 

Surprise at the unrea^onsble abuse showered upon us, and for- 
bearance in lislening to such langnai,'e, for a moment kept us mule, 
but indeed befure suitable reply was possible he had turned on his 
heel ami ci>ntinued to lead the chase as befnre. We loaded in 
siitnce, but a visible tremor in Dawson's frame showed lliat he at 
any ra'e could not brook sjch rudeness with impuniiy, and then we 
too pursued the pursuer. Scarcely, howerer, had we advanced a 
hundred yards wlicn tlie ping of a bullet and the sharp crack of the 

• Tlie fitibuster Walker wa» taltea prisomr i( Coiumel, after a rain attempt to 
K[xe the (lay Islinits, and was iliol bi arder of t)ie move autlinrilleB at Truxlllu, 
TIlo Leopard. CaptaiQ Salmort, V.C, wni eprgn^ed In Itie adventuri-'r't capturti, and, 
pertiapi, the GuTernor of Brilitb Honduras bappenud lo be on board. — lio. 



1835.] 



MAN4TI, 



S2S 



Yankee's riSe nounded tlie jaguar'a knell, and on reacliing tbe spot 
we found the Carib boy eugaged in skinning tlie noble brute's 
ciirc;ise. Fearing a collision I liad briefly but earnestly requested 
Uunsou not to notice tlie American's Bliange address, nnd as we 
sfoiiil by watching the operations of tbe boy, my friend consenltd. 
The Yankee was not, however, in view, and wliua I inquired liis 
wliereiibonts, the Carib boy returned signs of his i;,'Uorance, 

Tims, afier wailin;? a cpnsiderable time, we retnmed slowly 
towards camp, pitkiag up our game on the way. An advancing 
slep from the direction of tlie lake now caught our eiir, wliich 
quickened suddejity, and the Yaidcee stood before us heated and 
brcalliless. 

" Ha ! ye didn't (urn as I ordered," he hissed through his 
cleiiclitd teeth. "I lliouglit to ciilch ye nearer home, for all 
Btilishers are cowards, and ye're afraid of iiie." 

" Take iliis to prove that one of us is not," shouted Dawson, as 
with his open hand he struck tlie Yankee violently on the mouth. 
At once 1 flanginyself between tlicm, but it wiis needless, for the 
American slood erect and impassive, only his wicked eyes shoiie 
with a Itrrible mulignaney. 

" I guess you'll not object to our country's method of fighting, 
Britishers," be said at leTiglh, addressing Dawson, while the blood 
trickled from bis cut lip; " here be ten rounds in ray puuch, you 
take same ; and as I've a breecii -loader, j'ou may have the double 
barrel. There's five minutes' law in the ii ouds, and yuur friend had 
beder get out of range somewhere, eUc I might pink him ton." 

At this juncture the Canb boy appe:ired carrying over bia 
siioulder the spoiled skin of ihe slain jaguar. With Indian sagaoily 
be quickly divined the siLnutiori, and in territied accents implored 
bis master in the native language, fur a moment the Yankee 
smiled, but sliook his head aud turned away, t^eizing (he uppor- 
luniiy thus nlTordi-d, the Indian plucked my coat rudely, and with 
trembliaj; haste pointed repeatedly to his master and then— loo well 
known and universal aigu— to his own forehead! Tbe man was 
Iliad I 

I had scnrcely time to communicate the dread intelligence to 
Dawson when the maniac turned nnd again approached. A suddea 
thought struck me and 1 proposed it. "My friend agrees to figbt 
you," I said, " but not in a way which gives you all the advanlago 
of experience, I am sure yon would not ask it; yesterday you 
showed us what you could do nt the li.rget. Now suppose you fight 
a duel at QOO yards, ten rounds each, and you fire on until one be 
hit." "Agreed," tried the madinun Inugliing heartily at the novel 
ide.a. " Mark the ground, and mind je give the signal wlieii I score 
a bull's eye. Hal ha!" 

Not many yards from where we stood extended a glade free from 
brushwood, and here I placed the Yankee wiili Ihe C;irib boy lo 
keep him romiianv, wliiie DoMson and 1 paced olV o,^ x'i ■tti'>siS!W\\\% 

U.S. Mao. No.'l;J5,FtB. l&6a. "^ 



Hi 



MAN ATI. 



CPm. 




Uk groiod hr Uiu duol ; but it mny be cnailj saraiiM^l our dircolioii 
In towanW Mmp, and vhen wc thouitiit wa hnJ g^iitiud «uQicieiit 
4alM« to tflMt oar ctcape, the grass did not grow under uiir lieels, 
I prritnue jou. 

Ilu artiiicl nc<;d si-jirocly be told, lly a little maii(cuvritio ihe 
Cgilrd nunitc wu M-cun-d and disurined, but tlie circunistitiiOL-tlirrvr 
■ ((luom o*cr our ■ubm-qneiit procecdin;;^ at Manati, de^^ite the fuel 
thai thi! •port wnt most enticing ; bevies of quail and wi<[»s of siiiiic 
eont(l)t«J the mrwt rii«li<tiuiis Imhinnii present. To the men of 
Ounhiii CummiriK cidibrc the nnhlu direct lii'ld out a certain liiid fur 
tlw biTffgtl frame, md t<i tlie luvi-r u( xcenury the pleasin;^ vartel)' of 
bdl and dule Wim tlmrDU^Idy enjoyiible undtr the iiilluerici's nf a 
bmllliy fft^linfM in iho iitmoH]iliprc—n balmy frajjrurice in tlie air 
lud a briitlil, chctTful, nnd not iiitnlernblc sun. 

Tlif iitiii Mory ol' tlin hut nf the filibusters, and his n'andering life 
with the Corib*, timon^ whom ho wns hitherto considered liurcnle^s, 
wuuld be loo h-njilhy fur my purpose; siifTice it to sny tliat we con- 
Vtyi-ii bim t(i Ih'liiti', nnd liu wiia tihip|ied by the lir»t oppurlunity (0 
bin niihvc hin<l ) hut there exist no more vivid assncinliuns with 
llondnrm thiiti llir xtid evrnlij connected with this Qur first and bist 
trip <o the hilli and Inkc of Mnnnti. 



TIIK AMERICAN NAVY. 

Tlie day in rripidly n|ipr()nching in which the Secretary of tho 
Ailnrirall.y on lirin^^ing I'orHurd the K,--liinatcs, now in eourse of 
iirepa ration, will hiivc to >Ut<: uhat is llie strength of the British 
Navy at jircsDnt, and what is iv be its strenglii fur the future. Its 
ttrrii({ih for the fnturo miift depend partly on the dtmaiids made 
npon the Aihnirally for vessels of war to protect the colonies, and 
tho inaleriiil intcrrsts at home nnd abroad, and partly on the extent 
of the arnuiinrnts niiiinlflineJ by the oilier Miiritirne Power*. Asa 
rule, the naviil force kept up by i'rancc hns for a long period served 
iiK n guide for the nunihcr of seamen and mariues to be employed in 
the Kufflisli Navy; uuy increase or dimiuiitiun of tlie Freiicli Murine 
penornlly cmi*esa preportifiiiate reduction of or addition to tlie liriii^b 
fleet; and until t!ie announcement of the Civil War in America, 
little, if any, notice was taken of the state and condition of the navy 
belonging to the United States. France was tlien our principal 
antagonist on the ocean ; America was barilly ever tliouglit of. 
" \\ lien (he moon shone, we did not see tlie candle : 

So doth the greater glory dim the less ; 

A substitute shines brigiitly as a king, 

Until a king be by ; and then his stale 

Empties iisidf, ns doth an iuland brook. 

Into the main of waters." 



1865.] 



TUH AHEBICAN KAVT. 



i!25 



In consequenof, hoircvtr, of llie quarrel between tlie Northern 
mid Soulhecn Slates of llie Union, and of ibe exerlions used by the 
OoviTim'f^iit at Waatiingtoii to iticre.ise liie I'fJefal Kavy, it be- 
hoves (ireat Uritaiu to cust a glance BCniss tlie AllLiutic, and scs 
what is being done in iikvhI mutters in the v:irioii9 pubhc yard^i in 
America. We tlo not go so for ns a modern *nier, who say*. 
"Arncricn, and not France, is the danjierous rival of EoH;!aiid," 
and lliat "before long, America wouhl be in 8 condition to atlack 
the Mersey and the Clyde wilh a Heel of Monitors;" but we think 
it must be evident to every one who bus watched the progress of 
tbe Civil War, that tbe Yuukees jiosseos the means of suddenly 
CTouling a large fieet of small craft, which lui^lil do us incalculable 
injury in the event of hostilities being commetiecd. They began 
llie war under the greatest disadvantages, so far, at least, as tlie 
iisvy was coiicenied. They really had no navy in the sense in 
which we understand t!ie word. The few frigales nnd corvettes 
which they possessed, were usually employed on detaeheJ service; 
they were seldom formed into sqiindron', and the highest rank of 
their officers was that of " commodore." From rcturni' laid before 
Congress, it appears that ehice )S61 the navy of the United S'ates 
lias been strengthened by the addition of 141 steamers and 6li iron- 
clads, which have been conslruoled specially for llie war. and, ac- 
cording to the cominunicalion made in Ueeember last by the 
Secrelary of the Navy, " It now consiisls of 671 vessels, measuring 
610, -'Syu tons, and currying 4,ljl0 guns. They comprise la screw 
steamers, specially constructed far naval purposes, ti paddlewheet 
8l earners, specially cunstructed for ii.ival purposes, 71 iron-cUd 
vessels, 149 screw steamers pnrolnsed, cnplured, file,, hited for 
nav;d purposes, 174 paddlewheel steamers, purchased, captured, &c., 
titled for naval purposes, and 11'.! sailing vessels of all classes. 
Tills is an actuni increase of the navy during tlie year of S3 vessels, 
26 others added during the year having been List by shipwreck, 
battle, or capture. The total addition toe the year was therefore 
109 vessels." 

ILid we been told in 1860, that the Oov-eniment at Woshin^on 
possessed a Heet of this size, and that they had no less than 71 
ships entirely nr partially covered with armour-plates, wf should 
Lave expected our Bourd of Admiralty to ask the House of Com- 
mons to increase the voles on tlie Navy Estimates, and to have put 
several ships in commission immediately. Nor ought we no* 
nllogelbcr to disregard the fact th.it this nnv;il force is in c-xistcnce 
on the other side of tlie Atlantic. The aulljor of the work on 
"llock-Yard Economy and Naval Power," tfils us that American 
naval archilects" have not from the first doubled that the Monitors 
coiislruciod for the purpose of att:tcking the Confederate porta, are 
available for opprattoiis on our own coasU. "On the low sides of 
these sliips," lie says, " ibey projiose to raise temiwrnry iron top- 
eidce, and a tcinponiry iron deck for the Atlnntvc ttt-j^^giV ^V-diwa. 



2i6 



THB AMBBICAN NATT. 



[Vbb. 



the majorily of these Imstily cDiiatracted vessels could ever venture 
to leave the coast of America, iiiid whether any that did so leave 
would, reach tlie Ldigliish CiiMtmel, is a nintter of o|iiii]on. Ru that 
na it iniiy, we must not shut our eyes to the fact that America 
pijssessea 459 atcum vessels of war, and that moiiy, if not most, of 
these nre suited for coast service, and for operalioiis in shallow 
WBtflr. 

Tills fact becomes of greater im|M)rtfliice from the close proximity 
of Ciinadft to ihe FBiler.i! Slates, and from the oircumslaiice that 
lakes form ihe principal boundary line which separates t)ie two 
countries. At prcent, neiliier Great Britain nor America maintain 
any naval force on tlii'se great inland seas, an arrangement which 
tends greatly to secure the ointirinance of friendly relations bet.weeu 
the two Governmeuls. From tlie Message of Presidijut Lincoln, 
it appears tlint this state of disarmament is likely to bucluiuged, and 
that vessels of war will sliorlly make tiieir apiiearance on the Lakes. 
" In view," tliL^ Message runs, " of the insecurity of lil'e and property 
in the region adjacent to tlic Canadian border, hy reason of assaults 
of desperadoes, committed by inimical and desjierate persons who 
are harboured there, it has beiu thought proper to give notice that 
after the expiration of six months, the period coiislitutionslly 
stipulated in existing arrangements with Orciit, Britain, the United 
States must hulJ themselves at liberty to increase their naval arma- 
ment on the Lakes if tliey shall find that proccerfing necessary." It 
is to he hoped that before the six niouths in question have passed, 
tiie President and liis advisers will reconsider tiieir determination 
in this matter, and devoie ilieir energies and their strength to 
carryiug to a successful issue llie unnatural conflict now being 
waged with the Confederate Stales, for there is reason to fear bud 
resulls from anything like a naval force being placed on the 
Canadian frontier. If America persists in this course, it will of 
course be necessary for England to protect her own interests, and 
In re-establish a squadron of small steamers on Lake Ontario, Lake 
Superior, &c. 

But to relurn to the strength of the Federal Navy, as il now 
stands. Before the secession of the Southern Stales, there were 
seldom more than iiOOO men borne on the books of tlie ships in 
commission. The number now exceeds 50,000, and this force must 
be consideraiily increased if Mr. Welles and Mr. Lincoln are deter- 
mined to keep a strict blockade on the Southern ports, and to 
destroy llie principal fortresses on the sea coa.its. Fortunately for 
the government, the financial resources of the country are so elastic, 
that money is aUays fortbcomiug to provide for the heavy war 
Cipendiiure, whether for the array or the navy. The store "f 
"green-backs" manufactured at the Wasbingtou Mint seems to be 
inexhaustible, and the confiding public at New York and other places 
appeiirs to be willing to lake paper for gold. The esi ijnuted expendi- 
ture on the navy for the ynar ending iiOth June, 1 863, amounts to no 



1865.] 



THK AHEIUCAK NATt. 



287 



less than #113,1^7,663, or upwards of £23,000,000 sterling ; more 
than doable thp sum which Lurtl Clarence Paget will prob'ibly ask 
the lluuse of Commons to bestow on the Navy of Greui. Brilain. 
As the Ealimales for the ensuiiiLi financial veiir havp nol yet bet'ii 
published, we cannot compare the probable expcmiilure of the t*o 
couutries for a similar period, we will, therefore, coiilrasl the Kntilish 
Estimates of the preaenl year, 1804-5, with these Ijid before Con- 
gress for llie year ending June, 1866. The items of the various 
chief beads oF expenditure not being precisely similar, it is not 
possible to draw an exact comparison, but by aliering Ihe nrranfje- 
ment of the linglish votes a litllo, we can come to fifiiires aullicitntly 
correct for our purpose. The pay of the Federal Niivy, and of the 
Marine Corps, is estinmlcd nt about 4;5,200,000. The sum voted 
for llie pay and wages of the officers, senmeHj and murines, em- 
ployed in tile English Navy was ^-2,^74., 1-67, or about ^i,30{),000 
less than the estiioaled requirements for tlie Federals. This dill'er- 
ence will appear even larger when it is remembered that we have 
nearly 7^,000 men and boys employed, while itte Americans have 
only 51,000 ; so that the coat per head in England is only £10, 
while in America it is more than £100. Tiie provisimia and 
clolbiug of the Federal seamen and murines cost about £2,900,0UO, 
while tliose for the Englisb Navy amount to £l,!i04.,119 : tbe rate 
per head, in this instance, being £o7 against about £l!i. For the 
important items, "Construction and repair of steam raacliinery," 
" Cotistruclion and repair of vessels," " Fuel, hemp, and equipment 
of vessels," the Americans demand no less than £11,600,000; 
large as the vote which the Admiralty ubtained this year for " Naval 
stores for the building, repair, and outfit of the lieet, &leara mn- 
chiiicry, and ships built oy contract," which vote includes coals, 
fuel, steam macliinery. Sic, it sinks into ill^igllificance when con- 
trasted with the sum required for aimdar purposes on the other side 
of the Atlantic— being only £1,526,312. The other items of ex- 
penditure for the Federal N.ivy are "Navy yards and superinten- 
dents, £953,000; "Navigation and naval academy, 117,000;" and 
"Conlnigent and Miscellaneous expenses, i£al8,000." Tliese, with 
the ^1, 5)00,000 required for "Ordnance and magazines," make up 
the £23,3110,000 whicli Mr. Gideon Welles intends to take out of 
the pockets of his fellow-countrymen, during the twelve monlha 
which will commence on the l»t July next. 

Never was there a better opportunity for the British public to 
lejrn and understand and appreciate ihe advantages of being fully 
prepared for great emt-rgencies, and the disadvantages of not being 
so prepared, than that which now presents itself. The theory which 
tliose of the Cubden- Bright school so zealously advocate, and which 
they have the boldness still to uphold — that we ought not to have any 
largo establishments for the repair, construction, and equipment of 
the tleet, nor any large force of seamen maintained during peace, and 
that we should relv on our meroiintile resources, in the &•)«»*. ^'v ■». 



tiS 



TBK iltBUCAX RATT. 



[Fra. 



ir*r— is now moet compldclj rxplixlcd. Tiie Uni'eJ Slatrs Gn?pm- 
lOFiil liiis linti to piiv most i-itimb^tunt prici-a for ever; article wliich 
it hdd lo piirclinsr for both the Amiy niid tlie Navy, und the (lublic 
conlnictorw nre becoming the most wealthy «m(>tig«t llio ciliKens oS 
New Yr)rk iitul other [daces. The slate of afTnirs iti this respect lins 
no* becoirif so bad that the Societafy of the Navy hns been obligi-d 
to ulludc to it, i'l very strong tprms, in bis niwiuai report, " The 
wbolf Ky"lriii," hi- say a, "hns become tainted with d'mornli/alion 
Diiil fniid, by which tlie boneist and fnir denier ia luo olleo driven 
from tlie uiurket. Articles itiferior in quality, and deRcieiit tn 
ipiBrilily, iii-e driivctcd ntid pussed. BribTy and other irnprofiur 

[irncfices nro rMtf.rtrd lo, to iniiucp persons iji the employ of the 
iovcirirnciil to ^ii<l in lbe?e frauds." 

The »late of the dock-ynnis in the time of Lord St. Vincent, or, 
rnlher, at thr lime of hn uppointment as First Lord of the Ad- 
mirnlly, wan bud emmgli, us every one conversant with n:ival it6;)irs 
M aware ; and thn ri>furiii8 which he be^an, large and comprehensive 
M tliey were, ilid much towurds eslnblishiiig the healthy as|>ect of 
affair* which wc now enjoy ; but it would require n dnzen men, of 
Im liinrii ttic power nnd iibilify of Sir John Jcrvis, to make any im- 
pri-tMon on llin Federal riavul cstablishmeuts. When the olticial 
repr'-K'iitiifive of till' Niivy uses, in n public document, such words 
■* "frnnd," " dmioralixjilion," "bribery," and " improper pnic- 
ticeii," we inny bo certain thiit things are au bad as they possibly 
Gun be. How tho Si-eretury of the Treasury at Wushingtou is lo 
contrive lo provide the funds necessary to support sucli a ^stem na 
now eniitt* in the imvnl mid military depart.ments, is a question 
■ hit'h tliH ((rriileNl lliiiinciers would be puzzkd to answer; but if he 
Hirhea III rrduiT iiin fxpcndilure » ilhin reasonable limits, and, at the 
MKK' tiine, nmintnin a Milileii-nl force atlunl, he musl, sooner or later, 
apply the prujiin[( kriife to Ihe recs and bribes which are now pcr- 
inllti'd ti> lo taken bv the otliciaia. He mnst also follow in tho 
»tf\M of Iho Diikn of Som'rsit and his predecessors, aud provide 
Ihe nccpiiiiBry incuiis for building and repairini^ men-of-war in goverii- 
mriit inntcnd of privnle ship-ynrds. Year after year, the Secretary of 
llic Navy ri|i]icid« lo ihe people to allow the funds required to enable 
his depArlriiciit to repair his armuur-pUted ve^seU. In his recent 
report, he puts the matter in such a clear light thnt we might 
ulmoiit reckon on his recommendations being iuimedialely carried 
into effect, were we not aware thnt there are too many interests at 
Work with the view to continuing the present cxtravngant system. 
He says: — "The iiiabililj of our present establishments for the 
work imposed by this wnr hns been the source of inexpresfihlo 
anxicly, and often of great disappointment and public injnry. To 
relieve tiic navy-yards from work wiiich tiiey have but limited m^ans 
to execute, and to secure neeeasary repnira, the depiirtmcnt has beeii 
compelled lo eslublish stations for machinery and means of reUlmcnt 
flt Mount City, Memphis, New Orleans, Ship Island, Pensncola, 



1865.J THE 4MBRICAK NAVI. 

Key Wwf, Port Rojal, Bearifort, Norfolk, mi Baltimore. But 
tiii-se and all the |)rivntc eitublisbmeiils of (lie country, btsiJi-s Oilier 
cdUs u|mTi tbem, iinve been irisufficieut lo keej* llie present iiiivj' in 
necessary order, so tliat, if to llii' duty of blockiiiliiig lliere were 
added ocean confltcis witli a iiaval Power, bj wliicli our slii[ia would 
be often disabled, the sad spectacle would be presented of oiip iiiival 
vessels laid up in time of war for want of a proper t-slablislimeiil 
witii tbe sliopB and me^ns to repair tliein. Tlie Ooveruinent iins not 
at this time uu establisliment wliere a abaft cim be made fur our 
steamers, or a plate for our iron cluds." 

It is lo be siiici-rely hoped ibat the t'eileral raeii-of-war will not 
be called upon to enter upon any " ocean conflicts," but liial tliey 
^ wilt confine their o|»erutions to the coasts of the Conl'ederaTe SUiles, 
During the year which bjs recently closed, these oper.ilions have 
been numerous and some of them have been importanl : Vice- 
Adratral Farragul's atlack on Mobile, for instnuee. On the wliuli^ 
however, tliey cannot he said to have added much lo the liiurcla 
whicli surroand the " Stairs and Stripes," nor have they increased ill 
any way the resjiect in which the Qag is held by foreign nations. 

The last exploit performed by the comoiandurs of l!ie Fuderal 
naval forces, is that of attempting to imitate at Wilminjiton iho 
explosion which occurred at Eriih, and which frightened llic in- 
bahitants of nil the adjoining towns. Prom the official despatch 
addressed by Rciir-Admiral Porter to Mr. Gideon Welles, tlio 
Secretary of the Navy at Washington, it appears that great pre- 
parations bad been made to ensure the destruction of Port Piaher 
and the surrounding worlts, and that the admiral hoped to present 
them " to the nation a? a Ciiristmas offcfing." He accordingly 
attacked the forts on Christmas Eve with thirly-tliree vessels, keep- 
ing a host of small craft in reserve. In addition to these, there 
was a torpedo, " on a large scale, prepared with great care, and every- 
thing that ingenuity could devise, and having on board an amount 
of powder supposed to be ButUcient lo explode the powder magazine 
of the fort," "So much had been sjul and written about the 
terrible elfecta of gunpowder in an cxplof^ion that lalely happened 
iu lln^land, tlint great reiults were expected from this novel muds i 
of making war." Titia terrible monster was towed within 200 yards 
of the beach, and GOO from the fort, when " the t^jdbiit party iu 
charge of her left the vessel, the last thing they did being to sirt her 
on lire under the cabin," Admiral Porter might as well have saved 
his ship and the large quantity of powder on board of her, for ho 
tells his Fuaaier at W.isliinf^lon "liie ihock was nothing like «o 
severe as was expected; it tAook the vessel iome, and broke ono 
or two glasses, but nothing more." Never was the Latin quolalion 
respecting the mountain and the mouse, with which all school-buys 
are so familiar, more appropriate. 

Admiral Porler, in lact, appears to be a man of big words and 
of htile deeds. " The Iroiuidcs took her position in a must beautL- 



230 



THE AUERICAN SAVT. 



[FhB. 



ful manner." "The guns of the fort were silenced ns soon us she 
opened her lemfic battery." "Tlie Minnesola ihen took lier 
position in hniidsome style, while the large vessels got to their 
stoiioMs," By the lime the last of lliese vessel* aiidioreil, but one 
or two gun* of the enemy were lircd, "this feu (/'tn/sr ilriviiig 
them all to the bomb-proofs," Seven gun-boats ciiHl.ided the 
works. Five other vessels "took effective positious." Nine more 
"dropped into position, and "the buttle hccBrae general." "In 
one hour and fifteen minutes not a shot came from the fort." " It 
was impossible fr)r anything horaaii to stand the fire." "The 
shower of shell (115 per niinuti') was irresistible." "So quickly 
were the enemy's guna silenced, that not an officer or man w.ia 
injured." After all this grand ilisplay and exercise of power, 
Adiniriil Porter "signalled to the fleet to retire for the night," and 
he adds, "our men canie out of tiie action with rather a contempt 
for the rebel batteries." They appear, however, to have something 
more than conleiopl for some of their own guns j for it seems that 
no Itbs tliuu six of the lOU-pounder Farrolt cannon burst, Ifilling 
and wounding no less tlian four officers and forty men. The result 
of this expedition is really "nil." " Wilminijloa is stiil in the 
bands of the Confederates, aad the garrison of Fort Fisher are safe 
withiu their bomb-proofs." 




OSWALD HASTINGS; 

OB, THS AtlVEirrDRBJ OF L C^riLEN's AIDB-DS-CAUP. 

Bi W. W. Knoll vs. 
CUAPTKIl XIV. 

A PoUm Court «aA ottier mntterg. 

Oswald woke next morning with a splitting head-aclie from 

the efl'ecls of the blow he had received the night before; but he 
was a hardy fellow, and a lotion from a neighbouring chemist soon 
alleviated the pain. The first thing he did was to go to the police 
magistrates where his evidence was required against the garoitera. 
They were defended by a solicitor, greatly patronised by the fraternity 
of thieves. This individual, whose name was Malachi, and was, aa 
may be guessed, a Jew, tried hard to shake Oswald's testimony. 
Among other things, he insinuated that our hero was drunk. 

"May I ask, Ensign, I beg your pardon. Lieutenant Hastings, 
how it was Ihut ynu happened to be out at auch a late hourP" 

"I had been dining at my brother's." 

" Ah, you military men are generally tolerably convivial, I sup- 
pose you enjoyed yourself — had a good dinner, no doubt — capital 
wine, I dare say." 

" I don't see what that's got to do with the case." 



1B65.] 



OSWALD HASTISOa. 



S31 



"Don't fence with my questioiisi, sir. Remeiinber you are on 
your oiitli. Be ijnod eiiouirh tc give me a 5trciii,'litfurw,ii'il Aiiswer." 

Oiwalc) fluslied U|j to llie vetv roots of h;s liiiir, ami re[)lii d some- 
whiit savagely : 

" Hflvu tlie kindntss not to be impertinent, sir. Wt-U, if you 
want to Ittiow about tlie dinner, I will irll you. first of nil tliece 
was oxti'il soup, llien cod's head and sliouldrra with oyster eoace, 
after thitt " 

Here he was inferrupted by Mr. Malachi, who, perfecily livid 
with ragCj screamed out: 

" I a|ipeal to tiie bench, if I am to be treated with sncb inso- 
lence, and the court with such coiitempl." 

The whule audience was on ihe tiller — if one may be permitted 
to coin an expresrion— and the majjislrale himself, who hated Mr. 
Mtihchi, coiild hardly keep his ccuntenance. When appealed to, 
however, he was obliged to siiy : 

"Be kind enough to answer llie question put you, Mr. Hastings, 
without going all through the bill of fiire." 

Oswald bowed to the magistriite, and turning to the angry 
lawyer said ; 

" Well, llien, I had a very good dinner and excellent wine." 

"Now, you're a judge of wine, no doubt — have drank a good 
deal of it in your lime, I dare say. Now tell me how many glosses 
you had on that occasion P" 

"I don't exactly remember. About three or four, I tliink." 

"You l/tink — you are not sure, Willi your bad memory you 
might have had four or live, live or eis, sis or seven glasses without 
reeolleeling it, eii ?" 

" My memory is not so bad as that, besides, I ncvci exceed three 
or four glasses. Last riiglit it might hnve been three, or it raiglit 
have beeJi four glasses, 1 can't tell, but I am sure it was nut more." 

"It's very odd yuu can't remember; but an extra allowance of 
wine, we know, alTccU the memory. Can you snear you had not 
five glasses ?" 

" L shuuld'nt like to swear, but I'm almost sure I did not take 
more than four glasses. I will swear, tbough, that 1 did Dot take 
more than live." 

" Oh, so you're not certain you didn't drink five glosses, but you 
swear you didn't have more ilmn five. As your memory is so bad, 
I wonder you could swear at all about it. Now tell me, what size 
were these glasses?" 

"Tiie UJUaUize." 

" You mean to say, I suppose, the size you usually drink out of 
■ — not very small, I suspect '(" 

" Neither small nor large, jusl a medium size." 

" You can stand a good deal of liquor, I dare say ?" 

" Not more tban most men." 

" I'm to understand, then, that if you look more llua -iwas "s^^^ 



iiz 



OBVjILD BAflTISas. 



[Pus. 



usual allowanci', you'd be tlie worse for il ; i>erhflps not exsctlj cleod 
drunk, but a linfe elevntid ?" 

" I dure sav I sboulil." 

"You dare say you should, cli? Well, then, as by your own 
miraission you drank more ihim your usual nlhiwance WiX iii^lit, I 
nsk Tdu, did you not feel jou had more lliiin wiis good for joo V 

'■'Not n bit." 

" Tlial depends upon wlial you think is j[Ood for you. You 

niuft h.ivc been eillier drunk or sober, and if you ore the Kit st 

excited, ihe least uncerlniu i'l your speech or walk, the least giddy, 

L I Bay yoQ were drunk. Now, sir, on your oath, were yuu not 

f drunk lust niglu ?" 

" Nol a bit more lliaii vou are sulTmng from a surfeit of linm at 
the present momfiit," exclaimed Oawidd, worried at lost out of 
all pnticnce by Ihe vulgarity of the questions put by Malaclii, who, 
like n good moiiy of bis profession, look udvantaj^je of liis position 
to otter impertinence?, for wiiicb, if lie had s^id ihem out of iloors, 
lie would certiiinly have been kicked. A regular roiir of laughler 
was heard (lirougli the court at Osn-ald's retort, and the bully took 
Loare not to ask bim anotlier queslioti. Before the case was over, 
riowever, he received a second snub from our hero. In the course 
of his defence, Mr. Malachi said : 

'"file officer states in his evidence, that whoa he came up, he 
found oue of ihe prisoners running away." 

" I never slsied anything of the soit," interrupted Oswald. 

" I didn't sav jou did, sir," snappishly ri'plied Mr, Malachi, 

" You said ' the officer.' " 

" 1 know I did." 

" Well, I'm the ouly officer who has given evidence," 

" I referred to the pulice officer." 

" Ah, I beg your pardon, 1 thought you meant me." 

The upsltot of Ihe nnitlcr, was the coinioitraent of the two 
ruffians for trial. The witnesses, viz. ; Oswald, the policeman, and 
two of the gentlemen wlio had helped to seize the prisoners, being 
duly bound over to attenJ. Their victim and the young guanis- 
man were neither of them present; the former being too ill to leave 
his room, and the alleudance of the latter, who was required for 
8 court-martial at Windsor, not being considered indispeiisobly 
necessary at that stage. 

From the police court, Oswald went to the Albany, where lie 
found that Mr. Chotiuoiidicy — ihe old gentlemau he bad rescued — 
Was in bed, futferiiig very much in Ids tlirnat, and from the ellt-cts of 
the shock he had received, lie, however, insisled on Oswald coming 
into his bed-ruom, and thanked him most wat'iniy for the ns^istanCG 
he had rendered. He was loo ill to bear a long visil, but begged 
Oswald lo come and see him Ihe next day, lellirig bim that us long 
as be lived, our hero miglit reckon on his frieudsbip. When he 
next cidlud, Oswald found Mr. Cholnioudlcy, though stdl very 



1S85.] 



OBTAT.n IIABTI.SOS. 



£33 



weiik, able to sit tip in nil iirm-clinir. Tlie ol>1 gentleman Refined 
deligliled lo see Kim, aiitl was nmsl siiitioiis lo lentil nil about his 
histurj, circiiinslaiiwa, &c. Tlioiii;!! )^alt^cui8rIJ frank in disposi- 
tion, our liero was not at ull fond uf rulking about himself, excppt lo 
iiilimate friend!, Tbe old genlltinan, Inmevpr, possessed great tact 
and delicacy. He wu5 alai> so griti-fiil, Ibal Oswald's reserve soon 
began to disappear. In tlie fiwl place, be was won by Mr. Cliol- 
iGontlley's interest in liim. He bad few friends, and tlie frlen^Isliip 
of un old man is very ilsttering lo a young one. A^iijn, be bad 
berii of service lo bini, and tlial of ilself was a bond between tlicm. 
One always ftets more warmly towards a perspu wliom one lina 
oliligi'd, llmti toward.-i the person from wtiom one lias received 
obliguliims. Tin- pride and self-respect of tbe givtr uf tbe obliga- 
tion is gratiSed by llie very tiict of liaviiig liad it in Ids power to 
confer a favour, and be is i^rutcful lo llie individii'il wlio has been llio 
cause of the plcjsurable sensulinn. From hencrfurth, tbe obliger 
stands, as it were, above tbe obliged, and the latter consequentl; 
(Hisscsses a claim OTi the former win'ch h rendily .idmilled. Eea- 
tlers, depend upon it, if you wisb to secure a fas^t Cricnd, give some 
one llie opportunity of conferring a benefit on you, it will be an 
uid'uiling precedent for future kindnesses. 

We liRve said ibat Mr. Cliolniondley possessed great tact. He 
eliowcd tliis by avoiding to question Oswald directly. He induced 
tlie latter to be frank by first talking about himself. Before many 
visits were over, Oswald found to liis surprise that he bud told his 
new friend the whole history of his past life, with the exception of 
liiat part of it which related to his feelings towards Ellen and Mary. 
Even timt after a time was disclosed to liis ^ympal hisiu'^ listener. 
In his turn, lie a:°ct-rtniiied that Mr. Cholmondley was an old 
bachelor of about sevenly, that iu early bfe he bud been, tlioagh of 
good birth, so poor that be hod been glad lo accept a very suburdinale 
place 09 vicc-ooiisul iu Asiatic Turkey. Having obtained him tbia 
post, his few relations considered that they had done enough, and 
iiencefortli completely banished biai from their mind. Occasionally 
he returned to Knglund on leave, but it was very odd tliat precisely 
at lliesc limes. Uncle Robert's bouse was always being repuirud, and 
Aunt Funny bad asked a quantity of peoiile wiio cuul Jn't be put 
olF, iherel'orc these loving rcbtiona were unable to invite liim. They 
were so sorry, but it was so unlucky; they hoped another tunc, 
&c., &c. Poor people, bow much Ibey were to be pitied for the unfur- 
tunule and continuully recurring cbain of ciniimstancia which de- 
privfdtliein of the pleasure of the poor relation's society. They bore 
up wonderfully against these repented blows, no one could si>y from 
iudiirereiice, for tiicir letters were mosL touching, slill they did nut 
openly manifi-st their grief. In short, iheir fi.'eliiigs were aa wellregu- 
latrdas tbeirioaiincrs, judt as much aifected as «aa becoming to well 
brought up people belonging to the best society, and no more. Young 
ChuliDunulc^y believed iu their sincerity, older Cholmondley beUv.>iu-l 



4 



tSi 



OSWALD nAsnso*. 



[Feb. 



in tlieir insincerity, and midiile-ngei! ClinlmonJley wns quite in- 
dilf'erent as to wheiher it was tliu one or the otht-r. At tlie nge of 
forty-ficp, Mr. Clioimoiidicy uriPX|je[;Lecily fimnd himself, by ilia 
dentil (witliout a will] of a (lisiunl rolaliaii, llie pos^'i-^f^ur of a nice 
lill.le fortune of £5,000 a year, uud nt tlic same lime tlie beloved 
nephew and cousin of a liost of rel.it iojia, from wlmm ''circiimslmicus 
hail hitlieitn unforninateiy spjiaraieil him." I lis c'lrrerpondpnoe 
had up to that time been limited, lieiicelorLli it iidik-d can»iderably 
to the receipts of ihe. post office, Sumeliow or oilier for the future 
no liouseB ever required re|iaiiiling, and Aunt Funny always liad n 
best bed-room at his dij|K)*al. As for cousins, it was quite re- 
insrkable what an esteem ihey had conceived for him. Their bahiea 
Bpemed to have been only burn in order I hat he might be god father 
to them. Presents of game were shiiwered upun him, and pifls of 
moiiiy lavished on his confiiipnlial valets. The dulies of godfatlier 
he discharged by presenls of silver mugs, ihe duties of rebtion- 
ahip he fullilled by eating llie game sent bim — there his inlercourse 
with his kindred ended, lie seldom answered a letter sent bim by 
his relalions, and never accepted their invitations. They were not 
exacting, and bore his eccentricities, as Ihey called them, with 
CLristi.iii piitience. All lliis Mr. Cholmoudley disclosed to Oswald, 
eipresf-ing al the same (ime his scorn for the meanness of which hia 
relations had been guilty, 

" I returned to England," lie said, " prepareil to forgive and for- 
get ; but such conduct disgusted me, and I delermiued to try and 
make friends who should supply the place which rny relations ought to 
have occupied. That is easier said than done thoiiiih. A man of 
forty-five, who has bved all his life out of Enghind, finds that he is 
too little adapted to be aljle to make friends ; acquaintances in plenty, 
yes, but friends, no, unless by some rare accident. Chance and 
your own courige has thrown us across each other. I leel a great 
regard for you, Ihope when you know me better vou will return it. In 
the meantime 1 trust you will consider these chambers as your home. 
I have got a spare room, so always eome here whenever you're in 
town. You must promise me that, there's a good lad. I'm often 
very lonely here, and it would be a real kindness to come and cheer 
me up." 

Oswald promised to do so the next lime he came to Loudon; but 
told him that just then his leave was up, and that he must return 
to Devonpori. 

The day following this conversation he look leave of Mr. Choi- 
tDOndiey, iiis sister and her husband, as well as Mr. and Mrs, John. 
John Hastings had been becoming worse and worse every day, and 
tlireatencd soon to be a fit subject for a lunatic asylum, lie was 
very affectionate towards Oswald. 

"I should fjive vou someihing before you go," he said ; "but 
Vm very poor now, and can't afford to be generous. 1 have got 
two little things in my room though, which may be Ui^eful to you. 



imh.l 



OSWALD HASTIXHa. 



S35 



Tliey are 'The Soldier's beat Knapsack,' and 'Celestial BalBam.'" 

Oswald thnnked him for his kiiidiiei's, conjecliirin;:! that the first 
wua u snrt of travelling bag, and the otiu'r a kind of poiuaile. His 
astonishment and disappuintmeril may be imagined when the next 
moment John renppenred with twu tracts, which bore on tlieir covers 
the titles mentioned. 

The little trip to London hod done Oswald mucli gftod. He had 
prrvinuslj been in rather a morb'd slale of mind, wliich wns con- 
tinued by his freqneiit meelinss with Ellt-u, "VVIien a man is in tliia 
coudiliou, the best remedies are cliani^e of scene and the occur- 
lence of something to break llie current of his thoughts. This 
soinelhing had been furniahed by 'he garotiing adventure and its 
eonseqiiencea. His filter, too, Imd greatly sootlied his feehnga 
with her kind svmpatliy and judicious uduice. In fact, as long as 
he did not see Ellen and came across nothing to remind him of her 
existence, tlie wound ^a\e him no pain. Whenever he saw her, or any 
tiling occurred to suggest her image, and bring up thoughts of past 
times, a nerve seemed to be touched which thrilled with intense agony. 
The wound was, after all, but skinned over. In time, however, 
these twinges became more and more rare, and the nerve required a 
alronger shock to produce vibration. He even sometimes would say 
to himself, "It would have been better if I bad never met her, [ 
should have been spared much unhappiness." He did not care 
much about garrison town gaiety, which after all is only a bad imi- 
tation of the London girl-fnir, wilh a little more coarseness about the 
auction, and witli lower prices marked on each young lady ; but what 
he bad begun for the sake of distraction, he contiuucd from mere 
habit. Mr. Cholmondley wrote to liiin frequently, and displayed 
such an interest in his alfnira that, he could not but reply to him in 
tlie same strain. He several times ran up to London lor a day or 
two, on which occasions he always found a bed and a warm welcome 
at the Albany. Nor did Mr. Choi mond ley's kiiidnfss end there. He 
made a point of introducing Oswald to such of Ids friends as might 
be moat useful to him, and frequently gave little dinners for the 
purpose of en;ibling him U> become intimate with them. Tlirough 
these, Oswald received more than once itivitatinns to good London 
balls, which, however, afforded him little pleasure, though he went to 
them at Mr. Cbolraondley's earnest entreaty, who impressed upon 
him that it was a matter of business, 

"You never know," said he, "bnt that some of the people yon 
meet may be useful to you some d:iy or other, and at all events yoii 
should go if it's only lo acquire what you can never gain later in 
life — luin^e da vioniie." 

We have said he did not much earo about these London parties, 
and the reason is very obvious. The conversation ia slung of the 
thinnest and stupidest description, consisting almost entirely of 
gossip about persons, who is flirting with who, what matches are 
coming off, and wlmt have been broken off, what look <jU»»; ti^. 



OSTTALD riA8TISCS. 



(iifl'erent oomitry Iifiuscs nt Eiistcr, mixed »itli questions as to 
wliellier vou are going to Larlj 'i'liingumby's ball, wlietfier you were 
»t Mrs. Wluil-do-ynii-&il!-ein's evening party, and wht-lher Rotlen 
Row wiis mucli crowded tlip preceding afternoon. Occasionally the 
tni^re iuli'lleiiiu;!! talk a lilllc abuut llie Inst 0]terB, tiie novel of llie 
seufOQ, llie fiisliiiiiinbic prLiacher of tlie d>iy, or tlie false scnlinient 
which tliey subshtute for feeling. Now Oswald, not lisviiig been 
ailmiUed a member of tlie I'reemasoiirT of frivolity, founrl himself 
riitlier l),iskelei| utid very much bored. He had plenty of sense, imd a 
ciediiablt- amoiiiii of inforinaiionj but sense ami iiiloriDfition wereat 
A diseoniit, Tti know who was who, tlmir private history and 
peccadillos, and lo be able lo lalk aboiUtlie dilTere-nt country houses, 
woe a much raore valuable accomplishment, Oswald knew very few 
pC'pli', anil, therefore, could neither converse about Ihem. nor 
urideri-taiid allusions ami stories in which they were concerned. 
Ilia lasles were not ihcir tastes, his haunls were not their haunts, 
liis fricniis were not their friends. He was neither one of those 
I)cop!e who knew everybody, nor a person whom everybody knew. 
Besides, be was poor. Conscqiienlly, he received but formal civility, 
and was singularly unlucky in tinding most of the youDg ladies lie 
askid tfl dance, engai^ed. 

Mr. Chuhiioiidlfy, ihougli appareutly recovered, had never qnite 
got over ihi^ i^hock he received the night he was attacked, and 
openly confessed that he fcareJ that a very shglit attack of illiiesa 
would be very dsngeiMus to liim. 

"Wtienevbr I do die, yon will find, my di'Sr boy, that I have not 
forgotten you in my will. Yon need not scruple to take a legacy 
from me. My relalions have all behaved so badly that I do not 
consider they have the slightest right to ba consylered; besides, 
they are all very well off as it is." 

When the trial of the garotlers took place, Oswald was, of course, 
obliired to come up and give evidence. He accompanied Mr. Oliol- 
inoudley to the court, and was distrcs.<'ed to find tlint the old gentle- 
man was much exhausted by the many lioors' waiting, and the long 
crosE-esaminstion he had lo undergo. 

The next morning, he received n me'safte from him, saying that 
he was too unwell lo come down to breakfast, and .isking 0.*wuld, 
who had to go hack to Divonport by the early train, lo come and 
see him in his bedroom. He fuund him in bed, sulfi-ring from a 
feveriah cold which he thought he had caught by the sudden ohaiiije 
from the liiuti d, foul atmoi^pheri' of ihe court lo the cold cnst wind 
outside. 0:<nuld persuaded iiiui to send for a doctor, and drove off 
to the station, feeling very uneasy about his friend. The valet 
promised to write in cn»e liis master became worse; but not getting 
any letter tlie next morning, Oswald concluded that the illness was 
nothing nficr all, and being veiy busy all day in the orderly room, 
almoet dismi^^d the subject from his mind. 

Eigiit-and-forty hours lutur, a Idler in a strange hand was dc- 



IttOS.] 



OSVAXD HASTIN08. 



237 



livered to Oswalil, wliicli lie opened wilh constdcraWc forebodings. 
One gln-ice showpd him that his I'ears were too true. The very 
afternooQ of Oswetd's depnrlure, Mr. C'iioiinondiey had become 
BnddpTjIy worse ; iiifl/irnmniioti of the luii;is had set in, nnd ihia, 
Rctiiig on a frnme much shnkeii ihe night of tlie aitPiiipled robbery, 
bad curried him off two hours liefore the despalcb of the letter. 
The vjlet addi'd tiiat he wnuld have written to warn liim of the 
■talc Mr. Cholmondley wnti in, but his niastrr pxprc^fly forbad liiin 
to do so, sajing, " Poor lad, he must not be saddeued by a death- 
' led scene j ho wants cheering, not deprf-SMTig." 

Mudi grieved and shocked at the loss of so kind ii friend, Oswald 
immcdialely applied for leave, and the next mornitig relumed to 
London. Uis ^rst visit w.is to (lie AlbatiVi wliero he leiinit nil the 
partieulirs of Mr. Choi in one I ley's last momoiits, and had h last look 
at tiie face of the dead. Just as ho wns about to leave, Ihe lawyer 
came to inquire for Oswald's address. 

" ft is fortatiate 1 liavc met you. Sir, for the funeral take* place 
to-morrow, and ihe remding of iho will afterwards, at whiclii aa ygu 
are meiitioncd in it, I should like you to be [jresenl." 

Oswald promised to be (here, and theii, not wishing, from motives 
of delicacy, to mJtke use of hi? usual bedroom at the Albany, went 
off lo that most comfortable of private hotels, Ellis', of St. Jiunes' 
Street. As he eat, ait^r dinner, drinking what novelists call "his 
modest half pint of sherry," he indulged in spfcuUitiorts as to the 
amount of the legiicy which he was about to receive. He did not 
anticipate much, but be thought it possible he might be left £100 a 
yenr, a very weleonie iiddition to an adjutant with uothing but his 
pay. Money did utjt long occupy his thoughia, which were soon 
diverted lo the many acts of kindness he had received from his 
deceased friend, the memory of which made him feel quite ash.imcd 
of his anticijialions about a legacy. 

On goiu" to Ihe Albany at the appointed time, he wns shown inio 
B room full of ihc relatives of the deceased. They seemed more 
excited than sad, and looked at Os>viild very much as a flock of 
■heep regard a stranger in'roduccd inlo the fold. It being a part 
of the religion o( this country, that a rich man cannot get to heaven 
unless carried dectimuf^ty lo ihe worms in u lieurse drown by siiinmis 
which look like sti|jerannuatcd troop-lmrscs of llic Life OuanU, and 
escorted by a numerous bndy of his reblives in black and (.curs, 
Mr. Cholmondley's funeral was what is calhd a very handsome one. 
Before the long journey was comjik-led, the monrnera became weary 
of feigning the grief which tliey did not feel, and every now and 
then cnuglit themselves talking on indilferent subjecla. As soon, 
however, as they got out of ibe carriages to enter tht' cemelerv, their 
WOP was re-ns(-Uiiied like n garment, and a most respeclable f,'uritient 
it was; no exaggeration of any sort, but just what was due froui 
people in ^ood society. Of course tlicte were shades of woe, those 
w lio constiK red tiiey had the best chance of the fortune coveting 



OSITAtn H.tSTISOS. 



rFiB. 



flieir fnces much more closely with their haiidkercliiefs thnn olliers 
who merely expected a legacy. Oswald observed all Ihis wilh 
disgust, and inwardly hoped that sll the money niiglil be left to 
eharitRbb iiistitutions. 

At length, the ceremony over, the party returned to the Albany, 
and awaited with imp.itieiice the upeniiis of the will. The excite- 
ment was inteiieie and undi»i<;uised. The disHppointmeiit at its 
contents no less so. It was very short, and said ihat as the testator 
was afraid that his dearly beloved relations would be apt to forget 
him wlieii they had no longer any expectations of bentfiltiiig by hio 
fortune, whicli, being well olT, they did not want, he desired ihal eight 
copies of his portrait might be taken in oils, at no gre.iter cost than 
£25 each, to be given to certain members of his family, whom he 
named. Thi' reinMinder of his properly, with the eicepiion of an 
anmiily of £100 to the valel, was lo go to his dearly beloved friend, 
Oswald Hastings, on condition that he never allowed any rrlation of 
the deceased to beneGt, in the slightest degree, by the bequest. In 
case Mr. Hastings declined lo accept it on these coikdil ions, it was 
to go towards tlie extinction of the national debt. 

Oswald was overpowered with surprise at thns suddenly finding 
himself changed from a penniless subaltern, into a man with £5000 
a year. He had thought it possible he might receive £H)0 a year, 
but ifioOOO ! Why, he was quite a rich man. Ah, if he had only 
obtained it two short years sooner, Ellen would tlien have been his, 
Then what might have been; alas, it was loo sad ! 

The rest of the party broke up in curses and confusion ; the very 
people who, half-an-hour before, had been most affected as they 
atood by the grave, being now the foremost to abuse the dead. 
Some very loud asides were uttered, by no means complimeulary to 
Oswald, who at last felt compelled to notice them, 

" Really, gentlemeii," said he, " 1 can make siime allowances for 
your feelings, though I assure }ou I was as ignorant of the nature 
of the will as you were, but, still, 1 must beg of you to behave with 
a little more civility, not to any decency." 

" Decency, indeed," said one of those present, in whose face 
humour and disappointment evidently struggled for the mastery, 
" it's all very well fur you, who have just i;ot £5000 a year lo talk 
about decency, but for us, I sliould like to know how any one cau 
expect us to he dpcenl I" 

To avoid further discussion, Oswald left the house, having first 
fixed an hour for calling on the solicitor the next day. As he 
walked to the hotel he thought to bimsilf, 

" Tulk of the rage of a lioness robbed of \\pt cubs, that is Dotbiilg 
lo the fury of a legacy -linnier deprived of his heqneat." 

CIUrTER XV. 

Parii, sad For'lgn Senice again. 
Mr. Cholraondley's athiirs iiad bren left in perfect tirder, aiid his 



3^<65.] 



OSWALD SASTIffOa. 



2^Q 



money being all invested in the three per cents, Oswald and his 

lawyer had very litile troubli" in arraiiKing mutters. An hour's in- 
tfTvicw the day after the futierui, foilowefJ Piib?equenlly bv ludf a 
dozen jellers, settled the wliolf thing, llefore returning to Devon- 
piirt, OsH-nid purcliased, lit Hunt and Ro^kell, a very handsome 
ceiilrp-piece, as a g'ih \a tlie ine^s, a benutiiui puir of i!inmoi)d Par- 
riiiifs for Mrs. Franklund, a double-barrel gnu for ber husband, niid 
a despatch box for the Culouel, He look care ut Lhe same tin.e to 
make his sister Edith a pnrlaker in liis goad fortune. Besidt-s a 
prelly little puny and pony carnai^e for her, and a hand?uine tiros- 
itifi case tor her Imshand, he settled £2,000 nn Edith. Nur did he 
forget even Mr. and Mrs. Jnhn llnslings, niio for so many years 
bad neglected iiiin, and only began lo show him attrulioii when he 
no longer needed it. To both of them lie sent valuable presents. 
I'opuhirity is a plant of very uncertain growth and development. 
Sometimes long years elapse before it bursts ffirlh into blossom. 
At other limes the bitherto sterile plant, flowers all of a sudden most 
co|jiou!<ly. This was the case with Oswald. He had left D-^vun- 
jiort only five days before s mere subaltern in n marching regiment, 
poor as a church mouse, a person whom nobody knew anything 
about, and altogether a regular ineligible, though useful enough as a 
lay figure at evening parties, or a buck partner at balls when no better 
WHS to be obtained. On his return he found tliat society had hecouie 
all at once fully enligbtened as to his numerous cbarms and merits. 
No party was considered perfect witliout his presence, no dinner to 
which he was invited could be begun til! iiis arrival, while the con- 
fidence of the mammas in his perfect propriety and escellence was 
toucbingly shown by the frequency of the occasions on which they 
left their daughters alone with him. Before, to ijave danced more 
than once with him would liave been incorrect, to have lingered in 
the supper-room with him as a comp:iniori, wrong in lhe extreme. 
It was diR'ereiit now. Not oidy would these young ladies have con- 
sented to have danced witJi him two, three, or even half a dozen 
times, but we verilv bebeve would, as far as their own inclinations 
were concerned, have been ready even to have dancid before bis 
highness, and have performed a ballet for his liigbness' amusement. 
The opinion, too, which mammas seemed to entertain nf his good 
sense and judgment, was very iliillering, and must have been 
great. He had confidences enough poured into his ears to have 
filled a volume; while the informalioii he received concerning the 
virtues of various young ladies, ought to have given bim a very 
high opinion of female excellence. Hitherto very few cards had 
been lell at the mess for him, now they came like hills at Clhristmo", 
only instead of dunning rerninilers, they were followed bv invita- 
tions to dinner. By tiie bye, nothing marks the estimntion in 
which a man is lield by society like the nature of the invitations he 
receive. A card for a ball merely means a conveniional civibty 
which it is either convenient to oiler, or difficult to avoid •, "sVAt ^w 
U. S. Mag. No. 435, I'kb. IStSb. v- 



SiO 



OSWALD H&3TIV09. 



[Pkb. 



jiivilntioD to dinner signiSea thit jon «re a person with whom it is 

eitlier useful or nousing to be intimate. Country house iuvilntiotia 
constitute a branch of Itie ^ma clasa, only a more rare and speuinl 
one. 

Oswald took no notice whntcver of lliia increase of jiopnlBrily. 
lie steadily refusecl to go to any fresh places, or lo make llie ac- 
quaintance of any new people. Tliose with whom lie lind be<-n 
intimate before, lie vas iulimate with still ; tlio^e wliom lie knew 
slightly before, he continued lo know slightly. All this reserve, 
however, made him uo open enemies, for who ct-uid lell hut that 
lime might sofcou the hardness of his heart. Truly the people o( 
Devonport were most Christian like in their patience. 

Who amongst us, uiihs* born rich, but has built easllea in the > 
air, as lo what he or she would do if unexpectedly left a larpe 
fortune. With most of us these ideas never emerge from spe.eiilnli(»a 
into practise. K, however, by any ohancelhey do, however grr at 
at first is our delight at being able to indulge in luxuries or amuse- 
meiita liilherio unntlaioahle, it is soou eshaustt-d. It is very nice 
being able to draw cheques for fifty instead of five p»uuds, to drive 
out in our own brougham instead of a cab^ to bo able to uiiike a 
trip to Paris instead of Brighton, and to be able to hire a moor in 
Scotland instead of having a few daj's iiidiffercul partridge shooting 
with a neighbour, to be able to hunt three times a week iiiatead of 
being obliged to content oneself with an oeoi»inuDl mount Train a 
friend, and finally to know that Mdlles. Anonyma and Belgravia 
Bre eager rivals for your heart ; no, not licart, money. Tes. this 
ia all very cliarming as Kmg as the freshness lasts, but, like a new 
made peer's delight at being called my lord, it soon wears olf. U 
is human nature only to care for what one has not got. Oswald's 
money, however, brought with it more solid advantages than llie 
mere pleasure of possession. Mr. Cholmondley had not been deai) 
two raontlia when the two senior lieutenants not being for pnrcbnsei 
Oswald got his company over their heads. 

The loss of lbs aJjulantcy was very annojint; lo him, for as ad- 
jutant he had had so much to do which he could not Wave undone. 
Tliia, as it prevented him from indulging in regretful, morbid 
thouglils, was of the greatest posrihlu benefit to him. Now he 
felt idle, lonely, and miserable. The excilemeiU of being rich had 
passed away; there was no drill, for il was November; he had 
nowhere to go lo, save to liis sisters, and a north cuuntry parsonage 
iu winter is not very attractive to a man in low spirUs ; Loudim 
was dul! and empty ; it was too late to hire shooting. AVliat could 
he do to make time pnss? He tried hunting, going by railroad to 
the different meets, and for a time enjoyed it ; hut to do uolhing 
but bunt is an occupation wiiieh, howcvt-r delightful .is a recreation 
from other pursuits, and when the pleasure is enhanced by meeting 
many friends, when taken by itself, soon pnlU on a man of any 
■"■■■■• Besides he was anxious to forget Ellen if possible, and as 



mind. 



]8«5.] 



OSWALD HAOTIXG?. 



2n 



he remnined at Devonport lie could not avoiil occosioHiilly «eeing 
lier. So lie determiiiefl to get tliree mimllia' leave ond t^n to Vnn», 
ill tiie Lope that aiiiid:^! the distracliiina of thiit gny capital, Uh 
might succeed in banishing from his mind lier whom it was both 
folly and guitt lo keep any longer in his liciirl. Before he wcul, an 
incident was destined to occur which made him feel uioat painfully 
how much dominion tlie paal still hnd over him- Lie was paying a 
moniinj; visit to his firm friend, Mrs. Frankland, when that lady 
oasusllv ob.ierved ; 

" What a sad thing that is about poor Mrs. Falconer, is it not ?" 
Oswald felt himst-lf turning vpry pale, but exerting all his 
strength to appear unconcerned, replied : 

" I haven't beard anything about it. She isn't ill, I hope." 
"Oh, no, not ill; but her husband has just been arrested for 
I £'i,DOO. I hsve this miniile left her house, and the is in such 
distress — it quite makes my heart bleed." 

" You don't say so. I'm quite astonished. I thought they were 
very well off." 

" Well, 80 Ihey are, in a way ; that is, lie has good pay, and she 
Iian £20,000, but then it is so lied up that she cin't touch a faithing 
of the capital, and all he hns, about j£10,U0O, is settled on their 
joint lives, and is also so lied op that he cannot touch it either." 

" But how did he become so involved ? he doesn't seciu to be an 
«tra»flgant man." 

"No more he is; but his brother. Lord FitzFiuke — Major Fal- 
coner «ill get the peerage himself some day if the present Lord 
doesn't marry — is an awful scamp, and has run througli nil his large 
properly. Unfortunately he persuaded the Major to back a bill for 
kim, and which is now due, and which the Jews refuse to renew, 
so the poor Falconers must suffer for his scnudnlous behaviour. 
That's how it is, I believe; but she ciied so, poor thing, as slie told 
me, that I could hardly make it out. It does seem very hard, doesn't 
I it, that he siionld he put in prison for money which he's never had ? 
I It's a great shame, I declare, and if I were the Queen 1 wouldn't 
[ allow it. But what do yon think will happen ? Mrs. Falconer says 
he H ill lose hi? commission if it isn't paid. ILiw oaii that be ? ihoy 
I can't aurfly make him sell out if he doesn't want to." 

" I'm afraid he will be obliged to do so if it isn't paid. They will 
Iteep him in prison till he does." 

"Keep him in prison, how dreadful t It's enough to kill her. 
Fancy poor Major Falconer with chains on his legs working on the 
treadmill, and with liis beautiful black hair all cut off. I'm sure T 
should go mad if it happened to my husband." 

"Oh ! you needn't be afraid of thai, they won't treat him like a 
tcrirainal, or innkc him work. He will be only ki'pt in prison till the 
[bill is paid, and can have anv comforts he chuo<es, as long as 
ibis money lasts. But why doesn't she apply to her father, he ia 
'rich enough to b^lp them if he chooses." 



Hi 



OBWALD U&STINOa. 



[Feb. 



" She has ; bat he won't do anything. He says he hasn't made 

his fortune to ibrow it uwny on his son-in-hiw's scampish relntiojis, 
tb:it it was the Major's u«n fault (tuUiiig liis name lo the bill, and 
that as he's made lii» bed, lo must he lie on it. So uufeeliDg, 
i.n'lJL?" 

Os«b1J dill not make any answer, but reninioed in ilei-p Ihoutsht 
for a minute or two, then suddenly looking uji «ith a very red lace 
add, 

" Will joa lifip we, Wk, Frankland, if I try and get Major 
Falconer out of this scrape, and promise not to say a word about it 
to a living soul, except Tour liusbund, whom, I know, can be 
Irusied." 

"Of course I will, you good, kind creature; but whnt are you 
going to do, and what do you wont me lo do ?" 

" 1 want you to find out who is [lie person who holds the hill, 
and to get a note given to the sherifT's oflicer without any body 
knowing it. I'll pay iho inoiiey nivsclf, but I wouldn't for the 
world it was known." 

"I'll go oil to her directly. You really are the kindest, noblest, 
best man in the world." 

" Except your husband, of course," replied Oswald smiling. 

"Of course," said Mrs. Frankl.ind, half crying, half laughing; 
"there's no body quite so good as liim, but you're the next be«t.' 

Oswald then sat down and wrote a letter to the slu-ritT's officer in 
a feigned hand, b<'^gi"g him lo meet him in an hour's lime at an 
obscure public-honse in the outskirts of Devonport. In due time 
he came, jind Oswald, who hitd managed in the meiintime to get 
the money he required from the IocmI bunk where he hud nn ncoouiit, 
obtained possession of the bill, and threw it into the fire with an 
inwHfd thanksgiving that iie had been able lo render so great a 
service to her whom lie had once loved so well, and still loved 
tuo mneh for bis peace of mind. 

Major I'nlcoucr, who though a kind man CDuDgh, was far &om 
being capable of such an act Inmself, was sorely puzzled as to who 
his unknown benefuctur could be. Mmi. t'ldeojier never breathed 
her own suspitions to a snul till yenrs aflerwnrds ; but being a true 
woman herself, and llierefore well able to comprehend the happiness 
of silent generoMty towards a once loved object, felt that their 
suviour could be none oilier than Oswald. 

Tlie next morning the latter siartcd for Paris, taking with him a 
letter of introdnctiun from Colonel Shnrpe to a gentleman high in 
favour at the linperi.'il court, and somehow connected with the 
viipervisiun of the operas and thcutres. Tins kindly meant aet waa 
Very nearly proving Oswald's ruia, both moral and physical ; for 
through Monsieur the Qaron Sansscupnles, he obtained admission 
beliiiid the scenes, introductions to numerooji pretty actresses and 
diiiiF<«uses, OB well as continual invitations lo peliia soupers given in 
these fair Indies' honour, Ymng, good-lookmg, rich, idle, he was 



iHfiS.] OSWALD HAST1KG3. 213 

expused to mach temptation; morbid, reokless, convinced that the 
only woman lie rt'iilly loved was separated from liim by an insuperable 
biirrier, tliirikiiii; also, must unjnsily, tiiiit sbe imd very easily 
forgi.Ueii liiin, it is not siirjirisiiig if lie yielded tn tliiit teMi|ilatioii. 
We do not ?ei-k lo ju.-lily liini, scarcely even to say anyihinK in 
mitigation of bliitne. Our hero was not a pamgon, miTt-ly a 
gallant, amiable, joun^ man, wilh good impulsis and [)rinci[iles, 
ubie to stand any ordinary trial, but nut pronf agninst (lie assaulla 
of great misfortune atni uncommoD tem|itatioa. Thought was tor- 
ture to him, so he avoided thought aa much as possible, and wiih 
forced reckless gaiety profited by every opportunity of diFsipation. 
Such a man was a certain prey to the Cy|»rians of the Parisian 
theatric.d world. Yet though he passed his lime with and lavished 
his money upon ihem, he only loathed ihem less than be did bimsflf. 
Not finding sufficient excilemeiit in their society, he took a second 
step towards ruiu, and commenced gambling wilh the male 
members of the coterie. Fortunately, ere he had plunged irrevo- 
cably into the mire, and before he had soldout more than £10,000 
of liis capital, he was suddenly recalled to England, his regiment 
being under orders for active service. 

The thought of o campaign restored hiio to himself, and once 
more awoke hia better nature. Uaslening back to Divonport, he 
arrived there on Fi^bruary 15th, \^h\, and found not only the 
155th, but all Enghind in a state of the greatest excitement at the 
prospect of a war with Rnssia. Yet even then, when troops were 
under orders, ships being taken up for their conveyiince, and the 
workmen iu our arsenals were labuuring dav and nii;bt, some people 
found it hard to believe that hostilities would actually take place. 
Up to ihe very last moment of the departure of the expedition, the 
officers and men composing it were assured both by their friends and 
the newspapers Ibat ihey were only going on a pleasant little excur- 
sion to the Medi'errjuean, and would be back in a few months. 
Oswrtid tbought differently, he had an opportunity of ascertaining 
the feelings of the French army on the subject, and felt certain that 
the Emperor would give them tlie healthy excitement and wholesonie 
occupation of a campaign by way of keeping ihem quiet and con- ' 
tented. Our hero, therefore, carefolly niade every prepnrittion for 
taking the field, aii'd provided iiimself wilh all the litlte trifles so 
apt to be overlooked, which yet conduce so much to one's comfort on I 
active service. 

It being uncertain when the regiment would embark, Oswald 
could get no leave suHiciciitly long lo enable him lo proceed lo tlie 
norih and wish Edith and her husband (goodbye, bo he contented 
himself with saving fircwell by leller. At lengib Itieaimionsly ex- i 
pccted orders arrived, and within twenty-four hours after tlie regiment 
was on board tiie man-of-war screw Ironp-sliip, the IJeir Apparent. 
Aa soon as the troops were embarked, a telegram was sent lo llie 
Admiralty in London to that effect, and asking for wissv, "^Ssa. 



BM 



OSWALD UAsriNOS. 



[Pkb. 



V8S about 9 A.u. Hoar sfler hour passed away snd no reply 
aarived, till at 3 p.u. a second IclegrBm was sent. Tiiia time an 
ana^er came, directing the ileir Apparent to put to sea at once. It 
aftervards turned out (bat the oJEcials at the Admiralty bad 
altogether forgotten the extsleticc of U.M-S. Heir Appnrent and 
H.M.'s 1 55th RL'giment, till arouspd by a second telegram. 

The voyage nould have been pleasant enoogh had it not been for 
the First Lieatcnan). Oswald had met him on shore, and thought 
him a particularly agreeable gentleman -I ike man. He soon found 
out that the difTcrence between some fir^t lietitenants on shore and the 
tame individuals at f^ca, resembles thot between Jack in and Jack 
out of office. The chief idea of Lieutenant Blazer was, that iti 
order to be a smart officer one must be always linding fault and 
punishing. He certainly did come up to bia own standard of 
smartness, for he was perpetually prying about for faults, which he 
ruthlessly punished as soou as delected or in?ented. Perpetual 
motion, or a woman's tongue was a joke to bim; ho never siremed 
lo sit down, and seldom to sleep. It often aroused the indignation 
of the oflicers and men nfthci55thto see young bo}s of thirteen 
or fourteen beaten by Blazer's orders across the hand with a cane so 
severely, that frequently they were obliged to go to the surgeon 
oflerwarda. This crurl treatment was not inflicted for impertinence, 
continued neglect of duty, or similar offences, but for leally 
triHiiig irregularities, 

Auolber characteristic of this amiable individual was an open ex- 
pression of his contempt for soldiers. Without the slightest delicacy, 
lie would abuse an awkward sailor by telling him he was only lit lo 
be a soldier. In his manner to the men iie was extremely insuUing, 
while to the oJlicers, many of whom were of tbo same relative rank 
as himself, he was scarcely more civil, Tor two or ihree daya 
Oswald bore his impertinence with patience, but at last, completely 
out of temper at hearing Blazer make use of the word soldier as a 
term of abuse, he determined on a retort the tirst opportunity. An 
occasion presented itself that very morning ; Oswald was putting his 
company through the manual ciercise, Elazer being close by with 
his accustomed sneer. The word of command was given to " secure 
arms;" one of the men did it badly, so Oswald called out; 

"What are jou about. Smith? An old soldier like you ought 
to be able to do better than that. Why, you look just like a first 
lieutenant with his telescope under his arm. What on earth makes 
JOU so awkward to-day P" 

Officers and men, soldiers and sailors, all burst into a chuckle, 
to the iiitenge disgust of Dlazer, who immetbntely went oiTto report 
the matter to the Captain. Shortly after, Oswald was called into 
the latter's cabin, where he found Lieutenant Blazer and CoLoiicl 
Sharpe. 

" Tlie rirst Lieutennnt has made a complaint. Captain Hastings, 
that yon have grossly insulted him before the soldiers and crew, and 



1885.] 



OSWALD DASTtNOS. 



215 



T u'ipli to henr wlut. you liavc to sny about it. Mr. Bl.izer, be good 
piiiiiigli 1(1 rfpi-nt llie stulcmetil joa luadc juiit now to Colonel 
Sliar|ie Htid myself," 

" He told one of t!ie soldiers. Sir," said BlazT, pompou.sly, " thiit 
he was as awkward as the Tirst Lieutenant witli a spj-glass under 
his arm. 1 was standing close by, and Captain Hastings knew it, 
80 lie mn.H hiive intciideil to insult me." 

" VVeli, Captiiiii Hustings, what have you got to any to lliis? 
Do you admit having mtide use of the expressions alluded to V 

"Not eiactly, 1 told one of our men, who was doing liia drill 
badly, that he looked like a first lieutenant, not the First Lieutenant, 
with a tele^icope under his arm, and asked him how it waa tliat he 
wna so awkward to-day. I cofifess I did know Mr. Blazer was 
witliia hearing, and I did it on purpose. I may have been wrong, 
but I think you will admit I had some provocation, when I tell you 
liiat Mr, Blazer ia always intiulting us, by telling any sailor he 
»!*hcs to abuse that he's only fit to be a soldier." 

"Is that correct, Mr. Bliizer?" said the Captain. 

"I really cau't recollect. Sir; 1 daresay I have. It's a very 
commou expression in the service." 

"It may be a common expression in the service, but it is a very 
improper one to make use of, particularly when there's a regiment 
on board. I hope, gentlemen, that I sliall hear nolhiug of this sort 
again, or I shall be obliged to take serious notice of it. Uood 
morning." 

Afier this, Mr. Itl.izpr was tolerably civil for the rest of the 
voyage, and the oilier olEcers being very pleasant and cordial, tli6 
15f>th fell almost surry when they arrived at Malta. 

In this magnified lump of hearthstone they remained about tliree 
wet'ks, quite Ions enough lo satisfy moat of them. 

'I'iie town of Valeltn was then most uncomfortably crowded with 
eoldiers, and an officer walking along the Slmda R*ale had lo keep 
his arm going up and down like a piece of machinery to return the 
Biilutcs which he received at every yard. It would be difficult lo 
conceive a more motley population than that with which the prin- 
cipal streiit was then crowded. Guardsmen and bare-footed friars, 
Highlanders and Maltese ladies with their black faldcttos, or man- 
tillas, riflemen and 'I'urks, Jews and Zouaves, Grcetis anil chasseurs, 
arlilliTymen and sailors, Mallese boatmen and English Indies, with 
many others, formed one lung kaleidoscope. Among the attractions 
of Malta may be narot-d a capit d club, and a very tolerable tiny 
little opera, at which Mademoiselle Parepa, daughter of an Ijlngli^h 
otiicrr by u Greek lady, or a Oropk gentleman by an English lady,— 
WB forget which — was, at Mint time, l\\e prima donna. These advan- 
tages are, however, counterbalanced in the eyes of Britons by the 
fact ihnt the only cricket ground is tlio solid rock of the parade, 
.anil th.it riics are run on the high roail. 

Uood I''riiliiy took placu during thv stay of the 15&th, and Oswald 



M«*U) aumnosr 



Ifn. 



ttn* ilirlli'i] hf tienriiiK nil llic chorcli-bi'lU of VilettA sudden)? 
giviiiK nut Hill tno't iliicorilniit uiiil iini-iirllily nomidi. He inquired 
wliul il. mi'niil, nml km tiild thv.y wcro t;riinJiri^ Jmia»' bonei. 

M li'rintli llin wriciJino iluj' luriveil wlicn ibe ji-»SPinbled troop* 
wrrn orxi; ninrr jilncrd uii b<jiir<l i>iii|), und cunvevcd to Turkey. 
Home wnit ta {inllt[ioIi, wliilv utlirre, mid iiinoiig llicae llie I55ili, 
wi'M) Inndrd iit Htiiliiri. 

Tim iillrr iiovcllj of tvf>rylliiii({ in CtiristnMtiiio|ile, thepicluresque 
tuiiibii, tint qniiiiil mixluro of pi-njile and dn-ssus, and tlie loveliest 
inrniTj iiiKiKi'iidilc, rcndi-nd Unwidil'ii .-liiy pleusntit enough, lii- 
dci-d, llin mr.'ili'riiriit nl' tin! np|iroii(;liiiit,' ('uuipiii^n, tageLlier uilb 
■unli u oiiiii|ilil« I'liHiigij ol' BRi'ne, mid ibe utlef aevprnuce fruin 
oviTylliiii^ wliirli cituld ri'inliid liiin of tbu p^ist, bad restored lii'n to 
oriinpnnitivo lm|i|iiii('iiji, or, iil. Ii'uM', tu tcinpumry I orgct fulness. He 
niiiilc Uic iiiumI iif liio liino by tuking lessons in TuiLbti, which hs 
liud nlriTidy »tudi(.-d diirin-j tlic viiyii^f, ntid by inakitiji excursions on 
B bniiiitifnt Arnb wliiiili in- liiid bouglit, in every direcLioii. Some- 
linu'n lie toiik liiin- rides iiim the country, and suw iibmidiiiit proofs 
of lliy lnwliNN, iiiiw'ttbnl ciiiidilion of tlii' iieiglibourliood, in tlie fact 
Ibnt cverv pcffoti lie ititl wiisiirint'd, rveii the iubunrerat tlic plougli, 
or ilii- lind-piihii lookiiift nfu-r Ids ciitile,_ 

AniiJiiH iilber nU riic.it icnif, tin- rliier, in Oswald's eyes, were the 
"Hwiict wnlrrs of Kiiropr," and tbe " Sueet wiilers of Asin," It is 
onni'ccs'iiry li> nl tempt to dwcribe these fuj-hionable places of resort. 
Thry linvi! bren too well made fuDiiliar (o the English public by a 
icorc of iir«spn|)cr descriptions, and as many illustrated books of 
travel. It stilGces to s.ij that they are tuo ftreiims, one situated 
near the teraiiimtion of the Golden Horn, and the other on the 
Anialic Pidr of the Bo?pbocu% son e five miles from the British 
cainpint; Kruniid at Scutari. At both of these places the scenery ia 
Tery beoiidful, nod the prrtty facets of Ibe oM-faskioned coach-loads 
uf Turki^b ladies, and the bciUiatit colours in which they vera 
clolhalt attnctcd many British and French officers. These visitors 
wnml no small excilement ainuo^ the LeiUs and Zuleikas (^ 
the harem; they evidently udmired tbe tall, h.mdsome, gjtlam- 
tooking youn<; officcis, and but Tor tlic presence of ibe vij^lant and 
(crociuo? Nubians, who supplied tbe places of dueuua9> would have 
tirwi m.ist unreMrvetilt. Kven as it was, they succeeded sometimes 
in deeei^iug Ihn watchfulness of their guards, aud a tt'Ss'^> * band- 
jkerchicf, «r a flower, cxprt*se«l prdtr plainly what ihey dared not 
hbo* nrare openly. Tbey all wore yasbmacSi a sort of combined 
Ibood and nil, made of wuslin; but Oswald observed that (he 
pthickncss of Ibe material was always in exact proportion to the 
klK^oce of bcftUty, 

Tltc " Swvet waten of Europe" were tu more fsshiMiably at. 
t«iMlrd than ihoeo of iLnia, but as a visit to the hller could be paid 
on borsebMk, Mid witb eomparwliTdy little trouble, Osvald gener- 
ally prchrred il. Tlw seooiid lime be weul ibere, be was much 



1«65.1 



OSWALD HASTIK08. 



847 



struck by tlie extreme beauty of a. prl, wlio, wilh two other oldiT 
bikI less lunilsunie wuiufn, occiipieii n clumsy, itiougii gargcoiis old 
ciirriafje, drawn bv bullucks, and ijiiarded by » hideiius bluck oq 
liHWptiack, aruicd willi a scimitar. Tiie pirl was evidi-nly only about 
sixleeii, ainJ piis>esse(i a C(jnj|j|exiu)i wliicli it was no Ualtery lo sny 
ruseiiibled liie most ddicale puucli-bliiiiin. Her features were deli- 
csle, and ralhiT Mundcd than eliiscUed, her leetb of |jeavly white- 
ness, lier large, snft eyes, blue, and yet, odd lo relale, her eye-lashes, 
eye-brows, and bair, of raven blnck. 

If Oswald was siruck bv her, sliu van tiu less attracted by Oswiihl, 
and when no one was luukius!, guve liitn a uioet eniicing smile. He 
returned it, but was prevented from showing bia admirutiou any 
furtlier by the eunuch, who turning suddenly round, and perceiving 
"the Bocuraed son of a burnt futiier" ^uzin^ witb profane boldness 
upon the " light of the harem," drew hia hwurd, and d^ishing up to 
0.-<iv~iild, seemed aa if about to cut him down. Our hero did uot 
altempt lo make use of his sword, but jjulliui; out a pockeUpistol, 
which he always carried about with hnn, presented it quietly at bis 
asfiailaul's liead. 'Die ladie-s screamed, and the black swore, but the 
sight of the pistol had a wonderful elTect in calming hioi, and after 
abusing all Oswald's female relations in ihorough Oriental Billings- 
gate, he ordered the carriage lo move on. and lelt Oswald alone. 

The next lime Oswuld rode to tlie "bweet waters," he again saw 
bis Turki>h clianoer, and was jih.ised (u tind tlnit she also recog- 
nised him, though il was only by an expri-sjive glance. Before tlie 
end ol the evening, he had an opportunity of approaelimg lier more 
closely thun be had yet done. The tumble-down old coach was 
creaking lazily along (he rough paib, when, from some carelessness 
on llie purl of the driver, caused it to strike against a stump of a 
tree and upset. The iiimatca screamed, aud ibe eunucb swure, but 
for a moment, nothing was dune [o rescue tbe ladies, (ill Oswald, 
who happened lo be near, baslily dismounting, rushed up, and 
am-ted tbem to get out. The black Eeemed furious, and about to 
repent hi« altack of tbe previous occasion, but Oswald, who knew 
that no Oriental bcatt is unmoved by backshish, bli[iped lialf-a- 
dozeu sovereigns inlo Ilis bund, ut the same lime producing 
the pistol which hod been so useful before. lie then thought 
it as well to mount aiid ride olf, well satisfied wilh his alter- 
uooii's Hoik, (or, in iliu coufusion of the U|jset, lie hud con- 
trived (o stjueeze the fair one's hand, and to pronounce teiidi-rly, 
in Turkish, ihe words " my soul." She hud not only relumed the 
squeize of the hand, but bad whimpered, "the large house near 
the fountain over there," looking towards Scutari, to indicate its 
position. 

As be rode homewards, he carefully examined every building be 
pasted, and at last succeeded in discovering tne one of which be was 
in search. It was a^two-storied building, standing by itself, evidently 
the properly of a rich man, uilh a balcony which overhung Ihe 
Bgsphorus, while the front of the house v(ija ott ^."ci^ w*&. 



SIS 



OEWALO BASTINGS. 



Tlie next dnj, Oswulil rode past the house, nnd looked closely 
at tlic laitices, but nitliuuL seeing nii}'lliiiig. As lie returimil, 
howevi'i, somewhut flisnjipuiijlcd, he saw the master of the house 
tnoont at the door, ami with three or four nttenduntj, ride 
slowly off in the direction of Scutwri. Oswald put spurs to his 
liOKo, Otid giilloping past them, as soon as lie got out of sight 
tumod down n b_v«-piith, otid reUinicd by a circuit to the main roid 
ngaiii. l\r ianmi lie had struck it nbout a couple of hundred jftrds 
to lliu norlh of ihu houac. (lis object wn« to see if his inamorata 
Wits ail (jccuprint of llint house, or if he lind been misUkcn, Ue 
Btop|ieil for u moment to coiisiiler how he conld attract lift attention. 
At lenirtli the thought ciiine into hia head that he would ride very 
■lowly by, Kinging at the top of his voice. 

Thn cxptTiincnt succeeded. Just as he came opposite the wiu- 
dowii, ho siiw a hiltice open about two inches, and the same lovely 
fuci', which, for the hist wruk bad so hnunted hiin, showed itself for 
■ill Instant uncovered, and then disAppearcd. He turned in hia 
Btiddle, he did nut like to stop for fear of exciting suspicion, and 
gn/od wistfully at the window fora Hgu that he had been recogi lined. 
He was rewarded by seeing the next instant a while hand protruded, 
waved, and then quickly withdrawn. 

The next day, at exiicliy the same hour, he again passed the house, 
taking care, Ijnivever, by making a long circuit, to pass it only once, 
and thus avoid being noticed. Again he sang the same song, agnin 
the lattice opened for on instant ; but this time he carried olV a token 
that his admiration was returned. As before, the lattice was opened 
only to give a momentary glimpse of the bcantifnl girl, but the nest 
instant a iiowcr fell into the road, almost at his feet. He dropped 
his whip as an excuse for dismounting, and carefully concealing the 
trophy, rode oil' with it to camp. On his arrival, he summoned his 
Greek servant, and asked liim what (he flower signified. He said 
he did not kuow, but would lind out for him in the course of the 
evening. Oswald enjoined the grfntest secrecv and discretion, pro- 
mising iiim that if he fiiund him silent and true, he would give him 
a handjome present, but swearing that he would break every bone 
ill his body if the matier got wind. 

A few hours later, Demetrius returned with the information that 
the tlower meant "I love jou," bringing with him, at the same 
time, a complete key to the language of flowers, which he had ob- 
tained from one of his couiiitj women, who frequently acted as go- 
between for Turkish ladies in their amours. 

On the morrow he repealed his ride, placing the flower eonspicu- 
ously in his forage-cap. Ag.iin the laltice o]iened as before, but 
this lime was not closed so quickly. Nor did he return without 
another ffoge d'avtour. K^ he rode by, a pomegranate fell from the 
window abo»c, and Oswald, being a good erickelcr, managed to 
catch it ere it reached the ground. When he had got out of sight 
he ejuimiiicd tike fruii, and found that it had been piirdy cut and 



OSWALD QASTISG3. 



S4» 



then joined togetlier agfiiii. Tnaide waa onotlier flower, wliich, on 
rcftrrijig to liis key, he itiBCfiverc-d meant, " I nm pining lo see _you." 
Aciiiig on till* unmi^Iukenble itivilation, lie al once sent off Deme- 
trius to get « lint inforraattuii he could about tlie owner of tlie liouse, 
the uames of Ms wives, his hiibit', Imurs, &c., and also to see if he 
could not, by some menns, ihrougli his, Demetrnia' countrvwoman, 
obtain for Oswald nn inlervieir with the juung lady. Our liero 
desired liis servant to spare no rooney, for not only w;i3 he really, 
for liie lime, very mucli in love with the fair Turk, but his naLund 
spirit uf romance was awakened. He knew be was entering on a 
difficult and hazardous adventure, but tiie very difficdty and danger 
only spurred biin on the more, and fanned into a flame that which, 
williout these incentive!", would have been but an evanescent spark. 

'I'be nest morning, Demetrius came lo report progress. Lie hud 
ascertained that the owner of the bouse was a rich old Turk, who hail 
been formerly a jewel merchant in the bazaar, but who had now retired 
from ' business. He also possessed atiolher house in Slamboul 
proper, but, during the summer monllis, preferred what may be 
called his little villa on the Bosphorus. The name of the old gen- 
tIe(oan was Osman, and he whs very fond of going about visiting 
from friend to friend. lie had three wives, which was an evidence of 
hia wealth and position; for a poor Turk can't afford more than one 
spouse. The youngest and the favourite of the three was Oswald's 
flame, a Georgi.in girl wiio had been carried oif by a hostile tribe 
about a year ago, ami sold into slavery. She was far from being a 
W'illing captive, Demetrius asserted, thougii her husband lavished 
presents on her, and was perfectly bewitched by her beauty. 

This repugnance of the fair Georgian was very incomprehensibie 
to Demetrius, " for," said he, " most of these (lircasaians and Geor- 
gians look on beitig sold al Constantinople as the best piece of good 
fortauc that can happen to them. Just like English ladies, master; 
fur [ have travelled plenty, and seen London, and Die Queen, and 
the Lord Mayor, and the Thames Tunnel, and St, Paul's, and every- 
thing—just like Kngliah ladies, who wont to get married because 
tliey think tliey get rich husband. These Circassians and Georgians 
tliey ail hope tliey marry great man. Perhaps Osman not great 
man enough, because he not pasha ; perhaps Haideo, that lady's 
name, Sar, she no like old man, like young man like your excel- 
lency." 

Oswald ftdt very much inclined to kick Demetrius fur the last 
remark and the grin wiiich accompanied it, but dissembling hia 
wr,Uh, lie asked liim whether he had seen his countrywoman, and 
whether she was willing to be useful, 

" I saw her, Sar, and she say she very glad help your excellency. 
She go to house to-daj', make friends with servants, see lad; ; pro- 
mise come and tell mc everytliiug to-night." 

Oswald was obliged to be content with the iufonnatiou he had 
received, and to wait patiently till cveuiiig. In the meantime, after 



250 



FRoa LOVODN TO PES5EI>OI.I9. 



porftOe, pijing liia compaiij, oiid some otlier liltle matters, lie look 

Ins iiauol ride towards the " s«cd w.iters," wearing this time in tlie 
hrenst of hi* cont, the last Howrr lie hnd received. This time lie 
had a betler v'u-k of her ihjii ever, for conliiiu^-d impunity had made 
her bold. A? usual, she threw him donii a llower, which, as bj I his 
lime hi- Imd harnt tlie iiiiigiiiii^i- of luvi'-lokens by hpurl, lie recog- 
nised as meiiniii<; " Come ijuickly, or I die," He picked it up, aud 
prcs^in^ it to his lie^irt, kissed his hand tu l!ie lovely girl, who, 
drawing buck frum the window, waved hers in return, 

TImt night, nfler dinner, Demetrius informed him tliat his coun- 
Irywnraan wanted to see him in the litile vdiage of Pasha Keuy, 
which was about three-quarters of a mile from the camp of the 
]55th. She hiid seen liaidee, she said, and arranged a means of 
obtainiug for Oswald an interview with her two days hence. 



FROM LONDON TO PERSEPOLIS. 

' A great book is a greLit evil," says s^me writer ; on the other 
hu'id, it may be said with equal truth, that a great bouk is a great 
good. The truth of the latter version receives a practical illustra- 
tion in the c;ise of Mr. Uiwhcr's Journey from London to Pcrsepolis, 
with his incidental wanderings in Daghestan, Georgia, aud Armenia, 
and among the Kurds and Persians. A work is often descrihi-d as 
a monuuieiit of literary skill, but this is a monument in that sense, 
and in a more literal one, for its dimensions are such as to slurllo 
one from its rarity, aud it is not uulil we get well into it, that we 
begin to regret iliat every leuf, notwitliatanding its vastness, brings 
us neiirer to its ending, 

A very cursory record is given of his journey from London along 
the beaten track, througli the Principalitie-', wliere the chief objects 
that attract iittentian, nre the bead-covered breasts of the women, 
their novel cislumes, and the present appearance of Silisiria, whicli 
bears but few truces of t!ie siege to which it was suhjecled by the 
Russian?. The Principalities wire quirted at Galitz, the iii'i^h- 
bourhood of which is so famous for the abundance of its frogs, that 
the croaking of those uf Aristophanes, were but as the faint whisper- 
ings of the gentlest breeze, to the roar of a cyclone in comparison. 
Tlie fir't phice arrived at after leaving G;datz, was Odessn, where 
the unlhor was introduced to the Princess WoronzofF, and by her lo 
the Princess Orbeliimi, whose capture by Scliarayl may have had 
more to do with the cruel pidicy pursued by the Russians towards 
his cuuntrvmeu during the last ten years, than he could possibly 
have foreseen. There was nothing of much interest to describe 
.until Sebastopol was r<Rclied. Here there ore subjects which will 
never cease to be regarded with interest by Englishmen. Thanks 
to Colonel Uowaii, the American, (who, with such men as Commo- 




1R63.J 



PBOM LOSDON TO PltltSBFOUS. 



S51 



dore Tatnnll, make us, by their good dpcds, pardon the b!n?ter of 
many »bom they have the misfortune to call tlieir counlrymen) llie 
cemetetLcs have beifti ke[)t in detent order, and sometliing more. 
Cypresses mark the spot where Generul Catlicirt i* burii-d, nnJ 
many of tlie nameless dead have roses and other flowere blooming 
above lliem, especiril attention havirig been given to ihat of the brava 
joung Christian, Cnptiiin Hedley Vicars. 

Colonel Gowan's business at Scbastopol, as will be remembered, 
was to raise liie vessels sunk in the harbour by the Russians tliera- 
selves. At the time of Mr, Ussher's visit, lie had raised in all forly- 
six vessels, only iwo of which could lie repaired so as to be fit tor 
use. in consequence of the rnvages mnde in them by the little worms 
which crowd the tli'pi.bs of tliu Black Sea. As for Subastopol, it 
still remains a mere heap of ruins. 

The desolatioti winch tlte allies left behind tliem at Sebastopol,! 
is nut less visible at Kertch. The museum still remains in tbel 
half ruinous state to which it was reduced by the destructive pro-| 
pensities of soldiers and sailors, too ignorant to plnce any value on 
its contents, and though some relics of the ancient inhabitants of 
the Crimea still remain there, nearly all the objects now discovered 
are sent to the museum at St. Pelersburgli, to be added tu the 
numerous beautiful goht ornaments sent there before the arrival of 
the allied expedition. The intrinsic value of the ornaments dug 
out of the tumuli at this place, is almost incredible ; our couuiry- 
man was told of one mound lately excavated, from which gold 
ornaments were dug out weighing in the aggregate one hundred 
pounds. 

The journey through Mingrelia was attended witli hardships, the 
account of wliich is not likely to induce many travellers to proceed 
to that country in quest of new a^jvcntures, especiutly as there is 
bttle of interest to he seen there, Tlie most curious circumstanooJ 
mentioned in the narrative of this part of the JQurney, is the esia-l 
tfnce at Miiran of a sect (some hundreds of whom, we have been 
told by a surgeon who served in the Baltic Fleet, were token 
prisoners by ua and our allies [luring ihe operations in that sea in 
the last war) who show the sincerity of their religious convictions 
by becoming eunuchs. According to Biiron Hsxlhunsen, they are 
call'-d Skoplzi, and entertain very peculiar idpas concerning the 
Bible, bebeving the true gospel, once in their exclusive possession, 
to have been hidden Jn the wall of the church of St. Andrew, atJ 
St Petersburgh, by Peter the Third, whom they chiim as their bend,' 
and whom they believe to have been an emanation of Christ. They 
bflieve that the Son is inferior to (he B'alher, but was con5eernted 
and sanctitied by tlim ; that he was never crucified as rehited in 
the Gospels, but yet wanders on eartli, wilhoul sex, in one form 
or another; the last assumed by bini being that of PetiT the Third, 
who, at the tim^ when he was supposed In have been put lo death, 
fled to Irkutsk, from whence he will shortly return, a ni ringing tlia 



263 



PBOH LOVDON TO PBRSErOI.tS. 



preat bell of the Chorch of tbe Asceniion, in the Kremlin at 
Muicow, BUinmoii all llie Skoplzi on earth to come and reign with 
Lim for ever. Not kei'fiinj^ the i^abbnth ns a day of rest, they 
practice a number of apcret ceremonies on the night of Siiliirdav, 
singing hjniiis, &c. They possess a number of portraits ot I'eter 
the TliirJ, who is rupresvated bure-headed, with black bcanl and 
blue kiiftflii. They are very zealous In making converts; uny one 
who pcrsniidcs twelve other person* lo join ihem, becoming in con- 
sequence an apo»tlc. There ia a considerable number of them in 
Kusjia, who first marry, and only brcome complelely initiatpd after 
the birth of a sun, 'llie EinpL-ror Nicholns did not approve of thrir 
principhs, and caused as many as could be cliscovered to be seized 
and used up in n variety of ways. Several hundreds were rent to 
defeDd ihc i.'^l.ind cuplurcd bv us in tbe B.iltic, to which wc have 
nlremly referred, others were sent to Siberia, and a still larger num- 
ber wwe sent to the Caucasus, where ihcy were organized a? a peiiiil 
corps. A portion were sent to Maran, wbem they are employed 
in baking bread for llic Hussinn troops, and set an example to the 
people of the surrounding plices by their good conduct, Iheir 
hunesty, and their sobriety. Making bakers of the Skopizi, indeed, 
appears to be a favourite methud of emploving them. At Schama- 
chi, a long distance from Manin, there was a gond bnkery, where 
none otiiers than members of this sect were employed. It would 
seem as though the segregation of a companitively small number 
of individuals fiom the surrounding population, has a tendency to 
produce, or at any rate to maintain, the good qualities of the 
Skoptui, the same characteristics distinguishing a colony of Gcnnons 
settled near Tittis, who keep tliem*dves quite scpunite from the 
mixed populalioti of the city, where the traveller meets with re- 
presentatives of nearly every nation, from the purple haired Persian, 
to tlie European, who dresses as carefully as though he were still 
wilhin hearing of the Horse-Guards' clock. So great is the variety 
of costume at this phice, that the Irnvellet on visiting the theatre, 
uight imagine himself at a f.incy dress ball. 

We are so accustomed to bear of obstacles being put m the way 
of travellers on Russian territory, and of the necessity of removing 
them by the use ol bribes if you want to get along, that it is quite 
pleasant to journey with Mr. Usslier, who met with the moat oblig- 
ing civility from the postmasters alationed on the ditferent routes 
he traversed. Of course In- had to undergo the usual hardships 
inciduit to travel in those parts of the world, such as vehicles to 
journey in by day, which jolt so much that even the natives cannot 
endure it long, and are generally bumped to death at a compara- 
tively early af<e, and boards to sleep oti at night in places where 
sheets are nnknowii, and a m;iiL put? on his overcoat to sleep in. 
Bui whutfvrr ditHculties lio met with he makes lii;ht of, and he 
gets along so easily that if it wore not for the pictuiesque scenes he 
deacribes we might almost suppose him to be pursuing his course 



IflflS.] 



PROM LONDON TO PEBSEPOLIS. 



253 



tlirongli Ireland, especially as the people nre so civilizetl that Ihey 
have put up a turnpike bar at tiia cuJ of the Pass of Dariel, and 
the hoj3 whistle " La douiia e mobile," Kvcn his jouniey tliroush 
the Caucasus is liardly an exception. Iiulfcil llie Russians appear 
to be far from regarUk-ss ol" the wants of travellers, at oue river it 
was iieceasnry to ford, they found men stationed for the purpose 
of helping persons across, and a heap of firewood on each bank fur 
the use of those who might arrive nfler iiiwhtCall, it being too 
dangerous to ntlempt to croB* except by daylight. Certainly the 
Bussiaiis thought it necessary In furiii>h him with nii escort from 
one post to another, but he saw no signs any wliere of robbers. The 
description given of the nmnner in which the Rusi^inns made their 
advance through the heart of as savage a ref^ion as could be fonnrl 
anywhere in the world, proves the dogged per.jcveraiice with wlileli 
llie Russian soldier obeys the orders of his olficer. In the face of 
an incessant fire from »u enemy hidden from view behind rocks 
and among brushwood, one half of the troops made a road througll 
an almost inaccessible region, while the other half acting as skir- 
mishers kept them at bay. This road, by enabling gnns to 
be brought up, led to the deslruction of Scluj-myl's stronghold, and 
his uttimafe capture. The hardships which (lie patient soldiers 
endured through seven months of the hardest labour, surrounded 
by daring foes, could hardly be surpassed. Niijht itself brought 
them little rest, because they could never have becti secure from 
attack, and the intense cold must have made theni sud'er dreadfully 
in their tents. They must have been wretchedly fed too, for even 
when Mr. Uasher passed there, their diet was of the most 
meagre description, quite jualifyuig the doubt we recently expressed 
as to the soldiers getting tile allowance prescribed by the army 
regulations; altogetlier we are inclined to the opinion that the 
Russian troops in the Caucasus are the worril fed, the wurst paid, 
and the hardest -worked army In existence, for even now that the 
inhabitants are driven out they are coustautly employed in road- 
making through rocky deiiles. Not only are they employed in this 
capacity, hut they build houses, bridges and forts, make every kind 
of thing that rei|uire8 making, and are wholly independent of 
civilian artisans and mechanics. In return for this, where practic- 
able, they are treated with more than usual induigmce. In the 
Caucasian provinces, for example, they nre encouraged to mniry, 
they are exempt from duty while building their houses, and whin 
their term of service has expired, they liave as much land as ihey 
can well cultivate allotted to them. 

In reference to the officers of the Russian army, we must not 
omit a statement which we do not rctiiomber to have seen else- 
where ; it is, that no dislinctiun is made in it with respenl to tho 
nalionality of the ofDcer or his creed. An Asiatic «ho Is a 
Mahommedan, may be a colonel or other superior oflicev, while 
those of lower rank may be native born Russians, seniority bein^ 



254 



FBOH LOWmN TO I-EHSEP0LT8. 



[Pbb. 



tlie gavfriiing rale. Rapid promotion for special serricea appears 

to be anollior di-^lingiiisliirig fcalure in the Rus^tnii antiy. Count 
Yevdncliimoir, who lunde tlie rond above inenlioued, rose in a citort 
time from ihe ranks to be a general of division, ami UeiH-rul MclikolT. 
who ilislinguislied hiinaelf nl. tlie eii-ge of Kars, at tbe oomrii'-uce- 
meiit of wliicli he whs merely a csptain of artillery, rose reitbiii I'oiir 
years afUTWord)! to tlie same rank, lie bud m-t forpotlen tlie 
atitogoiiisla to whom he indirectly owed so much, General Williams 
and Colonel L«ke, and was pjrticularly earnest in his inquirii-'B 
eoneeniing them. The forts wliich tbey made at short distances 
from each other to secure Ilicir advance are still maintained, ilioiijjh 
Ibe necessity for them has now passed away, and (,he?e funitsb the 
best quarters for the officers, many of whom, however, liave to con- 
tent ihemseivea with the Kibitka, n tent made of thick Tell, which 
must possess many advantages over the cariva* lent. As a fiirlhcr 
illustration of the familiarity with our usages, w hieb exists in distant 
and out of the way places, we must mention [hat in tlie very heart 
of the CaocBsion mountains, n Lesi^hian, who inluibiied a house 
built in a valley in wlijcb stood an isolnted conical rock exactly 
resembling those said to exist in the moon, asked the travellers for 
their cards; and al aiiolher house nt no great diplaiice, lliev lound 
the walls covered with prints and pholoi;rophs, and a piece of 
tapestry hanging on which was depicted Rebecca being carried off 
by the Templar, and here the owner, the Khan of the Av-irs, not 
only asked them for their cards but gave liis own in rctuni, It 
was not far fr'im this place that the travellers were surprised at 
coming suddenly upon a coal mine which was being worked by 
Russian Boliliers, and a little way beyond this tbey saw the pillar 
erected by the Itussiatts lo mark the spot wliere Sclmmyl was 
brought a prisoner to Marshal Uarialinsky. The description given 
of this exiraordmnry natural fortiliealion, which the Russians term 
the Gibrdlrar of the Caucasus is too interesling to be abridged, 
" It is slightly hollowed out like a shell, the ground rising from 
the centre to the edges where the precipice goes sheer down a 
depth of from five hundred (o a thousand feet. On the east side 
alone there is a descent terminating in the chasm through which 
wc had ascended, which was furiilied by a lofty wall, strongly built 
and pierced for musketry. The surface is covered uitli short 
succulent grab's, afTurding good pasture for sheep and horses. 
About six thousand of the former and two hundred of the Inller, we 
were told, were found on the mouufain by the Russians. The land 
round the uoiil bad been well cullivated, and in fact everything 
wanted for the maiiiteiianee of a garrison, such as clothing and 
provisions, was contained within this gigantic natural fortitication. 
One or two seams of coal cropped out from the side of the little 
valley, and in fact, with the exceplicn of the materials for making 
powder and a supply of lead, nothing was required from wiihoul." 
As Scham>I had managed In get two gntis and a supjdt of grape 



1865 J 



HtOM LONDON TO PER'EFOLig. 



255 



ehut to this apparenllf impregniible spot, lis capture by ssraalt 
must have ap]»eareU alraost lio|ieless; neverthelfss, Prince Bariat- 
iiisky dctfrmined to make tlie atletript, aiiit would in qU probability 
liHVi- failed, lor hia men were mowi'd down in heiipa by the well- 
eustiiinrd and well-directed lire of tlie mountairiepis, had he not 
siTit a boily uf hia Iroops to attack tliem in the renr, upon which, 
fiudfug tlicinaelves between two fires, they abandoned their defences 
and fled to the aoul. Access to tliis spot appeared to them only 
possible from one direction, and to defend tliia tlieir whole atten- 
tiou WPS directed. But the Ruasinns tiiok advnnlage of this to 
carry (he pLice. A re{;iu)ent moved round to the base of Ihe 
precipice on whicli the aoul w;ia situated, and by driving bars iulo 
till crevices, and lustening ropea to tliem as tbi'j- ascended, they ^ut 
Ujione lifter ibe other until tliey had all reached the tup without being 
seen. No delay wna permitted by tlieir commander, who at once 
led them against Schamyl aud his supporters, who all took refuge 
in the houses, where be coiiaulted wiih them whether they should 
surrender, or (lie lijjhiing. With ihe exception of two, who said ' It 
ia forbidden by the Boolt for a true believer to bow the head to llie 
Chrifiliaii yoke,' ru>hed out and I'ouglit desperately untd they 
fell covered with wounils, they all surrendered themselves prisoners, 
but except Schamyl, who wis at once carried off into the interior 
of Hua»ift, they were alhiwed to go where ihey pleased. As for 
Schamyl, he- was ullotled a yearly pension of 12,000 roubles, and 
his wives and family were sent to him to slisre his new abode. 
Among Iho numerous well executed cliromo -lithographs whiob 
decorate the work before us, the portrait of ibis widely-famed 
chief ia one of the best and certainly the most interesling. The 
biography of Schamyl which accompauies it ia exceedingly well- 
written ; loo much so to bear condensation, and we must therefore 
refer the reader to the book itself. 

We are so often told to scratch a Russian and we Fihall find the 
Tartar underneath, that we are apt to regard him as merely a serai- 
civilised being, but we have no evidence that they are cruel in 
warfare; on the contrary, their treatment of their prisoners ofl'er* a 
sinking conlrast to that which was inflicted on the Russians who 
fell into the bands of Schamyl, Those who were released on his 
capture, were found imprisoned in dungeons precisely like those ia 
which the vestals who had broken their vows were thrown by the 
Romans of old, that is to say in deep pits clo.aed at the top by a 
huge stone. A number of them were crammed into a pit of this 
kind aud kept there for weeks at a time, the only fresli ntr they 
got, being during the short time required for removing the tilth 
which bad accumuhited in it. 

The travellers were strongly urged to remain at this place (o 
witness the festivities uliicli wore to take place in commeinoruliun 
of Schamyl's capture, at wliich there were to be Hreworks, and 
giimes and dances of tlie natives, which would have vnviAs V.W ^-■m^ 
V. S. M,vQ. No. 't:ij, Feb- Isfij. »■ 



256 



TilOJt tONDOS TO PBRSEPOUS. 



[Feb. 



Tory agreeable to them, bat they were too much pressed for time 
to acceiit Ihe invilalJOQ. 

' 111 the article we published some time baok on the CirCMsian 
Exodus we meiiliorieJ as one of the causes of the success of the 
Russians, the feuds among llie mounliiinetTs. A very amusing 
instance of ihese weakening disorders is related b_v Mr. Us-her. 
" III a large aoul whif;h was inhabited by portions of two disliiict 
tribes, that had for some reason declared war agiiinst each otim, 
the. males of the population dared not for a long time leave their 
bouses as, if they did so, they would be shot down from the housi's 
of the ojipnsite tribe. Acct>rdingty (he women of both tribes, who 
were allowed to pass in and out unmolested, carried on all the 
nRricultural opcrutiuus, while to the men Jell the indoor work, atid 
tliis extraordinary slate of things existed so Ion n, tliat when tlie 
internecine wni was put an end to by Khast Mullah and Scliamyl, 
there were young men in the place of twenty-four years of age who 
had never been outside the wails of the houses in which tucy had 
been born." 

The journey from Tillis through Georgia, Daghestan, &c., occupied 
just thirty-sin days- Tlie tales that had been told our traveller of 
the insuperable dilEeolties and dangers of tiie journey, lie found to 
be due entirely to the imagination of those who narrated them. 
There were few delays auywliere, lie was treated with the 
greatest kindness and courlcsy by all the Kussiaii officers 
be met with on his route, and the privations in the way of food 
were not so great as to form a ground of complaint ; except indeed 
to a grumbler, who might Ihink he bad as much rigiit to complain of 
the absence of a large wasli-hand basin and a gooil supply of soft 
towcis in the heart: of the Caucasus as he would if he had been 
quartered in a London hotel. Of the journey itself, Mr. Ussher must 
have tt pleasant recollection. The grand appearance of the moun- 
tains, tlie numerous objects o! interest he saw, not the least in- 
teresting of which was the mountain near llnku, from which the 
jets of flame were bursting out in all directions owing to it being 
saturated with mineral oil, and the Atesh Uja, or I'ire Temple near 
it, from the floor of wliich rose the never-dying flame, held in such 
reverence by the Fire- worshippers as the visible symbol of tlie 
great Orniuzd. 

Tlie next portion of the journey was from Tiflis tiirough Armenia, 
to Nineveh and Bagdad. In the whole iiccnunt of the journey on 
Buasian territory we gain incidental glimpses of thecomph:te manner 
in which that power is eslabliiihing hcrsell' in the direction of the 
East. Colonies similar to those described in this Maf;azine some 
mofilhs agri, abound, every en courage ment being given to Russianss 
or fiermans, or Circa^isiuns, to form these, such us exemption from 
military service, taxes, &c. No doubt llic adv.intagea to be derived 
from tlie vast itierejise in the quantity of mercliandi*o that will pass 
f " 'ia and otiirr Baa(^rn countries into Russia, when the 



1SG5.] 



PnOK LONDON TO PEI15F:F0L19. 



257 



mnns of communicalion are iraproved, ii one gteut reason wliy so 

mucii anxiety is exiiibilett to form a ^ood route. But other reasona 

are also evident. Russia, tliouf^li she may have no present intcu- 

L tion bejond driving the wedge well into Kokan, something more 

f than the thin end of which she has already inserlrd, has an eje to 

Armenia and Persia in the future. At Gurnri, the fort is of a 

strenglii which no army likely to be ever led against it would be 

I sble to overcome, and its eiitent is said to beeqnnl lo the accomrao* 

' dation of 15,000 laen, whilst its distance from Kars ia so trilling 

tliit a force, could bo sent from it to tliat cily in less than a couple 

L of tiays. At this lust cily, the enquiries forliljams Pnslm and 

P Colonel Lake were frequent, showing that their eervices were not 

forgotten. It was a strange contract lo this comparatively busy 

place olTered by Aui, the ancient cnjiilal of Armenia. Thi- strong 

walls of the city still stand, the palnce is there with its elaborate 

carvings and decorations; two mosques and nbovea du'isu clmrclies, 

some of them eitremely handsome, attest the great number of the 

pupulalion before Tamerlane ravaged it, who nearly completed the 

work of tleslruction which an earthquake had begun, but who was 

L unable wiih the means st his di>po$al lo do much more than 

I mutilate such solid slona buildings as I he palace and the churehej. 

I Wow the churches are occupied only by dovai, and the teprcsenta- 

" tjves of the inhabitants of ancient limes arc content with ii few 

miserable mud huta. There is nothing one mecls with in foreigt^ 

travel which excites such melniicholy reflfctinna as these dcsolale 

and ruined eilii'Sj we can h:irdly imagine a man s^prruling even a 

few weeks in Kgypt anions the oisgnilicent ruins of the desert 

without coming back a a.idder man. 

Tlie account given of the visit to Ihe Patriarch of Armenia is 
exceedingly interc-ling, but our respect for the cliurch of whicli he 
is the head, is not increased by the infonoation givrn us of the 
practices of the priesthood. We have always thought the priests 
of the Geeek Church to be more tban suflicicnlly exacting iti their 
dealings with their tiock, but they do not appear, as a rule, to bo 
nearly equal to the Armenian in Ihe variity of rn'thuds by which 
they procure contributions from Ihe members of their church. The 
patriarch, and the establishmpnt of which he is t'le head, are, how- 
ever, well supplied with funds, partly derived from lands, and 
partly furnished by the Armenians, who are scattered through alt 
lands where businp.ss is to be done, all of whitm regard the patri- 
arch as their spiritual head, and are minilful of his wants, It does 
not seem unlikely that tiie gri-nter portion uf the Armenians will, 
wheneviT Russia ullains the fruition of her pulicy in the onnexation 
of Armenia to her tinminioiis, attach themselves to the (ireek 
Churcii. There already eJtisL several communities wlio have diiiiQ 
this. The political sympathies of tlirse peoplearc, natundly enough, 
with the power that protects them from Mnhommedan ini^rnle. 
The farther wc procctd in the bonk, the inote \\s\.«b*W%"«. 



S5R 



PKOU LOMOO?' TO FEU3t:POLt8. 



[Fbb. 



[Iteeomea, and it vould be quiie im|M»sible vitliiii the limite of a 
^view lo refer to even atitlie of the subjecls described. Persia 
bIohc would furnisli matter for sevrral pajres. A fair specimeu of 
llv- nini^c'alile style iri wiui^li llie fliillior t»>iiveys bis injormatiiin, is 
pies"iile<l by hi* rem.itks on Petjiiaii art. In the liall of the pulace 
o( the Sirdar ol Erivan, are depicted "some of the most wonderfully 
conceived lions not big'^er thiin cats, hunted bv very big men in 
uplendid dresses, who obstinately persist in loukiiif in hh opposite 
direction from the liny snironl Ihey are pursuing. The ma^piilicently 
caparisoned hordes on which they are mounted, do not seem to 
cure in the le.ist for a lion leaping on their banks, cantinuiii|( 
to canter calmly, their necks being longer ihnii their boiiies, and 
urcliei like a bow. There are also pictures of scenes in the life of 
Riiatuin and other fabulous herot-a of Persia, and oiliers representing 
the Shiih, Fulteh Ali, und ihe last Sirdar, Hustum is invariably 
piiinled beardless, with an enormous moustjiche. The Shah, on 
tliB contrary, being celcbruleJ for llie length and beauty of his 
beiiril, is reprtsenled with one two feet long. All the paintings 
are executed with an utier disregaid of perspective, the artist mak- 
ing ail olficer macii larger than a soldier, and a general on a still 
larger scale than either, whatever po^^ilion he may occupy in tlie 
distance. The Shah himi^i'lf, seated on a horse of colossal bulk, 
is of gigantic size; his lici^bt in proportion lo that of tiie private 
soldier's, being almost equal to that which dt.-tinguislied Gulliver 
from the Lilliputians." The mountniii uf Ararat if, of course, one 
which occupies a promineul place in tlie book, as it must in any 
work relating to Persia. The people who reside in its vicinity, 
regard It with superstitious awe. They assert, that in its more in- 
accessible ports, it h occupied by beings who are both nalurnl and 
su|icriiotural. These are horn somilmw, and live to a great age, 
far beyond llie duration of man's existence. They live in eaves iti 
the mountain, and prowl about in search of a solitiry traveller nr 
shepherd, whom they seize anti carry off to their caves, and devour 
without any preliminary dressing. There is also another object to 
be seen there, which bos its prototype in the Medusa's head. Tiiis 
is an ice-serpent of a light blue colour, and transparent, and who- 
ever fixes his eyes upon it, is instantly frozen to death. 

It is gratifying to uur national pride to Bnd that an Englishman 
ie respected even among the savage Kurds. Etarely as one of our 
countrymen is seen among liiera, it is quite suSicient for them to 
know ihat he belongs to the same nation aa Lord Stratford de Red- 
clilfe, lo make him ut least as safe as he would be in the streets of 
this metroiHilis. 

Jn no book of travels we have read, have we been carried so 
ph-asnnily along from place to phice, gathering pleasant information 
by the way, and nowhere boied by dry disserlationa on mutters, 
ttliich, however interesting in themselves, are wearying wiien we 
know that all that is said respecting them is purely speculative. 



1866.] 



PROM LONDON TO PEBSFPOLrfl. 



239 



Anecdotes abound in the work conceniiDg individuals he mot. 
Tlipre is a fricuil of Mr. Skinner's of S(. BBrnabaji, for example, 
wUo first slioiviiiij himself to the travellers ns a denier in old coins 
at Ujfziieli, on iteijarliiiji, handed tlu-m hU cnrd, on wliicli whs 
engraved, "Miir Atlinnasiu*, Svriaii A r(li bishop," und iit the same 
time pxpri'ssed p/irticuhir interest in hi* iiujuiiics re^periinfj ilie 
Arclibisliopof Canterbury, the ISisliop ol Oxfurd, and Lord Shaftes- 
bury, and dfSJred our informant to nuike it widelv kmiwii in KiiR- 
land how much he wislied that n mifsionary should be sent out to 
Djezireli, wiiOj umier his direcUun, could nut fail to do an infinity 
of goiid. 

It is curious to find how constsntiv a legend rfsembling that of 
the 0|ieri Sesame of the " Arabian Nights" is found in different 
countries. In a place so ncur us as Brittany, the treasure is buried 
beneath huge stones, which move from their places only for a tew 
minutea in each year, and the treasure seeker has but a few instants 
in which to seize the precious deposit, for tf he delays he is inevi- 
tably crushed to death. In Bohemia we remember it is mora 
poetical; it is necessary to utter an invocation before the rock is 
rent asunder, tliea l.iiere is a long and rugged pns'age to be tra- 
versed before the cave is reached, in wliich burns the lires of 
dilferent colours indicating the dillVrent recesses in which gold, 
silver, and precious stones are stored, and in this respect so far 
resembling ihe Breton legend, that the flone which guards the 
entrance to the pnssoge is only removable once in theyear, and then 
bill for a very short lime. One of the marvels told us concerning 
this cave, vas lliut of a poor starving ^idow of a charcoal burner. 
Driven to despair, she, on the night when alone the cave was acces- 
sible, entered it, c;irrying her little child in iier arms, of whom, as 
the only living crealure in the world to love her, she Wiis exceed- 
ingly fond. She made her way along the rugged pnssage until slio 
reached the cave. At lirst djizzled and bewildered by the riches 
thai lay before her she stood spell-bound, then remembering how 
short the lime was in which to avail licrscif of the opjiortunily, she 
begun iiaslily to fill her apron. The faster she filled lier hiind the 
greater her greed for more increased, unlii at last she tliought that 
there would surely be time to take one lupful and return lor more. 
To enable hei to gratify her newly awakened cupidity to the gna'est 
extent, and to depart and return willi the greater speed, slie lind 
her child on the ground and hastened away. The hitle one cried 
and clung to her, but she was deaf to its enlreiilies not to be left 
alone. She reached the mouth of the c.ivc ami deposited her 
treasure among the thick ferns and grass, and wiis just about to re- 
enter it when the stone rolled agiiinst the opening, thus cuiting lier 
off from access to her child, whose never ceasing liimenls of "Cold, 
cold, cold," she could hear night and day. This legend closely 
resembles that told by Mr. Dssher with respect to a cave in the 
vicinity of Van in Armenia. "Near the city," hesa^s, " tt«xt^i. 



I 




20n ntOH LO))I>0<l TO PERSEPOLIS. [Fu. 

long iincn'ptioii on a i ock, from bcliiiid wliich ^ounda of vailing and 
Umentiiig ore (ometimeo licarJ. Various Icgctida liavc grown 
UOQnd this nncietit inscription. A story is told of a nhepberJ to 
wlioin llie words composing tl>e all powerful talisioan tlmt would 
Open llie rock, and placi) in lits possession the eiiormona riches in 
tlio cavern beiiind were rcveuled in a drram. Tmoirdialelj on 
■waking he pronounced the sentence, nnd the solid rock before him 
opened witli a fearful crash. Tempted by the sight of the glitlcr- 
itiK treasure, he entered, and the rock closed behind him. He 
Jitled the bng in which he carried his food with gold, and then 
uttering the spell, the cliff wns rent nsuitdcr with the same hideous 
clang. Hnving gone a few steps, however, towards home, he dis- 
covered tiint he had left his crook behind him in the cavern, to 
wliicli he reluriicd wilii the view of recovering it. Agaiu nltering 
the words which possessed suth myslerioua [wwer, the solid stone 
wiw once more torn apart «itli n sound like thunder; the shepiierd 
entered end ibe stone closed behind him, but he had forgotten the 
words which could re-open it, and tlicre he has remained ever sinee 
bemoaning bis sad condition, his sole hope of escape being that 
tome otlicr person may renieniber what he has forgotten, and so 
liberate him." Mr. Lnj-ard's researches in thiit part of the world has 
had a good deal to do with strengthening the popular belief iu the 
exifltencc of vast heaps of riches behind these inscriptions ; of some 
of which Colonel Eawlinson has given us interesting trausiatioiis. 

It is surprising to tind how universally English goods are dis- 
tributed j there was machinery from Manchester lying beside the 
Fire Teiuple waiting to be put into positiou, and in every bazaar, 
from Dan to Ucersheba, are to be seen goods which were manu- 
factared in the snme industrial hive. No doubt this universality of 
English goods has had much tn do nitli llie influence we possess in 
the Kast, even among the half sav^ige tribes who never saw an 
Englishman in their hves — an infliit-nce which in some paris hsa 
been greatly slrenglhcned by the teachings of the English and 
American misi-ionaries. To this latter cause we are convinced that 
sufficient importauee has neviT been attached, Diptomatisl.s aouic- 
times object to the efforts of the luissionarios on account of llie 
trouble it gives them occa.'iunally ; but some of the most renowned 
and higlily respected of our military cbicfa have taken a nobler and 
moreover a wiser view of the subject from a mere temporal aspect, 
it being manifestly the best way of gaining respect for our religion 
from heathens, to show that we respect its doctrines ourselves, 
Mr. Tssher tells us that throughout Armenia the teachings of the 
American missionaries have had a wonderful effect ; the numerous 
echools oslablished by them excited the emulation of the clergy, who, 
fearing llie loss of their Qoeks by gradual conversion have increased 
the number of their schools also, the result of which must be 
eventually a vast change in the intellectual condition of the popula- 
tion. Wc believe, too, ihal. moat of the missionaries possess some 



1865.] 



FltOU LOKDOH TO FLOSKFOLIS. 



261 



amount of medical kiiowleJ^e, mid iiowliere Jn the world ia a 

medical umii so mucli res|jecled as among the natives of liu- Eosl. 

A t'lirllier It^timoiiy to llie xpreud urid prospects of Chii^tiniiiL/ 

in tlic Eiisl is giveji by the Patriarch cf tlie Roman Ciillinlic Glial- 

dec*, a coiiijKualivelj small sect of tlie Cbaldp.sna of Scfipture history, 

L who iinve preserved ihcir cuitoras, mjiniiers and language un- 

f changed fruui the earliest period, uolwithstanding tiint ihey have 

bteii dispersed all tliroQgh eastern countries, and even in Chins, 

wiiere lliey were once so namercus that they counted no less ihan 

nine bishops. Not the least interesting part of the work before us 

is that wliicli gives an account of this ancient people. As for the 

Bomaii Ciilholic Parriareh he was lying under ilie inlerdict of the 

L Jope, having been exeommuiiicated lor consecrating a bishop witd- 

^«ut reference lo the Vicar Apostolic, a condilion he did not grieve 

sbout, and in return merely protested against as nn infringement 

upon the ancient riles and independence of the Chaldenn cliurch. 

All interesting account is likewise given uf the Yezeedis, or " Devil 

worshippers" as the Turks lerai them, though unjustly, as they are 

said by more unprejudiced authorities to recognise a supreme deity 

who governs the universe by two attributes, one of Creation, the 

other of Destruction. He is worshipped under the n.une of the 

Lifiheikh Adi, and in one of their hymns he is made lo say of iiim^^elf : 

f"" 1 am the ruling power preceding all that exists ... 1 am he who 

caused Adam to dwell in Paradise . . . I atn he who made thespnn^'s 

to give water." The belief they hold of what the spirit has lo do 

on leaving the body, would have furnished John Buuyan with 

suother alh-gory to describe the journey of the Christian through 

this present world. They say that when it leaves the body it is 

armed with a crooked slick, lance, sword and battle-axe, and 

departs on its wav to Paradise over a bridge of immense ^pnn across 

a lallionilcss abyss. On passing this it finds itself in a tliick wood, 

Ihroug)) which it has to cut a p'ltli with the axe, the crooked slick 

being used to remove the brushwood ; all the time it is engaged in 

, this hard task it is liarassed by the attacks of active opponcnis, who 

fiut its constancy and endurunce to the severest tests. We ahuuid 
ike to say more of lliese people, but ourspace will not allow it, and 
we must, therefore, refer the reader to Mr. Usaher's book. 
L, The members of the United Kingdom Alliance would find plenty 
^to do in the way of conversion to tola) abstinence if they travelled 
along the route liil;cn by Mr. Usshcr. In the journey through the 
Caucasus nothing was more common than to find the jiostinastor 
drank, some of thom dividing their lime pretty equally between 
getting into this condition and getting out of it. At this, how- 
evw, we are not surprised in the case of Uussians; but we eer* 
lainly should not have especled to find that tlie same abominable 
habit exists so widely among Easterns. Persian?, Kuids, and 
Mahommedan?, all exhibit the same liking for strung drinks ; cten 
an Armenian bishop did not disdain to testify his satisfaction with. 



nan usBUt TO mKvoctf. 



[n«. 



aki he kept flowed avar in a gingrr beer botll^ wttioh had 
tovad tU vaj to the IHile i^ on vbdi la* ■ w mi aicy 
«a« aAaalfd ; om U«lKMBWdan fwoctMMiafj, twlced, to iImo bow 
MiMcb ■«« c»iili>ed he ■*• Uiao bU netjf^baon, beutnl that 
)m bad (M»a pork aa veil aa drank trine. 1& Prma, aBong 
iIkwb vbo could afford to purdiaae it. the praclice of drinking rw rn n 
t0 be <slft«rlj prrvideot. The Governor of BoAire, for i i w U n c r , 

rt bia tiiMc cbiefl; in gelling drank and pracitEin^ pbatosrapbr, 
M( «( hM time bdiig eitga^ed in a maniirr discmJitable lo 
kniran natore. A *i>it to anotWr mMnbcr of Uie Persian ro/al 
Umtij, the MMt of ihe IShab'* lirollier, who was tlie Ooreinor of 
Sebirax, ditloaed a nmilar Kceiie. He foond liim siLtuie in b 
pertlioti in the eompant of a tvrj ditwipaled lot of *oung Persians, 
druiki^ig raki artJ litietiing La inuaicuins, Ihe whole of ibeot mj 
far fpiia itAter. " lli> K"7>l Ilighiiei-*, *liu invited us to taste ttie 
tyini, ezGOtfd hiioveir for not atlciiptiiig tu enler iiilo an? conver- 
aaltMi, by aajring tliAt he hid drunk Hft mnch — a confession Utile 
Medrd, aa be wu banll,v able lo *iBiid," 

The guanU of xidic of the Persian di^itaries were a wrel(^ed 
lookioit aet of raicahiuffine; lUal of to importaul a peraotiage as the 
Oorrrnor of Schiraz, fur example, is thus de^ribed : — " On eiitn^ 
iug the Heidan we found tro compunit-fl drawn up iu line to receire 
Bt, wli'MO a>p«et ws* Indicruus in the rxircctip. No two anifurins 
wrre alike; aoino wore t\iot», foine went without ; few had boots, 
into which Ihe; tuckcl tlieii luuse trouoen, which were of all 
oobnira and ibapea; •uinc wore eroMbelt?, olbers dispensed with 
than ; aome wcie armed wiLii fiielotka which were at least a ccnturj 
old, wiib bill of wwid iiiatead of lliiita, wiiile uthers boasted of the 
real Drown Jhwa wilh llie Towrr mark." His interview with the 
gorcniur liinuwif ia luo ninu»in(; lo be pa^ed over. The great topic 
of interest with hint wna |icn;.'raphir. He wanted to know if England 
Waa really an islniid, and wliHb<-r there was any other way of reach- 
inK ii than by p>i»iiig Gibrallar, lit- hail been told that the Franks 
had (liuj'ivi-red that the woilil was round, aud tliat people walking 
wilb llirir hniiU down unci with thi^ir feet up was on the other side 
of it, but of cour«c he ilid not bi-Lieve that. He was greatly sut- 
priied Ihat tliit Emperor of Ihe FrcMch had been so foolish as lo put 
liiniiielf in the power of the enemy of Im dynasty by visiting 
EiiKluml, ami coii*iiJereJ it u templing uf Jestiny, ra?L and fool- 
hiirdy in the extreme. But this wnt> imtbiiig compared wilh hia 
KurpriBu that The Empress of the French could liave been allowed to 
villi us UH B private individual. An act of such outriigeous folly he 
could only re^rard — and all his attendants seemed to be of the same 
opinion — asim instance of the madness which periodically aHects all 
Franks. How we ond the Fn-iith had munagcd lo conquer the 
ciipiliil of China was Hnoti^er thing wliich pu/sled him^ ami a still 
Krcalcr myetery wus, that havinx taken it, we did not divide the 
empire with the French ; an act uf self-denial which inclined him to 



1863.] 



PBOH UIKDOK To PBH3SPOII5. 



believe that what had been tolil liim wns true — ihot Eri^lariil had so 
nifliiy ooiiiitries niidcr her that slie cuuld not ({overii any more. Mr. 
Ussher'a opinion uf the Perslnns is by no ineana favourable, he?av9, 
"One, of the many thTiii^-j in Pi-raiu which surpiisea European is 
the simplicily and trednlily wliich induce (jeople, who when it. does 
not serve their puiposc, never l.hink of tellinj< tlie Iriitli to encii 
oiher, to brlieve iiny nuiriher of lits that may be lold tiiem. Ex- 
cet-'din^ probably everv other nation under the aon in falsehoiMl and 
dfceil, no people are to easily impn.ied upon. They cooaider it no 
disgrace theinselves lo commit a di"liotiourable nctioii, and do not 
feel Lhe least shujne when tletecled in mi^anncss or want of principle. 
i common topic of conversation among tlieiii is the astonishing 
value which Euro^wana place upon their word. This respect for 
trutli they are quite unable lo understiiud ; and if thfre is any 
ignominy on either part, they con^idt^r it m:iy be justly attributed 
rather to him who is duped than to him deceived," 

Tlie Persians appear to be a hi^'hly impressionable people, if we 
may judge from llie manner in whicli they are affifcted by the-atrical 
performances. On the day previous to Sir. Ussher's witnessing one 
of these representations, the raotlier ol the Siiah bad caused an aclor 
who tilled the piirt of a cruel general to he brou^hl bt^lore lier and 
bastinadoed. A hint, however, might be taki-ii by our own theiitrieal 
managers, in these sensation days, from one part of the representa- 
tion, viz., that wherein a real bve lion ruslies on the atiige at the 
conclusion of Die biitllc, and devours the bits of meat placed on the 
bodies of certain of the aclora who represent dead men. 

The description given of the country in an agricultural point of 
view is a sad one. Large districts winch were at one time carefully 
cullivaled, are now sttrile and barren, es|iecially in tlie vicinity of 
the iiDportant highways, where Lhe cultivators were constantly liable 
to be plundi-red by public functionaries and passing troops. The 
villagers themselves must have abandoned their homes for some 
more obscure dwelling place, unless indeed they were gradually 
killed off, which is nut unlikely, for the rapid diminution of the 
population of Persia must arise from some cause, or rather from a 
variety ot cans.'s; the population of Ispahan, Mr. Usslier eslimatea, 
as not exceeding yO,00U, and he anticipates that at iiu very distant 
period it will liave dwindled to a village surrnunded by heaps of 
rubbish, while the population of Teheran itself, the centre of 
Persian commerce and the residence of the Shah, he thiuka does 
not exceed 100,OUO. 

If we were to judge of lhe present Shah by the portrait given of 
bim, we should suppose him to be a man of mild characler, and of 
good intelligence ; nevertheless, we ore tohl that the expression of his 
eyes indicates a mean and cowardly disposition ; and certaiidy he haa 
been guiliy of acts of great cruelty. Apart from the murder of his 
brother- in-1 J w, for winch, thougli an act of the grossest treachery, 
there might have been reasons with which we aie not uct^uuiuteAi 



tu 



PROU LONDOir TO PBRSEPOUS. 



[Feb. 



I 



lie lius commilleJ olher ileods for wtiicli Ibcre nas not tlie sbudow of 
jiiBtiHfiiMori. Ill I'lTsifl a wmnaii mny say "liat the |)lea3ea with 
impunity, nml Inkiiii; iiilviiiitnge of liil^. n numljrr o\ tlicm one dny 
Rurruiiiiilrd (lie (ilinli wlicn lie una oul rirliii;^, tiii<l abused liim very 
freely l'»r liis iaKiiiesa anil iiidillVrciice for [lie«i:lfure of liis smbjects, 
Tlio ciirAifcd SIihIi cauiTii (lie uinynr lo bo broiiglil bi-fore lijin and 
ba6liiiait')ed, mi'l (lien S'tran^lH, ntid hjf body was drngi;eil tlirougli 
tlie Bireuis by lioolcs fiiRii-ricii in liis litt-ls, nnd imri}^ on one of ibo 
puiea placed for the |iur[)o»c in the Meidiin Shah, tlie griiiid sc|iiiire 
of the city. If we did not know thai elfcminacj on the part of the 
males uf » population ntid crupllv coiunioiily go togelber, wr siiouid 
have been surprised that ihc Pursiini? are so sAvuge in ibeir puiiish- 
meiils. Hooking a rann up by the heels to two scparote nosts, 
precisely as a butcher witlt us tri'ol^ the carcnes of an iiniinid, the 
executioner divides him by repeated cuts through tbe whole Jengih 
of bis f^pine. As a rule, however, these cruelties arc becoming less 
freipieni, uuIcsr it is in the case of mutineers in the army, upon 
whom thp tortures inflicled are quite revolting, however jusliliiible 
the disaffection may have been. The treatment of Persian Eitldiers 
i», in fact, 30 shamerully bad tiiat it is difficult to understand iiow it 
is that a uiUifary revolution does not take place. They hardly ever 
get their pay, their officers plunder them of a portion of ihcir rations 
and in order (« live tliRV are obliged to do such work aa they can gut 
to do. Tlierc is no uniformity in their uiiil'orma, and such a ragged 
looking army probably never was seen since the iion-existence otSir 
John Falstiilf's cor]>s. Their weapons are aot one whit belter; 
many of tiicir muskets bad no flints, and sentries may be seen 
mounting t;nard with some (bnt have not even locks. On pajiertbe 
slren^th of the army is stuted lo be 50,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry, 
and a small body of artillery; which is supposed to be about double 
tiie .nctual force. The nominal pay of the private is £i a year, 
that of n captain £•30, and a lieutenant-colonel's £M0. Tbe officers 
manage to get a portion of their pay, and so far they have an advan- 
tage over the private, whom ibey ossist in robbing. 

Within the narrow liniils of a review of a book of such magni- 
tude as Mr. Unsher's, we have only been able to loucb upon a small 
portion of ils contents ; enou£>h, perh,i])s, to give a slight idea of its 
intense inlercsl, but iioihing more, and those who desire to form a 
correct o|)iiiion of tlie most interesting book of travels we have seen 
for a very long time, must read tbe work itself. 

tM FOKEIGN SUMMARY. 

^ Paris, Jan. 24. 

The universal subject of interest this month (o the exclusion 
of almost everything eke, is thequostion of New Year's Gifts, and 
when the giving is over, all arc nearly as anxious to know what 
their friends hu»e received. Tbo Nationa,l gift lias been the 



FOIiElOS SCKHABT. 



EueyfUcal Lott«r, conferred on France in common witli other 
untions, NcitwitU standing ILe Government opposed ila aeceii- 
iajuie, and forbade the elergy to rejid it, Boveml of tbe bigliops 
have read it in tlieir diocesses in epita of tbe Governmental jiro- 
hibitiou. The French Minister iit Borne has made a strong re- 
presentation on tbe Huliject to the Papal Govemmentj and it ia 
possible that the Emperor Napoleon may feel Icbb disposed tban 
heretofore to uphold the tcmporaJ power of the Pope. The reply 
to it in some sort has been the appointment of Prince Napoleon 
as Vice-President of the Privy Council, which is regarded us 
threatening to Austria and the Papacy, of both of which Puwei-a be 
is considered the unrelenting enemy, at the eanie time that he ia 
no friend to England. The inferences drawn are, that the spring 
will see somc'tbtng new in which Austria will be u. sufferer. The 
warm friendship he feels for Italy, would of itself account for tlio 
Prince's enmity towards Austria, and, to soine extent, for hiB dis- 
like of tbe Pupiwy; but it ia well known that be has private 
reasons for not feeling kindly disposed to the Papal Government. 
The Prince's feelings on public policy are no secret, and he is 
little likely to act in opposition to them, consequently his new 
appointment is undustood to indicate that the Emperor hoe 
adopted his opinions, and not tliat be baa yielded bis to tbe 
Emperor's. Though he is not supposed to be an admirer of 
England, there are some of her institutions which he would 
willingly see transferred to hia own country. For example, ha 
is strongly opposed to the systtim of centralisation, and it is ex- 
pected that some changes will be introduced, which will give to 
the provinces greater independence of action, though certainly not 
to tbe extent enjoyed in England. Not very long, ago it was 
affirmed that the Prince had no influence whatever, and now 
every word he Tjtters is repeated and commented on as though 
all power rested in bis liande, which is going to the other extreme. 
Aa the sympathies of the Empress are with the Pope, the Emperor 
must find it a difficult task to adjust tbe opposing iuflueuoeB. In 
the event of anything happening to himself, however, the support 
of Prince Napoleon would be much more influential in retaining 
tbe Empire in the hands of tbe Prince Imperial, than his mother's 
would lie. 

The reception given by the Emperor to the Bepresentatives of 
Foreign Puwers on the occasion of the New Tear, gave general 
satisfaction ; to all of them be had u few words to aay, and to 
none of them did his words convey an unpleasant impression. Hia 
reply to the formal address made to him, was considered to indi- 
cate that ho was fully determined to uphold the terms of the Con- 
vention with respect to the Papa! States, and to sanction no 
broach of the ptacc between Italy and Austria, or lo have any 
intentions of hia own calculated to alarm Prussia. The Emperor 
is generally believed to be desirous of living quietly with liia 



266 



FOREiaV SUMUAttV. 



[Feb. 



neighbours J the fact ia, he haa had enough of glory, and in thia 
respert, he is at one with iiia Biibjei.-ts, who think they have bad 
rather too much, or rather, they think they Lave paid too dearly 
for it; moreover, a touch of the gout, comhined with the daily 
work he baa to get through, is quite enough to make him ainoerely 
auxioua not to make any addition to it. 

Even the reduction of the army, with a view to the diminution 
of the cjpenditure, ia a very fair guarantee of the sincerity of the 
Emperor's deeire not to engage in hostilities. It will be better 
known shortly what tho exiict amount of thia reduction ie to be, 
but there is good reasou to believe that it will affect every branch 
of the service — infantry, artillery, cavalry, and engineers. Tho 
nnmber in the course of a month or two will probably not exceed 
4OT,000, and within a year, if nothing unforeseen occurs to prevent 
it, the total will most likely be 2U,0iJ0 lower than this. Already 
a portion of the fleet has been laid up in ordinary, and this ia 
considered to be only preliminary to still further reductions. 

There ia a rumour in circulation which seems hardly worthy of 
credit — that the Emperor is about to take a trip to Algeria, in 
order to hear what complaints the luttives have to urge to justiiy 
the recent insurrection. It is said that this decision has been 
come to in consequence of ccrtwin statements made by Marshal 
McMahon. That there are dissensions between the military and 
civil authorities in Africa, though denied, cannot be doubted ; it ie 
the normal condition of things in that colony, and before there j 
were any civil authorities there the same disaj^'reements manifested 1 
themselves between the milit-ary and the Minister at home, The 
insurrection ia quite over, and French authority is probably greater 
than it ever was before, but to prevent future outbreaks the causes 
which led to it roust be removed. These causes arc attributed to 
the violent and imprudent conduct of some of the officials connected 
with the Bureaux Arabes. In the province of Oran, it is said to 
have been originated by a blow given by a aous-lieu tenant attached 
to the office, to a powerful chief of tho Ouled-Sidi-Scheick tribe. 
Other tribes were excited to revolt by the abuse of certain mono- 
polies conferred on two Europeans, since murdered. The disturb- 
ances in the Bousaada arose out of a blow given by the head of 
the bureau to a powerful chief, and a general fermentation was 
produced throughout Kaliylia by tho exile, without trial, of the 
distinguished Arab, Bou-Akras. 

The French army, during the past year, lost, through death, the 
Duke of Malakoff, Marshal of France, Marquis and Count Grouchy, 
Marijnis de Caatelbajac, Baron Letang, Count de Lagrange, Pel- 
lion, De Courtigis and Thiisrry, generals of division. Also 
twelve generals of brigade: Tardi^re de St. Aubanet, Moreau, 
Urvoy de Ciosmadent, D'Arliucourt, Toacan de Terrail, Cbristo- 
phe and Eugene Lemaire. Imbert de 8t Amand, Delaunay, Le 
Barbier de Tinan, Marion de Beaulieu, and Paillot. Colonels 



1805.] 



POREIOS SUMMARY. 



267 



Angftyat, Graodyallet, Chapiron, Dumiva, Oh am p m on tan t, and 
Martin. Inspectors and Com raiBHaries- General Fouirier, Count 
du BoiaBy-Anglaa, Robert and Roch Gaaton. 

The winter in France has been UDUsuaUy severe ; trains have 
been repeatedly brought to a stand-atill bj the enow, and even 
vilJagea have been partly buried. Such sufferingB ss these, how- 
evor, are merely transient, and it is a satisfaction to be able to say 
that the commercial distress has nearly passed away, and that the 
growth of trade and mauufacturea is constantly increasing, thereby 
adding to the prosperity of thi; working classes. This increase in 
French niannfactnres, and even in ench njatl-ers as the malting of 
engines, bridges, and ma<:hinery, in which we once had almost a. 
monopoly, is one of whii'h we have no cause to coniplaiB, if, aa it 
probably will eventually, it leads to the reduction of the army to 
such a point as to make it a matter of certainty that France is as 
desirous of reuaiuing at peace as we are. 

The Zouaves are better liked on the battle-field than iu cities ; 
those of the guard have been beha.ving in such a way in the 
suburbs of Paris as to give rise to frequent complaints. It has, in 
consequence, beein decided that they shall be sent to certain garri- 
son towns, and that in future they shall spend two years in the 
provinces, and two years in Paris alternately. 

They have been showing here lately a weapon which combines 
the sabre and the revolver in one ; the latter forming the handle 
of the former. How lar it will answer as a cavalry weapon re- 
mains to bo proved, but possibly it might be utilised for duels, which 
are becoming quite common. The dispute about the Montmorency 
title has already led to one between De Talleyrand -Peri go rd and 
I>nko Sosthone de la Rochefoucault, and as soon as the former ia 
in a condition to take the field anew, there is another member of 
the Montmorency family with whom a similar arrangement has 
been made. There are others reported ; down to one between 
a deputy and a maire— the latter, with provincial barbarism, having 
abruptly terminated a dispute in public by breaking his antago- 
nist's nose by a blow with his fist. 

It is now openly stated in the Press that the object of the inter- 
vention in Mexico was not on account of paltry commercial interests, 
but to strike a blow at the gigantic Power which none dared to 
attack, and which was becoming a terror to Europe. The Monroe 
doctrine is supposed t« have received its first severe blow, and the 
French Govemioeut would gladly follow it up by acknowledging 
the independence of the Southern States. A considerable number 
of the troops have returned here from Meiico, where their services 
are no longer required, the authority of the government there being 
now pretty well established, The aueccfes of the extortions of tlioae 
who are raising the Foreign Legion for service in Mexico, must be re- 
tarded by the opBratious of the recruiting officers from the Federal 
Stales, who mast bo making handsome incomes on ^W ta«!."C\osso.\. 



268 



POBEIQN SUUUART. 



[Pkb. 



at present. Of course, tlieir proc^'edin(;s aro kept aa secret as 

posaible, and gentlemen t>o sliuqi as these are not %o indiscreet aa 
to Bead those they eujriige from one or two ports. To f;et an j thing 
like a clear idea of tlieir sucL'ess, it would be ueceaaary to sum up 
the increase in the niiraber of persona who have left all the conti- 
nental porfs, as well as those of England; a thing whieh is not 
possihle. For my part, I can hardly see a limit to the number of 
men they might obtain, if they received a eetrtain Biim per head, 
and were content with it, and allowed the recruits they send to 
receive the full bounty, minus only the sum given to them to pay 
their pu.Baage. The Polish exiles are said to have left in great 
niunbers, and I can easily believe it, for to most of tbemj the sum 
ofl'ered as bounty must appear enormous, and tlie chances of pro- 
lootiou for those who have military knowledge are so grent, that it 
would be hardly possiljle for a destitute man to resist such a. 
tempting bait. The Belgian Government, conaidoring the density 
of the jiopulation of Belgium, would uot lie likely to be too inquisi- 
tive as to the motives which might be assigned by a few thousands 
of the male inhabitants for trying their fortunes in a foreign land, 
and as for the Russian Government in Poland, it would bo strange 
indeed if they were not to rejoice in a diuiiniitiou in the number of 
Poles. It is astonishing that the enterprising agent*i, who work 
with the same object in England, comparatively to soliltle pur|H)8e, 
did not frciglit a vessel to tho Black Sea, where they might have 
got shiploads of Circastiians for the mere carrying them away ;, 
there would have been nobodj tfl gainsay their proceedings, and 
of the half.a-million of starving wretL-hes who have quitted their 
country, a great ninny thousands might uow have been fighting in 
tlte Northern armies, instead of rotting on a foreign soil, or cover- 
ing the bottom of the Black Sea with their bones. Even uow it 
ia not too late, for the emigration is still going on. 

A ministerial paper, published in Vienna, saya that the alliance 
between Austria and Prussia is close, and that, in addition to 
other advantages that Austria gains by this, is the power of saving 
30,000,000 florlne in her war budget. The enemy which this alli- 
ance is formed to meet, is, of course, France, in combination with 
Italy. But even supposing an offensive and defensive alliance 
to eilst between tho two Powers, the former cannot reduce ber 
army until Italy has done the same thing, and the King of Italy 
is much too unpopular, at the present moment, to venture on 
doing anything uot to the taste of his subjects. The visit of 
Prince Frederick Charles is unquestionably for the purpose of 
completing a private understanding between the Emperor and the 
King with regard to the Uuchiea. Some time ago, it was proposed 
by Austria that the Duke of Auguatenburg should act as vice- 
regent in the Duchies until the succession question was settled ; 
this was not, however, t<i the taste of Von Bismark, or to the King's 
military advisers, who are said to have urged hiiu to settle the 



1865.] 



rOBBIGir SUU&IABV. 



S09 



question at once, by aonexing them to Pruaeia, The Minister, 

better aware of the excitement this would cauBe in Austria and the 
Confederated States, and the eumity it wouldexcite against Friiaaia, 
opposed thU, and the King would not iwt ou tho more violent 
advice, though hia inclinationa are reported to have been in fuvour 
of it. Of course, if Prussia chose to set every other State at 
defiance, and aunex the Duchies, there is uoUiing to prevent it, bat 
the future consequences might be serioua. The people of the 
Duchies themaelvea are decidedly opposed to anneiation, with the 
exception of a comparatively small number, who, from motives of 
interest, or jieculiar views, urge ;in ilppositt course. Nevertheless, 
it is quite possible that by wearying them with a long delay, and 
by the use of speeious argnmenls, that a majority might eventually 
be induced to vote in favour of iinnesatiun. But the whole ques- 
tion of the Duchies is becoming wearisome, for what is reported one 
day is contradicted the nest, and many of the reports published in 
the newspapers are merely feelers ; the teal fact being that PrusBJa 
is afraid to do what she would, and is reluntant to do what she 
could. StiU, our being wearied with tbe quest ion in no way lessens 
its importance, and serious results would certainly follow, at some 
time or other, from any other settlement than the appointment of 
the Duke of Auguatenburp. No doubt if it rested with the Prus- 
aians alone to decide ou the future of the Duchies, all iiorties would 
be in favour of annexing them with PruBsia. They want to see a 
strong Prussian navy, and they not only covet the porta of the 
Duchies, but they see, in the inhabitants of the coasts, the means 
of manning their ships. This is the view taken of it hy the Prus- 
sian Minister, and ho Ims so far brought tlie Xing to his way of 
thinking, that he no longer considers, as he formerly did, the 
rights of the Duke of Auguatenburg to be unassailable. 

Beside the atfair of the' Duchies, there are other matters on 
whioh the Sovereigns of Austria and Prussia have a general under- 
standing, but which require to be arranged more iu detail ; these, 
too, will he discussed by the Prince and tbe Empei-or, It is 
asserted that an offensive and defensive alliance between the two 
Powei's is the principal of these. It is barely possible that this 
may Ije true. Elated by their petty siicccHsea against the Danes, 
and more, as I believe, from the evidence the campaign gave them 
of the goodness of their weapons, and the efficient way in which 
they were used, the military element in Prussia holds its head very 
high, and is disposed to regard diplomacy with some contempt ; 
consequently, it thiiiks more of exercising its power in warfare, 
than of the impolicy of involving Prussia in quarrel.^ from which 
she might stand aloof. So astute a Minister as Von Bismurk 
would, of eourae, be strongly opposed to an arrnngement so full of 
peril to his country, and from which, in no conceivable case, could 
it derive an adequate advantage, unless, iudeod, the possession of 
the Duchies coiUd be considered as aoj insimiiice against B.U. <et«,-o.- 



270 



pnnKies suMvittY. 



[Ffb. 



tualitles. For the same reasons that the Prussian Minister TTooId 
be reluctant to consent to such an alliance, Austria woulO be will- 
ing to enter into it; with a I'riend so powerful at her back, she 
might venture to reduce her army bo largely as to bring her 
expenditure within her receipts, and though it would etill further 
complicate the relAtiona between the other powers of Burope, she, 
at any rate, would be a gainer by it. 

If there had been any matter of importance occupying tho 
public mind, the Enejclical letter would have passed almost un- 
noticed. As it is, it gave the newspapers something to write about, 
and they were almost unanimous in condemning it. It is, how- 
ever, of no importance either oue way or the other, so far aa 
regards any power it has ; it cannot prevent progress, nor can it 
reslflre the past, still less can it inflict any punishment on those 
who commit the ofieaces it condemns. Its moral influence on the 
continent, however, whatever may be sivid to tbe contrary, is 
none the less on that accouiit, and it is quite a mistake to suppose 
that the Papal Government have act«d unwisely in issuing it, if 
we look at it merely from a religious point of view. To say that 
it shows that the Papacy has made no progress, and to condemn 
it on that ground is hardly less than absurd, since to remain what 
it always was is sound policy in every way, and to avow that it 
does so was no doubt the reason for which it was promulgated. 
If the moral influence of tho Fope is to be preserved, ho must not 
allow that his government hu.s been in error, and there can be no 
question that tho (greatest blow to this influence was inflicted by 
the present jjontiff himself when he set himself up as the cham- 
pion of liberty shortly alter his election. Whatever journalista 
may write, whatever foreign potentates may advise, the wisest 
policy of the Papal Government in the long run will be to stand 
fest where it is, and thus prove that it, at least, has no shadow of 
doubt of the Papacy being the perfection of wisdom and truth. 
Of course there is a vast number of persons on the continent who 
doubt the infallibility of the Pope, but these would not be con- 
verted into ardent supporters of his government by any change, 
while the faith of the host of individuals who constitute the mass 
of tho different nations would be shaken thereby. It is quite true 
that the clergy cannot obey the injunctions of the letter, but the 
Papal Government knew all this perfectly well when it decided on 
iesuing it, and there can be uo room to doubt that all these 
matters were well considered. Even in a country like France, 
where the Church has always been opposed to an invasion of its 
liberties by Borne, we see that the Letter has been received with- 
out opposition by several of the highest dignitaries of the estab- 
lishment, notwithstanding the interdict of the government, and 
we may be quite sure that a large numboi of the inferior clergy 
will take the same view of it. 

Tim unpopularity of the King of Italy has not diminished in 




F 



ISC5.] 



FOBEION SUMUaHT. 



271 



Turin. His Tisit to the ttieatre put this to (he lest, and here liia 
rei-eptidii was of a kind to which royalty is littte acuustorut'd. 
Tliia discontent of the Tunntsse ia natural, and likely to be 
durable ; tho chanqe of capital alone would huve bueu suiiicii'nt to 
accouut for it, hut when to this ia added the large number of 
persons who were killed by the military in Septemher without tha 
shadow of an excuso, there is sufficient ground for hatred of the 
king and his government. 

Whatever the ultimate prosperity of Italy may ha bIis ia at 
present a poor country, and will continue so as long as she main- 
taina her warlike attitude. Her population esceeds by five luillious 
that of Prussia, and her navy ia stronger than those of Austria 
and PruBia combined, but her commercial condition is inferior to 
Loth. The financial condition of Austria is ao bad that it cannot 
wi'il be aaid that Italy ia uot somewhat bettor off in this respeet; 
still there is no very great diffari'nce, for the latter Power ia order 
to raise funds to go on with, has been obliged to draw upon its 
next year's reaourcea aud to sell almost the only property it could 
sell, the State Domains. However desirous tho present giDvern- 
ment may be to diminish its eKpenses, it will uot be able to 
establish an equilibrium between ita outlay aud iucome unieaa it 
can hit upon some novel resource. 

The reduction in the expenditure on account of the army will 
not materially reduce the strength of the army iteelf, on the con- 
trary, it is proposed to add four battalions of riflemen, making 
forty in all, one to each brigade of infantry. The reduction will 
be in the non-com ha tan ta — the depots, the military truin, and 
workmen. A large number of those who swarm in the nfScea in the 
War Administralaon, as they do in every branch of the Gnvem- 
ment, are to be dismissed ; but it can hardly he creilited that tliese 
reductions will efl'ect a saving of anything like Ji2,400,00O, which 
is the amount estimated. 

Numerous meetings have been held in Italy for the purpose of 
getting up petitions for tho abolition of the punishment of death, 
the suppression of religious corporations, aud the appropriation of 
the property belonging to them for Governmental purposeB. No 
doubt it would be more agreeable to the Government to make up 
some portion of the deficit in this way, rather than have to resoi-t 
ultimately to a real reduction of the army; but the nation will be 
opposed to do either, and a persistence in adopting the prayer of 
the jietitioners would lay the foundation of su^th a wide-spread un- 
popularity, that, joined to other causes, might ultimately lead to 
serious divisions in a kingdom the component parts of which are 
hardly yet cemented. 

The return of Narva«K to power, is, by some of his counlrynieu, 
considered to indicate that a better prospect of obtaining their 
rights ia opening to the foreign creditors. Kot that the Ministry, 
any more than the preceding ones, arc ashamed to vuvv^wNa ^v%, 

U. S. Mag. Ko, i35, Fkb. 1305. "^ 



272 



FOKEICN SUUUAUT. 



[Pub. 




fraudulent troatraent of tbose to whom Spain has been so long in- 
debted ; but thoy see thiit in the present deaperale coiiditiou of 
the fiuantMis, it is sunnd policy to aacri^co a sprat to ciitch a 
whale. There ia no doubt that a return to honourable conduct 
would be an iuimease gain to Spain, especially if it be true that 
a large portion of Lor liabilities have beeo extinguished by tlie 
purchase of the afecurities held by foreignei-a, at the low price to 
which they have sunk. Of the straits to which the GoTernment 
is reduced for moDoy, a very good idea may be formed from the 
fact tbat the Government banks are paying depositors who will 
deposit their money for twelve months nine per cent. 

The annonncenient of the intended abandonment of San Do- 
miojo has given generiil satisf-ictiou in Spain. Narvae/ is the 
last Hiuister who would have been expected to introduce such a 
Bill into the Cortea , but aa no other Ministry could be formed, 
except on the condition tliat the Queen should conaent to thia, it 
is to be supposed that she preferred, and thoae also about the 
throne who arc supjWBed to influence her judgment preferred like- 
wise, that the proposition should he made by a Ministry more ' 
congenial to their feelings in other respecta, than one of more Liberal 
tendencies. The conditions on which Spain will negotiate for a. 
peace with Peru, are said to be the payment of 15,000,000 | 
dollars aa an indemnity for the expenses of the war. Thia demand 
for the re-imbursement of the expenses of an expedition sent to 
commit an a«t q[ iujiisttce ia, a most cruel one, and if it be ac- 
ceded to, it will suggest to other inferior States tbat may happen 
to have a little nary, a means of maintaining it at the expense of 
its weaker neigbbours. If a Congress of Sovereigns would put au 
end to such extortions, it would be worth the trouble of meeting 
for the purpose. At present, Peru shows no signs of yielding to 
any demands whatever, and if the Government had acted with 
the energy desired by the national representatives, the Spanish 
squadron would have been attacked already. If the Peruviana are 
aa brave aa some of the other South American Eepublica, aud there 
is no reason that T am aware of to suppose they are not, the 
Spaniards may find that they have undertaken an enterprise 
more difficult of execution than the conquest of San Domingo. 

The nomination of Prince Napoleon in France to the Vice-Presi- 
dency of the Privy Council, haa had its counterpart in Ruasia, in 
the case of the Grand Duke Constantine, chosen by the Emperor 
for President of the Council of State, Thia nomination ia con- 
sidered to indicate that the old Muscovite party have adopted 
more Liberal viewa, or else that the Emperor feels himself strong 
enough to set them at defiance. There is nothing new from 
Kokan, but the Russian Government is steadily pursuing the im- 
provement of the means of communication with Persia and the 
EuHt. The expenditure on the army and navy in 1864, waa 
Mtimated at 392,727,000 roubles; for 1865 it is estimated at 



1865.] 



POSBIOM SUMUAItY, 



srs 



372,343,000 roablea, a reduction of 20,384,000. On the Btrenpth 
of this proposed reduction, which excited the coafidence of the 
public, a loan has been raided, the proL'eede of which aru ehietlj 
intended for completing the railway from Moscow to the B\ajck 
Sea. 

There are rumours current of n renewal of the insurrection in 
Poland, and some arrests have been uittde, but these hu,ve been 
for breaches of existing regulations, and uot on account of con- 
Bpiriug to excite fresh diBturbaneea. UnlesB there is a Himul- 
taneouB rising ia other countries, it cannot be credited that the 
Poles will be mad enough to bring on themselves a renewal of 
the sufferings they underwent during the last outbreak. 



EDITOR'S POIlTFOLlOi 



NAVAL AND MILITARY REGISTER. 



^^^ It lins never before fallen to our lot to record at tlio same time 

I the df striicl ion of two of her Majesty's ships, and llie loss of several 

I valuable JivcB. Willi so large a lleet ns we now possess, it must be 

I expected that occasionally Ocean sliould claim for its own some of 

I those treasures H'liich nre Inuriclied iijion its bosom in the full 

I assurauce tbat they will be able to defy its powers; eapeciully when 

it is remembered tlmt our men-of-war Uave to traverse seas, and to 
approach coasts which are but litlle known, and which our nuiitionl 
surveyors have not yet examined. At the beginning of last mouth, 
news was received al the Admiralty announcing the wreck of the 
Racehorse, a screw g-uii-vesfcl of 695 Ions and 200 horse-power, on 
the night of ilie^th November, at 8.30 p.m., about five leagues 
south-east of Cliefoo Cape, in the Buy of Lung-mun, on llie coast 
of China, while on her way to the port of Clicfoo from Shangluii, 
It nppears that the weather at the time was extremely tliick and 
ha/.y, and there is reason to suppose ihal it was thought the vessel 
was entering Chefoo harbour, lo which Lung-iiiun Bay bears a 
strong reiieniblance. This is not the first accident which has hap- 
pened in this neiglibourhood. In the winter of l&il-3, a British 
merchant ship became a total wreck near the same spot, and more 
recently a steamer called the "Swatow" was nearly destroyed 
there. 

The Rnoeburee was commanded by an officer bearing a nam.« 

1% 



274. 



EDirOKS POUTTOLIO; OR, 



[Fkb. 



• 



I 



well known in tlie annals of the navy as connected with seainniisliip 
of liie highest order, and her crew was in thnt stale uf dijci|]line 
wbicli ia the priife, as well as the boast of the British Navy, This 
was evinced under circunistnticcs which might olmoat render a dis- 
obedience of orders excusable. From the oflicial despatch, «'hicli we 
annex, it will be seen that " the conduct of the olficers and men was 
most cool and collected, obeying every order smartly and eticrgcli- 
callj," thus adding annllier to the mauy prnofs already existing of 
the noble spirit which pervades the SiTvice, even in the hour at 
death. 

"H.M.'s gunboat Insolent, Teutai, Nov. 8, ISO*. 

"Sir, — I am ordered by Captain Boxer to repurt that Her 
Mnjeatv's ship Rncehorse was wrecked on the nijilit of Friday, iho 
4tii of November, at S'30 p.m., about live leagues to the S.F.. of 
Chc-foo Cape, and about two miles to the E S.E from White Iliick, 
and only nine of her crew saved. At the time of tlie ship striking 
it was comparatively smooth, boats were lowered, stream aiicliornnd 
cable plnci'd in cutlers rendy to lay out, when heavy rollers set in, 
Bwampiiig both cutters and gig, anil breaking enlirely over the ship; 
the masts were tlieii cut away, and the ship steamed full speed on 
shore, endeavouring to save life, but, the wind iucreasiug to a gale, 
the rollers washed away all skjlighls and filled the ship. The ship's 
company were Iheu sent aft, tulJ the position of the ship, and that 
if they held on till daylight there was every hope of all hands being 
saved. Unfortunately, the endurance of only a few was equ:il to 
this, the poor fellows dropping offoim by one from the elTeclsof the 
cold and the force of the sea. A list of those saved and lost is 
enclosed. Captain Boxer desires me to add that the conduct of the 
officers and men during this frightful night was most cool and col- 
lected, obeying every order smartly and energetically, especially by 
the first lieutenant, master, and boatswain. 
"1 have the houi-ur to be, fee, 

" G, Toctp Nicolas, Lieutenant-Commmanding. 

"To Captain Ilayes, ILM.8. Tartar, Slianghai. 

"A list of the officers and men who were saved and lost on the 
occasion of Her Majesty's ship Kijcehorsc being wrecked. Thoae 
whose names are marked * signify that the bodies have been re- 
covered and buried ;— 

"Officers and Men Saved. — Commander Bnxcr ; Mr. W. II. 
Thompson, paymaster; Mr. W. Lowletf, boatswain; Jolni Hollis, 
bnalswain's mate; Owen Roberts, A.B.; W. Kulon, A.B.; \V. 
Pui^h, gunner, R.ll.A. ; W. 'Wasliingion, privntc I<.M.; John 
NichoUs, stoker ; — Ricliardson, stoker, left at Shanghai, sick in the 
hospital. 

"Officers Lost.— *Lieotenanl W. Farr|uhflr; Lieutenant A. G. C. 
Tsit, Master Thomas Dobbin, Siirgpon Jos, E. Fawcetl, Chief Engi- 



1866.] 



NATAL AND MILITAHK HKAISTER. 



275 



iieer G. M. Dooley, * Assistant Pnymnster Richard Crnbbe, and 
Assistniil-Enfiiiieers Pliillips, Tappiiii;, and Tickle. 

"To jiiiii Insolent. — Mr. Robert?, aecoiid mnsler (from Swallow), 

land Gunnera James Porter and David Gingle. 

I " List of Men Lost. — *Tlioma3 Hart, James Mummery, *W. 

IWalts, J. llcarsaj', *G. WrlJartl, *W. Baily (stoker), •George 

''Winters, *J. Kennuii, J, Jordim, Jones (boy), Sliarp (bov), Crump 

(boj), *Malliker (boy), Kiiigvrill (boy), Ri[)|)fln (boy). Alien (boy), 

"Vtiiton (boy), Cliarlick (boy), Jerred, Huxter, MaliL'r, HiiyHroni, 

Lay, W. E. Thomns, John Boyd (stoker), D. Porrrst (stoker), Wil- 

soil (stoker), \^'hite (jloker), llvans (stoker), W, Lucaa (striker), 

Ki-nton (stoker), John Uurry, Hood, Whileloek, Peter Webster, 

Josepli Cuspy, W. Cook, M. Moore, Jeremiah Sullivan, Alfred 

Tucker, Dixon, Bowyer, liiclmrds. Burns, Kirby, J. Awalutte, Gray, 

John Myers, Georsjc Ctaddockj James Veal (ordinary), Similie (or- 

r dinury), Buckley, Riehard Trarell, A.B. ; Wilkinson (stoker), Even- 

Ider (stoker), Phi|ips (stoker), L. Bonrne (stoker), *Serge»nt 

IBeynolds, Boiubadicr W. Woodltiise, Taylor (gnntier, B.M.A.), W. 

pBrown (tjunner), A. Gibbin (gunner), Rowc (gunner), Alley (private), 

J. Brown (private), Forrester (private). Miller (private), G. Curry 

(private). 

"For Insolent. — Five stokers, five marines, two boys. 
"Indiana. — W. R. Steward and servant; engineera' amoon: T. 
Cobell, captain's cook; one Chinese boy. 

Nuuiber on Ship's Books. — Belonging to ship, 94; private aer- 
Tant, 1; eupernumuraries, 13 — total, lOS. 

" G. T. Nicolas, Lieut.-Coramanding Her Majesty's 
Gunboat Insolent." 

Before another fortnight had passed, a telegram was received to 
the elTect that a still greater calamity had happened iu the total 
loss of Her Majesty's ship Bombay. Iu this case it was another, but 
a more terrible element, which caused the destruction of one of the 
finest liue-of-battle ships afloat. More tban sixty years have elapsed 
since a vcsse! so large a.s the " Bombay " was a prey to the greatest 
enemy a seaman has to encounter. We allude to the loss of the 
" Queen Charlotte" by fire on the 17th March, l&OO, near Leghorn. 
As iu the case of the " Bombay," slie was a Sag-shi|i, and the 
Admiral (Lord Keith) and bis staff had left her only on the pre- 
ceding day. The want of proper discipline, which was assigned 
as one of the cau?es which led to the dcslruction uf Lord Keith's 
Hag-ship, cannot, however, be applied to tlie ship which buce the 
flag of Itear-Admiral Charles Elliot. As yet we have not received 
very full particulars of this melancholy occurrence, nor is the origin 
of the tire known. The following official despalcli from the Couv- 



tu 



XDlTOtt 8 POKTTOUO ; OB, 



[Fkb. 



■Mkder-in-Chief leada to the suppositiou, however, that it must 
hav« begn \ close lo Ihc a[iint-r<ioiQ. At ihe time of tlie fire, which 
brokr out on the sriernoon of the X4th December, the Bombav was 
andrr cail near Monle Video, slajiUiiig duwn ihc river with a fresh 
bfe«cffoin the iiorlli-west. Tlie crew were at tlivisioiial drill when 
the lire-bell was rung, aod a liltle smoke Has s*xa coming up the 
ventilators and hatchwnis. This increased su tapidlji, atid the 
flames got such hold on the sliip, tiiat it wus fuund imjiofsihle to 
save her. The boats were got out with a» much order and ex- 
|)edttion as if Tor mere exeroifc, and the principal part of those oa 
bua (1 trero iIiuh »uved. The number reported lo be missing is 
iiiiirtf-threo ; but tliero is reason Lo liopc that some of these may 
have got on board a French barque proceeding to Buenos Ayrea, 
and other vessels piissing near the scene of disaster. At the time 
we write, the English mail sleniuer, hy which further det<patches 
fn-Di I tear- Admiral li^lliot may be expected, had not arrived; but, 
with reference to a suggestion which has been made respecting the 
CBu.'e of llie fire, we deem it but just to the Admiralty to express 
OUT belief, tlint the orders contained in the Circular, issued in 
January, 1864, " that great precaution is lo be taken to prevent oils 
or spirits of a d.ingerous inflnuimnble nature, for the use of lamps, 
being received on board," were strictly ohscrved on hoard the 

Bombay. 

" H.M.S. Slroraboli, Monte Video, 
Dec. 15, Ib64., 8 a.m. 

"Sir, — T much regret that I have to report the total loss by fire 
of H.M.S. Bombay. 

"Siie left this anchorage under still at 7 a.m. yesterday, when I 
transferred my Hag to tlie Trilun. About 5 p.m. of the same day, I 
received intelligence thai tlie Bombay was an lire near the English 
Bank, or Flores Island, about thirteen miles from this place. I 
immediately despatched the Strombol) to her nsMslance, and pro- 
ceeded myself in the Triton, but so rapidly had the fire extended 
thnt the ship had been deserted long before assistance could reach 
them. 

"The ship's company had been at general quarters in the after- 
noon, till a litile after 3 p.m., the foremost lower deck guns were 
then told off for divisional exercise, but firing had not commenced 
from them, when about ten minutes after the retreat had been beat, 
fire was reported to have broken out in the after part of the ship 
about the after hold; the fire bell was immediately rung, and with 
the greatest order and prom|)tness, an abundant supply of water was 
obtained, but the fire appears at once lo have spread with uncon- 
trollable rapidity, which gives me the impression that it originated 



1865.] 



NAVAL AMD UTLITAIty REGISTER. 



277 



K 



very cloae to the spirit room, and that the spirit casks must almost 
immediately have burst and ignited. 

At 3 35 p.m. the fire was reported. At 3.52, finding the fire was 
quickl^V gainintr, the bonis were hoisted out. At 4 p.m. the bonta 
weie out, wiih the oxccplion of the second louncli, when ihe flames 
comina up tlie hatchway.", the iiwiiing and sail? having been burnt, 
reiideri-d it impossible lor the mm to work. The sick had already 
been passed iiHo the boats, and the rest of the ship's company now 
followed. At a quarler-past Tour the mainmast went over the side, 
the boats then being scarcely clear of the ship, and many officers 
and men were still holding on to ropes alongside, and to the fore- 
part of the ship, and others flnaiing on the spars, &c. Soon after 
the msinmust fell, the stop|»ers of the anchors being burnt through, 
the anchors fell, and it seems many men who were upon or near Ihern, 
niu?l have lost Iheir lives. 

"The ship was under sail, hove to, when the fire occurred, steam 
not havinjj been u]i. 

" At H.S5 the after magazine blew up, and the ship sank in aboat 
eight fathoms. 

"Among the officers, Mr. John K. Smallborn, assist ant- surgeon, 
is the only one missing, and who nas drowned alongside. 

"The French mail packet being at this moment on the point of 
departure, I am not able to give n more detailed report; but I am 
endeavouring to ascertain the number and names of men missing, 
which, I nm sorry lo say, amounts to about ninety-three; bnt the 
boots having beepi picked up by vessels proceeding to different 
places, we cannot as yet give a correct return. 

"I have the honour to be, &c., 

(Signed) " Chas. G. J. B. EtLiOT, 
" Bear- Admiral and Commander-in-Chief. 

"To the Secretary of the Admiralty." 



Since the return of M'Clintock the passion for Arctic discovery 
that once animated the Royal Navy may be said to have slumbered,] 
but the proceedinga at the Meeting of the BoyaJ Geographical 
Society, on Monday, Jpinuary 23rd, show that this will no longer 
be the case. On that occasion, in the presence of an unusually 
large auditory, with Sir Roderick I. Murchison, K.C.B, in the 
chair. I^ptain Sherard Osborne, R.N., C.B., read a paper on 
** The Exploraliou of the North Pole," the chief points of »hich 
were as follows ; — 

" Arctic discovery," the gallant officer said, " must always excite 
a deep interest among those who were not ' rest-nnd-be-thankful' 
men in science, notwitlistanding the fate of Sir John Franklin. 
During thirty-sis years of Arctic exploration, and out of forty-two 
expeditions, England had lost only 1£M men, and by ship, boat. 



tn 



JlDlToa'a posTFoiiO: ob. 



IftK. 



and vlrdgf no fewer tli'ni 20,000 miles liad hi-en Ir'xvcTseil in the 
•nmli of Trauklin. It liad been Jiscovend tii^t I'roviiieiice h.nl 
pl»oed ialiabitante in tho^e regions to tlie utmost limit ever vet 
ta ettti, and much of the dark and super^ititioiis {ears wliicli siir- 
rtonded exploration in those quarters were disajipcHriiig. Our 
pailitra were now ratlier anxious tlian otherwi?e to take pnrt in ilieae 
Arctic discoveries, which were reallv less i!unf;erou8 than almost any 
Mbrf. Of the nearr-sl point lo the Pole, Spitsbergen, sailing ships 
luil been in that quarter within 500 railt's of ilie Pole. Sir E. 
pjrry, in l&i7, t^lood on a sheet of floating ice much nearer tlmn 
tliii, *l|rn he left Spilzbergen on his exploratioii. Tliere were 
gn-»lrr fiicililii-s now ihnn at th»t time, for sledging bad been much 
improved. But Greenland, not Spitzbergen, was the point of de- 
partiiro fur [uiI.Iut explorations wiiich he would recommend. In 
1S53 !>r. Kane cnlercd Smitli'a Sound in ihe Advance, atid M'GUn- 
tock, Bcechcr, and nlhers, with not less than 400 Urilish subjects, 
wrre at lh.it time within the Arctic regions. But Kane's expedition, 
nlihough full of oiilhusiasm, was dclicient in suppUea and equip- 
ment, and therefore the sufferings which he endured ought not to 
deter from further discovery in those regions. In IS54, the glacier 
al l!ic extreme northern point of Grei-iilaiid reachefl, was niimed 
Cupe ConBlifulion bj Mr. Morton, the only man who readied it, 
II waa said that this waa the real northernmost point of Greenl.ind, 
but he (Captain Osborn) entirely dissented from that view. He 
held that the land in Greenland extended much further north, hut 
he would accept the cnlculaiion which placed Grinnell Land, 
descried by Mr. Morton, within 44i miles from the Pole. There 
was more probability of land or ice reaching lo H7°, than that there 
was an open sea belwc.'n Grinnell Liiud and the Pole. On the coast 
of Greintand, al Murchison Sound, ktitude 77-H0°, were a nation 
of Arctic highhinder.", a hardy race, purely carnivorous, and de- 
pending entirely for their food upon tlie fact of their being there oil 
the year round open water and broken ice, 'fiiese Arctic liigh- 
landers were mild, humane, and even affectionate, and that was 
annther reason for making this the starting point of future explora- 
tion. As to the mode, the exprdilion ought to be under the 
Admiialty and directed by nnval discipline; private enterprise and 
direction would necrssarily fail. Besides, Arctic discovery would be 
a wholesome variety for our navy whicii did nol always delight in 
battle and death. Why should they not, then, ask the Admirattv 
for two small vessels i* If they asked Ihcy would gel thoui. Well, 
they would reach Baffin's Bay in autumn, 18b6, and dividing the 
work, would prepare, say in 1867, for aiedge operations in ihe 
great Arctic regions at present unknown between Ca|)e Parry and 
the Pole. By IStii) the object of the expedition would be attained. 
Experience had shown that these sledging operations could be easily 
cnrried up to the Polf, and beyond it; and ihis was Captain M'Clin- 
tock's oiiiuion, and Captain M'Clintock was of all men living the 



1S65.] 



NAVAL AND MtLlTARY ItEdlBTEH. 



279 



bi-st cnlciiliilfd to hriid such an cx|>c(liti(iu. As lo the advniilages 

of ihis ex |) ignition tlie; had niiliin litis iiiikiiuwn s[i.icc round the 
Pole 1,3S(I,000 square miles, nnd whellicr tliii was sea or liiid, or 
icp, riu one kmw. Up to llif cxlri'iiie point reaclieJ, inliiiLituiilB 
«trc fciiiiid, and nnimuls wliicli formed Llieir food. The lirst fruit 
of tlio espedilion iTimld be lo ascertain tiie human and otlici life Jil 
the biiain of llie Fule, and no doubt man would there be found in 
he WHS ill the glacier period. The botany of the Bea and of the 
hind and the climate of this unknown region mtisl also be objects of 
llijcli iiileiest to acquire a kmntl dfje of, especially if, as was pro- 
bable, tlif lempemture was much tower ihju might have been 
anticipated. Tu solve the mysteij of the climate of the Potar basin 
would be itself an ample reward for the espedilion herecommetiJed. 
lie put tlie question before them, not on grounds of proht and loss — 
not as to acquisitions of whale blubbtr and bone or peltry — but 
[Jurely upon scientific ffrounds. If that society should hesilate, let 
tliem turn to the Rnjid Society, and take note of what Colonel 
Sabine said on the auhject. In llic expedition he urged every pre- 
paration might be made for a mi'asurement of an arc of fourdigreea 
of the lueridi.m at Sniitb'a Sound, which would go far to supply 
Uie dcj^ideratum pointed out by Colonel Sabine. A survey of this 
Arctic sea would, besides, solve an inlcresting problem witli res]jeot 
lo the ctl'ect of the Gulf Stream in those extreme northern rcf^ions, 
8iid would probubly result in ahowing that sea to leem with animal 
life, lu conclusion, he joined with Colonel Sabine in opinion that 
the discovery of the North Puie remained the greatest problem ia 
geogrtiphical exploration, and in hoping that when achieved It 
would be achii'Ved by an Euglishman." 

After some discussion in which the President, Colonel Sabine, 

Sir Edward Belcher and others took part, the proceedings termin- 
ated. The project is now fairly befire the Government and the 
country, and we cannot doubt but thai it will meet with that 
favourable consideration lo which anything is fairly entitled which 
is S'upporled by such names as Muichison, Sabine, and Lubbock, 
among men of science, and such experienced Arctic navigators aa 
Belcher, M'CliiitoclE and Osborne. 



Ill days when the sister SiTvices did not know each other so well 
as they do now — an improved state of things that this Journal has 
had no mean share in producing — a soldier at sea was the very type 
of helplessness to the blue jackets. That fancy has passed away 
never to return ; but still it is a duly, and a pleasant one too, for a 
Professional Journal lo put on record a case of conspicuous gallantry 
exhibited by n Marine ofiieer, under circumstances that would have 
tried the manhood of the linest seuman afloat. We allude, %% t^'&x. 



3H0 



BDH'ORS POBTroLIO; OH, 



[T«B, 



rendtTS will readily guess, lo the rescue of Ibe crow of a Bmall 
Vessel lately wrecked neui Fort Cumberland, wliich we may fairly 
■ay was, under Provideiici-, due to the ititiividual extrtiuns of Mujor 
Francis Wotgan Fesiing of the lloyHl Mnriiies, the cnmniandotit of 
that fort. The following' is lite stniement of ihe local |iaj)er. 

" PortsnioQlli, Sunday, J;imiftry 15 th — Rear- Admiral Filzroy's 
wpmI lier-WHrmnfT HtjniiL* for the soutlierii di-(rict have been followed 
here since Irt'ednesdny hist by 'he most violent weather. During 
the irliole of Fnday nighl and the greater pari of SatuHny, the 
Isle of WigM, Spithead. and tiie adjacent country and the Channel 
were s*ept by ihe most wiolent hurricniie that has been experienceil 
in thig pari for some considerable lime. About eltven, a.m., mea- 
•engers arrived at Porl.smoulh from Fort Cumberland and the 
Coastguard at the erilratice lo Lan^ston harbour, requesting im- 
mediate assiFtaiice for k schooner, (iifterwards found to be the 
"Ocean," of Plymouth, from Cliarleslone, Coniwoll, for Sunder- 
land) wliieli liiid ^'one asliore on the dangerous fhiiigle brinks at the 
eulraiici' toLangaton harbour, kniwn as the " Woolslenors." The 
Couiet, Government steara-tup, with n hl'e-boat in low, in charge of 
B Government Trinity pilot, (\V, .Main) was sent out to afford assis- 
tance, but she could only approach iviihiii some 5,0I.'0 yards of the 
wreckeil ve^'sei, which eould be seeu, with lier crew in tiie rigging 
(lier hull just below waler and her mast alandiiig) in the very 
midst of the seething breakers, which rose in high sheels of white 
foum over the hard sand and shingle of the " East Winner." No 
boat, esceptiug s life-boat, could po^-sibly have floated over the 
sliiiUows inlervpning between the " Comet" and the stranded 
schooner, and the ete^imer bad to return to Portsmoulh harbour, 
and leave the men in the rigging to their fate. There was no 
piiasible help for this. The steamer herself could not approach the 
wreck any nearer owing to the shallowness of ihe water, and the 
life-boat she had brought wilh her could not have lived to reach 
the wreck through the sea thf-n running over the shoals. The crew 
were thus reluctanlly ahnitdoned lo their fate, and all the resources 
of Porlsmoulli dock-yard were unable to remler them nny assistance. 

Fortunately, however. Fort Cumberland, the head-quarters of the 
Bojal Marine Artillery, stands at the eritratice of the harbour of 
Langslon, and from liiis fort the schooner had been watched from 
the lime she first approached the dangerous shoals, and on her 
striking, a resolve n-ns made lo attempt the rescue of her crew. A 
]«ge ten-oared cutter is kept at the fort for the purpose of filing 
the tiirgi'ls on the shoals out seaward for practice from the guns at 
the fort. At first five figures could be seen in the rigging, but soon 
afterwards only three could be made out, and these it was evident 
must be rescued soon if their lives were to be saved. The cutter 
was tberefori; under the direction and personal su peri u tendance of 
Major FeBling, R.M.A., taken across the entrance of Laiigston 



1866-1 



NAVAL AND UtLlTAIiy BEGI^TER. 



ZSl 



hnrbonr to t.lie Hayliiig Islniid shore. aiiJ was tliere maniiod by tlia 
island fishermen (vnluntperi'). The boal. was Inanclied aa quickl/ 
BB possible, Miijur I'Vsling lBk:ng tlie lieliii, anJ alter waili'ip some 
Hlttf tioip (i) iillow lliti ebb tule to run out ila gre.it.'sL streiii^lli, tlio 
bout's head wa? laid for llie schooinT, niid the men bent lustily to 
tlieir ours. U was a matter of hie and death to all those in the 
boat, as itjwiis to the exjieclanl men in the unfortunate schooner's 
"Ka'"g; sixi wheu the bout got at leujitii fairly in among the 
breiikcTs and close to the scliouner, a minute, or may be longer, 
passed, during wliicb the tratcber' on shore ihouglit all had gone 
together — the boat, vessel, and their ctews, uU being hid iu the 
blinding grey whirl that spiinj; up from tlie broken water. Im- 
mediately afterwards, however, the eulter with her gallant crew waa 
spen leaving the wreck, and in a few minutes more she was high 
and dry on Hajling Island beach, wiih the ma.-ter, matB, and one 
man, part ol the schooner's crew, safe on board. The leroainder o£ 
I the crew, one man and a bov, were washed overboard and dtowued 
bpfore help coulJ reach them. It is but justice to meiilion ihat 
' the Marine Artillerynipu at Fort Cumberland volunteered by scorea 
I to man boals for the rescue of ihe scliooner, but their commnnding 
officer, in Ihe face of sucli teiiipci-tuous weather, riglitly judged that 
mem employed on sued urgent service should be well acquainted 
with tiie shoals, and for that reason sought the aid of the tishermen 
volunteers." 

Major Festing, who entered the Service in 1850, is a Knight of 
I the Legion of Honour, and wears medals and clasps that show he 
pas served in the Baltic, aa well as before Sebastopol and Kin- 
[bourne, and in China, and to these should certainly be added 
lanoiher, which any of our life-saving societies would do houour to 
[itself by offering for his acceptance. 



Tiie enormous space required for the stowage of coals on board 
Bteamen, whether for war or commerce, has long been confessed to 
be a very serious drawback, and the atlention of many persons has 
been thus directed to the possibility of substituting some less bulky 
combustible, or, which comes practically to the sumo thing, some- 
thing of greater heating power. The subject was recently discussed 
at the evening meeting of the Royal United Service Listitulion, 
when the Duke of Somerset took the chair, which is in itself a proof 
of the importance attached to the matter in tlie highest quarters. 
At present, we confine ourselves to putting on record an abstract of 
the meeting, but this we shall follow op by some practical remarks 
iu our next Number. 

" Ou Monday, January Iti, a meeting was held at the Itoyal 



£63 



editok's PODTPOLTO ; 0», 



[Feb: 



United Service Infilitaliuu, in Wliilelioll Yard, ihe Duke of 

SomtTsct iti the cliair. The subject brouglil uiidiT conaideralion 
WB? ibe USD of miiiernl oils as fuel for »ti'«inslii|i3, cjq h iiicli a paper 
Wfts rcaii b)' Gi|»lnin Jiisper Sdwya. He observed thai, us in times 
piisl po in ibe future, the grealiic-ss of Kii^land must depenil on llie 
superiiTity of her Navy ; and, Llicrefure, it was of tiie utmost im- 
porlanre that all new apptianCM for the impnivemeiit of tlie Niivy 
should Le well eonsidered. Having described ihe nature of petroleum, 
it becaiua a question u hether it could be mnde npp[i''able as fuel fur 
Bleam-sliipR. Ilis oplninn wns that it could be so u?ed. Tiie generul 
impres^idii now prevuilui;; wns ihnl Iwcniy gallons were equal lo 
one Ion of Coal, and his ua'n c:<pcriuients led him to the coaclusioii 
thai the liealiiig power of the oil was lo thai of coal as l^ or 4 to 1. 
By exlracliiig ihc volatile spirit of the oil il could be u*cd with 
pctfpcL safely. It would occupy less space in n sliip than coul, it 
could be used in tanks or cells, which form of structure was the 
best for resisting shot. The iron of the sliipa would also be pre- 
served belter by the oil than by llie coa). Il would be in every wny 
more fonviiiicnl and cleaner, and would require fewer persuns to 
work. It was s^id lliat tlip exppiise of the oil would prevent its use 
n." a siibslitule for coal. There might be circumstances in whicli no 
consideration of that kind should be allowed to oiilitate against the 
Dse of the superior article. But it was known that the supply of 
luiucnit oil was jiraclically inexhai;slible, and that it existed in 
various quarters of llie globe. The importation of petroleum from 
America rose from lU.DOU.OOO gallons to 31,0011,000 gallons in 
1804-, and ibe price was £18 8 Ion for tlie impure, and £^3 a tun 
for tlie pure. The auprrlorily of the oil to llie coal he found to be 
IJ to 1; but be iiQ(l reeenliy reci-ivid a leller from an American 
genlleman, in which the superiority of the oil was slated lo be much 
highnr. It bad been found that the tubular boilers were nut the 
best for retaining beat, and therefore improved boilers would be 
necessary for the improved means of heating. 

"Tlie Duke of Somerset, in moving a vote of thanks to the Icc- 
tnrer, t^aid it was ioipossiLle to undervalue the importance of petro- 
leum as a light and hfat-preduciiig agent, but its practical applica- 
tion as steam fuel had not ss yet been so clearly proved as to justify 
him in ordering a new boiler to be made in one of their navd 
vevsels. The time niigiit not be far distant, however, when the 
Navy Dipartmeiit mij^ht have to order new steam boilers for all 
thpir vessels, such waa the rapidity of invt ntion in these days, and 
if lliul time came, those who look Ihe first steps in proving its 
purpose would be gratefully remembered." 



Contrary to the expectations of matiy, Sherman has marched into 

iiriiiiih, iiardea not being strong enough to contest the point 

thi* " glorious triumph of the Union cause," like so 




1865.J NAVAL AND UILITA&I UKQIST&B. 28S 

very many others, proves to be no great matter after all, even with- 
out setting against it the disaster to the exjjeditioD up the Roanoke, 
or the mjsernbie bungle before Wilmington. This last matter has 
one good point, however, as it has caused the extinction of the 
lawyer-general, Bntler. 

The question now arise'. What will the Federals do with Savan- 
nah ? Sherman's march from Atlanta to that place has left no liace 
except of desolation and consequent increased hiitred to the Yankees, 
and the pretence of "evoking Uuion senlimerit" wherever the 
Federals march is now abandoned, even by the New York press. 
Traversing the South from one end to the other has been practically 
shewn to have no effect beyond embittering the parties, and the war 
seems likely ere long to degenerate into a mere war of posts, the 
Federals being able, from their maritime superiority, to hold a few 
sea-ports, and so to spin out the contest indefinitely, as happened, 
early in the present century, with the Spaniards and their colonies. 

When George the Third, and his well-abused Minister, Lord 
North, became aware that4he conquest of the " revolted colonies " 
was impossible, they were told that the war might still be Ciirried on 
by means of their ships, and of forces sent out every now and then 
from New York, and the other strong places where the English flag 
still flew. " Obstinate, bigoted, and ignorant " as they were, ac- 
cording to some eminent modern writers, tiiey had the gi)od sense 
and the good feeling to refuse thus wickedly to prolong a hopeless 
contest, and frankly acknowledging that they could not succeed, 
they at once agreed to a separation, which has proved a benefit to 
both parties. If President Lincoln and his advisers were as wise as 
the much maligned King, they woald imitate his example, and by 
thns promptly closing the war, they would avoid the risk of having 
the legality of his second election called in question by the great 
European Powers, who might possibly think the recognition of the 
South the necessary consequence. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



[With the view of promoting the interests of the United Services, 
this departmentr of the Magazine is open to all authenticated 
communications, and therefore the Editor cannot hold himself rea- 
ponsible for the opinions expressed.] 

THE ROYAL ABTILLBBY. 

14th Janoarj, 1865. 
Sir, — The modified seheme which your Correspondent B.A- haa -^5*. 
forward inyour number for January, p, ViT.foT wi&SiE^Kr»^'asss\&(&.'&isi 



E8t 



COaBBSPON DLVCB. 



[FsB. 



Bo;al Artillery, is 8o ogrogiously aud radically wrong, that I find it R 
bopclesB taak to rectiij ttiQ errors, which lire ahowQ on the bare face 
of It. 

la tMj attempt to bring this neglected aarvice, toa state of perfection 
or efficiency at this tiiuf, Iho followiug data or maxima require to be 
carefxilly conaidered and adopted. 

All ofQoers being expressly educated for this high and important 

Srofeseion ut Woolwich, are enlisted into this Service aa a " Seniority 
orps" for Life,' and their promotion depends npon the ratio of mor- 
tality aloue, " without purtJalily, favour, or allection," so that each officer 
on arriving at the age of sixty.f if unfit, is removed from hia regi- 
mental duties, or on becoming a "Commandant," havujg increased 
duiios. with nsora oitenaive responsibilities to perform, either Regi- 
mentally, or ia the Civil DeMrtraent of the Ordnance. 

By the EeportJ of H.M. Royal Com mis a i oners on the Memorials of 
the Officera of the iDdiati Army, the number of General Offieersfortha 
Royal Artillery was fixed in the pro]K)rtion of one to twenty-si][§ Regi- 
mental Officers, and the proportion now recommended ia one to twenty- 
Beven|| Regimental Offlcera, the same as the Line, which givei biz 
officera per Battery, according to its original formation in 1748 

Although the Regimental Officers are required to porfonn duties in 
the Civil Department of the Ordnance, and other Sljitf duties of a pro- 
fesHional nature, independent of the charge of baltaries, yet, to regulalo 
their promotion on one uniform system, they must be calculated for 
as Regimental Officera, ao that the whoie body riae by Seniority and 
regulated on the principle of a Tontine ; each portion or division consist- 
ing of twenty-eight members of the total number on the strength of 
the Corps. 

BATTEBIIiS. 

Each Battery for Field or Garrison Service must be completed to its 
proper strength to secure efficiency at all liroca, according to the natnro 
of the Service it is employed upon. Sis guns being dsed for Field 
Batteries, and eight guns on Gan-ison duty. 

In the Artillery, two Batteries form a Brigade under a Lieutenant- 
Colonel,ir and four Batteries form a Brigade under a Colonel, with two 
Lieutenant-Colonels under him, to maintain the discipline of the Corps. 
Ill the Report ofl 8-10, theCommissionersart^r describing the nature and 
eitent of the duties intrusted lo Lieu ton ant- Colonels of Artillery proceed 
to say, " We are decidedly of opinion that duties and resj)onsibilii,icB of 
this description not only imyiera lively require that the officer appointed 
to discharge or to incur tbem should no one possessed of rank and 
authority, and on that account, tliey properly devolve on a Field Officer, 
but that, in addition to t be experience which that position implies, he 
should bo both bodily and mentally qualified for an active service and a 
trust of no ordinary character." The rank of Mt^or was abolished in 
November, 18-2 7. 

Each Field Battery is commanded by two Captains.** and four Lieu- 
tenants, the Senior Lieutenant pertbrming the duties of Acting- 



Tide 82 of the Report of Commissioners for June, 1854. 
As per H.M Warrant of 18-^8, paragraph 121, 
Dated 9th Noveniber, 18(i3, paragraph 70 to 75. 
Tide paragraph 73. 
Vide parjgnipli 72. 

Vide paragraph 84 of the Report, of 17th June, 1854. 
■" In the Infantry two Cnptains and six Subaiteroi are allowed to two 
CompBoies of 100 rank and me each. 



1865.] 



COERBSPONDKNOR. 



2sa 




Ai^atant. with ths temporary rank of CaptniD-Lientenant. having the 
pay of Lieutenant, and the nllowances of a Captniii, whilat ao employed, 
and IB appointed by the Comraandiint under H.M. Warrant of Ajiril, 
17iJH. The Hubstitution of an Aa si stftnt- Surgeon,* for an effectire 
officer, renders the Battery inefBcieut for diacipline or aervioo. 

HEN. 

For Field Batteries 1 Sergeant, 

ei^nipped for Service 1 Corponil. 

with 6 or 9 Pr, Guns, 2 Bombardiers. 

Carriages and Horses 26 Gunners and Driven. 

or 30 Men per Gun, 
and otber professional duties connect'ed with the Battery. This number 
to be increased in time of war, Non-Commieaioned Staff cot iacluded. 
For a. Garrison Battery 1 Sergeant. 

of eight Guns each 1 Corporal. 

1 Bombardier. 
12 Gunners, 



15 Men per Gnn. 
in time of peace, but increased in time oi war. N.O. Staff not Included. 
The Garrison Corapaiiies should be always kept up to their full peace 
establishment when on Foreign Sei*vic«. to fill up on certain occasioiiB 
the vacancies in the Field Batteries by volunteers, when nnder orders 
for Field Service. 

When once the Establishment of offirers and men is fixed for each 
Baltery in timejof peace, they should never he reduced in numbprs, or 
altered (as in the case of the A a si slant- Surgeon) as it renders the 
Battery inefficient for sadden calls, and obliges the Commanding Officer 
of the Field Battery to leave a portion of his guns and waggons behind, 
as was shown in the lute wars and Mutiny in India, and now recorded 
for foture guidance, 

I cannot close these remarks without drawing attention to the late 
Sir Henry Fane's Minute in Council, seconded by Colonel Morrieon 
(late of the Madras Artillery) when the former dialinguished officer was 
in command of the Indian Army, ns it should never be lost sight of. 

He recorded his experience in these emphatic words : — 

" The most imporlant point in the organizution of Artillery, is ' EiB- 
ciency when called into action.' Economy must be made a secondary 
consideration, for when Government deeraa it expedient to equip eo 
costly an arm as Artillery, it must not swallow a aimel, and strain at a 
gnat." 
^^^ Mestor. 

I CsitlSTIAN's MlSTl-KB. 

I &c. 1 vol. 

I This is one of those pictures of domegtic life that the authoross so 

I well knows how to present, and if merit be the test of popularity, it 

I wi 



CRITICAL NOTICES. 
By the Author of " John HaUlai, Gentleman," 



ought to enjoy at the least equal favour wiih the very heat of her earlier 

pure-minded orpha 
man who leaves her no inheritance beyond his bad name, and thus uti- 



works. Christian Oakley is the pure-minded orphan daughter of a 



* Vide Peters' Manual of Organization for 1863, pugts oO to 55. 
nnkuown. 



Data 



2S6 



CKITIOAI. XoriCKI. 



[FlB. 



happilj plair«i] the hoB to earn bor bread as a nowraeas. Dr. Gr^, k 
UMiUe-a^^ iridowcr, the heitd ol' a College ut Avunsbridge, first takes 
OOmpaMioti on her, then admires, and at last lovea and luorrios her. 
Bha wott «u[en on all the troablcs that comiuoTdy beset the yoiiog 
ctepniocher, aud all her elturL< [o guui Ihe love of her husband'^ chil- 
dren nre thwarted by Mia* Giiscoigiie, their aunt, who perpetually 
reminds her of ber lather'^ disgrace and her owQ former position. 
But Ciiriftian bravely beam up aguinst all adverse circa mstanoes, over- 
cornea ovil with good, and at length becomca the idol of her step-chil- 
drm M she already b of her hunliand. Thus it wUl be aeen that it ia 
not ber maniuge thnt is a " mistake," bat still one matter, hariulcie in 
itself, ii the ciiui<e of much uiihappiness to her. This ut Inat ia elcarod 
up by the wisdom and kindnesH of her hosband. and tbc chaiicc of be- 
tonijtig the wife of tt Imroncl:. which a former g^irlish aitacbmeiit oHered 
to her c-poaes to cloud the life of Christian, who is left ut thd end of the 
tole, happy iu the disL-hurge of the duties of a very dilTereiit sphere. 
Tbc chiintcters are not very tinmerous, but ench one is a perfect study. 
Dr. Grey i« a nwm to be iuved. and bis gentle and kindly, though unaeea 
maiiugcment condaces almost as much oa Christiaa's own exertions to 
the satiafactory position which all parties at lust arrive at, aller inany 
tempests and tossingij. 

The HiuvoNDS of Holy Cboss. By Lady BJiJce, Author of "My 
Step-falher'ti Home," &c. 3 vola. 

Like Latly Blake's former work, this is a pure and graceful story of 
domestic life, the object of which is to shew that money may be lored 
too much, but that if the heart be not incurably bail, _the force of cii^ 
cumsUiDcoa may in time bring about a bt-tter feeliug. The chief c ha- 
HCtor, if not exactly the best, is Michael Hummond. a wealthy banker, 
wbo being many years their senior, is a kind of Patcrlamilins to his 
brother Gabriel and his sister SybiL Gabriel ia half an invalid, and is 
rather con tempt no u a ly looked on by the stem man of business, but 
Sybil marries, und ber son Sujphen Palmer, under her able iustruotioiis, 
iugratiatea himself with his uncle and is looked on v.e the hoir. Gabricil, 
is the meunlime, much to the rexntion of his brother, marries, and an 
Mtmngement follows, which is carefully kept up by Mrs. PaJmer ond 
her hopeful son. Stephen, however, mars the whole by stealing his 
TJiick's keys and o]>eui!ig the safe to iuspect bis will, which Mirbaijl 
discovers, but says nothing iibout it for the time. Stephen also makes 
love to Olunv Newton, hia unolc's ward, and having maniiged to get 
hoti) of a large part of ber fortune he loses it in epeculation. This 
finally disgusts Michiiel. and Stephen disappears from the scene, whilst 
Clnra ia happily married to a better man, and Gabriel and his wile are 
taken into lavour by the millionuaire, who proves the truth of hia 
improvod estimHto of riches hy bestowing a handsome income on them, 
and adopting Wilfred, their son, as his heir, concerning whom hia 
mother's anxious cry is " I do so dread far Willie the love of money 
and money-making,' a love, however, !rom which the unhappy lifi) of 
his uuclo IB woU calculated to dissuade him. 



Eluto Jis's Stort ; or, the Prirato Life of an Eastern Qneen. By 
William Knighton, LL.D., Asaistant-Commisisioiier in Oudb: Author 
of "Private Life of on Eaatera King." "Village Life in Ondh," &o. 
1 vol. 

Dr- Kuightou puts this book forward as tbc veritable experiences of 
a feranlti attendant on the late Queen of Ondh, and a very curiona 
jiietni-e it is. As might bo espected, the tIcit takeo of men and things 
in general is a thoraiighly oriental one, but as there are commonly two 
sides to most questions, these Gasturu idoas have something iu them 



1S85.] 



COiinjaFONDBNCI!. 



887 



th»t ia worth consideration. Tbe greiit ouestion in lodin,, prior to tlio 

Mutiny. miB the ntmexacian [lulriiiy of (,ho Mtirqiils of Ualhousio, on 

iwhich tho moat wildlv different opinions wore onterUiinod \>j oqnully 

IdiBlitiguiahod men. Dr. Knigliton is air iinneifttioniat, and if hie con- 

foludiiig cliivpter, in which Le di'fiirts tUo latter years of royalty in 

I'Otidh IB not grievously overcharged, ho ia ptrftctly right in beiut; so. 

[Anything moro miserable than the state of tho coantry nnder Wajid 

Aly Sliah cannot ivitll ho conceived, and the pint ure given of the way 

in wliicli that moat despicable ex-king now passes hi« time, shows thai 

lIiB, like other "monarolis retired from bnsiiicss," h»s indeed "Icnmt 

k]nothiug and forgotten nothing." But those who do not care for Wiyid 

[may very |>rohubly feel an inceresl in the qacoii hi* mother, who seema 

'io have been worthy of a bettiir 3>>ii. unit who evidenced a csurageous 

apirit not nnfro'-iaently shewn by women thiH circumstanced Her 

visit to Eurofw to " beg bnck his kingdom Innn Qnoen Viftorin, who 

ia a mother herself," couhl only hiivo snggested itself to a woman of 

far other qnalitiea than those th.it wo expect from the iumati> of a 

zenana, and hot mebncholy death in France givoa her a oliiim to our 

pity, though wo see plainly enough that her prayer conld nnt have 

Dean granted consiateutly with a due regard to tno welfare of Oudh. 

NiV.tL ABMorn. Dedicoted to Lord Palinerston. By Jamea Chal- 
mers. Inventor of the " dial mora TargPt." 

Without in any way pronouncing an opinion on the vnrioua "' Targets," 

which have alreiuly furnished tho staple for many a Blue Book, and 

will probably inflict many more on ua, we wnnld recoriimeiid Mr. 

I Chalmers" shilling pamphlet to tho consideration of our readers. They 

I ■will lind much uscfnl matter in it, presented in ft clear and brief furm, 

I »nd if they hear in mind thut tho author ia n not entirely disinterested 

party, they will have no difficulty in oslitnaling the exact value to bo 

Attached to liifi condemnation of all other targets tUftu Chalmers. 

CiMPAiONS i\ VlBGTSU, MitiYLiNn, &c.. Ac. Bt Captain 0. 0. 
Choaney, B.E. Professor of Military Ui.'^tqry, Stall" OoUege, Vol 2. With 
Maps. 

This volume brings down the history to the pnd of the third year of 
the war, that " rebcllioir' which was to bo " stamped oot," first in 
" thirty days," then in "ninety days," but is still aa vigorous na over. 
We have nothing to alter of the favourable opinion that we expressed 
of tho first volume, but there is one rcmark in the Prefoco to the 
present one on which wo would Kay a word. Captain Cheanoy eaya, 
" The author has been charged by moTO thim one critic with a leaning 
to the Confederate cause To sncl: ho can only reply that bis honest 
endeavonr has been to give fairly Irom all available sources the course 
o!' military cveuts, and to eiclude politicB wholly from his history, 
save where they have hiid a pos^itive intlntnco on the operations in the 
field." We do not belong to the class of critics referred to. though we 
Bee as clearly as they do that the elfcct produtied on the rouder is 
highly favourable to the Confederates ; but that does not arise Irom any 
undue bias of the author. It follows from the '■inexorable logic ol 
facta," which ho is too honest to distort, facts which, some day or other, 
the Waahiogton Oovemment will have to acknowledge, und abide the 
conseqneoces. 



U. «. Mat No. 4S5, Pkb. Ih65. 



[Fm. 



STATIONS OF THE EOYAL NATY IN COMMISSION. 

(Cvrrtfltd la 27fA Jaynary.) 
WIlA the littUt tij Covimlttiim af tkt officrri m CafnmiliKf. 



: 



Ihwlilr. M. ic, Cxnulrt, F. Cnrnn, C.B., 

ArLJIr., >i, K.. C»pL E, W. V^ntilUrt. IMO. 

Cl(»n 
Acam. Duiii. Ship. Uul.-Coni. D. H. Sp»r. 

ISM SluinvtiiK 
Adiic, ail. Tmi.ilne Ship, fcr Sn«>l Ri^ltw. 

Cuai. Jt. S.dc A HdU, IHII, SuioliTbml 
Adrtel, il. 'Ot., Scoiiid Uulel W. UluUl, 

l^iFling'r Slicrmcst 
Adtriilitrc, 2r V ipyi\t slijp, Capt C. L Waitili- 

Lii«v. \tai, nhrtinil'ir frrvire 
AO'JCD, iL i-f*., s^^nd mtMgj Com. U. C. Kjiy- 

miiml, IMV, Qui'cntlmm 
Alliertn. I pud.. Stuff Curu, WdQh, IM3, iprcol 

AJhUi. 3. (t. vn,, Com. W. 11. Blukc. iWa, 

S.k. Ctnuto^ Amrriro. 
Alert, 17, k. Com. U. C. Mijiiidie. 18M, 

Fannr. 
4ii1p1<i|«, 3. il. ■(>.. Ijnit -Copu C. 0. D.AlUnj- 

LmiE, \tiit^, Cuqii of .V/ridb 
Arcbcr, li, if. L'>iit, F. HiuUu. tIM] Cuil 

of A/ncu 
AigDi, n, ticaoi rci. CoKL [1. L. BoDiid. ISaS, 

OMtit 
Ailel, •. iFL Cam. W. C. ClmpiDiiL, \m, 

PorliifiiRitli 
Alb. Bcw Ailiiiiril (Irurp: Elllul, Cnpt. II. 

CuIiJwpU, CU, 18fi3.GllBfliaWpofttr.md, 

Pol iKiauiilh 
Ajiiniiirc, -1. BC, Com. 11. U. IVociUconibe, 

I SCI, pniliculiir flvrvice 
Auoni, .Ij, ic. Ciij^l. f.ir F. L. McClintjct, Kl., 

IBJ4, jJ-jrUcfiLir >cMft 
llaun. g(. ti9„ Stiff-Cum. J. W. WcIU, 1M3, 

Fowtj- 
Bamcoatii. A, ti. ri4 Com. J. D'^rr/, IM^, 

^llnll Auicncd huiI Wnt tndic* 
BuTou, i). Bc., Ciipuua 11. Boyi, I89d. 

duu 
Bbflt (JiilD, 3. pod, aafl-CoDL Wliilllcr, 

lew, Voul.icli, 
BliL'li, Pnnrc, 11. It Capl. Lonl F. n, Ki-tr, 

(iB.Wl ficvonpeirl 
Bliiipr, 3, LiLUl.-CoBU Pnjmc, 1S15, thuiinil 

Blinhcllii. 00, >r Cniil T. 11. tloion, IHIU, 

Cuual Ounid. Miltiird 
Bomai^n, Kl. C<im G. g. NBtct, IsaQ, Tnin- 

in^ Slilp, Bouili[L]nplQu 
Bouni^r, S ic. ^iibiHil, L'ciit.-Conir F. W. 

Lc^'it, Hui, I'Eiuin 
Brdlliiiii, IS, Com. J, K. Blckrord, IMO, Kaiil 

R^^ai^nc DnU Slijp, HuDiirP 
BfiLjiikiIei, H, CjidtiE Truinmg Ship, CnpTnm 

II. A. FiikeII.CB,. 14n£, fl.Lrtnioulii 
floUdiin. r>, iI, Irt.. Cnpt, C. WiU.,', IBJU, -Nurlh 

Ami-rJ4'u nni! W«l IndlH 
JluBliiEii. ^. H. guuhQAl. UrDt.-Coui. J. C. 

TiicLrr, 1M6, CUlni 
IluiHinl, 1 (I. [«„ Com. T. II. M. Mpinin, 

IM^O, Norlli Auicncii onii Wrai liiditu 
Cmllliui. i\, ir.. Cop, A* C. Gardun, IBSS, 

CliDilixru. 
Cnu.tindcf, funnery Siiip, Cojil, C. J, T. Ewurt, 

ISJifi, fcvoiiport. 
Cniiiolfiin, 17, ai'. Chk.i.T. M. Jiiiit«.lBa9, PnciJc 
Cnnaniu, N»al Bimrk, Ciipt. C. IL Majr, 

lUsS) DcvDuprirt 
ConiiliK:, .p., 5. Lindl.-Cufli. E, H, WiWiuDii, 

IS-IO, Mcilll4:rnLCrnD 
Cuior. li Cum C. K JsFliinii. lasi, Kuvnl 

Uiaeng DiillSblp, Siilcldi 
dulleniFr, li. tr. J, J. Kpiiiinly. C.B., l^i'iS, 

North Amciio nadn. liMllci(oiJcr<id homr? 



CliuitidtPr, 17. u Com. J. E. r. Bilh. IBSa, 

Mi'L^ilcrmnipi 
CUmvlid", il, tr'. Cnpt- E. W. Tbiodbp, 1M7, 

tmilkr fohlpfpi] linoip) 
Clti. ii. K.. Cupi a. a. B. Tunuur. ISSH, 

Cloim, il. AC. ^qExihI, l.toDl.-COiii'). S.TonbPp 

IsiS, LMu> 
CoFkriinrc. i, IP Lirul. Com. B. M. GOUoa 

rL^DHi. ^rpdilpmta[i"il 
Cocli-linrpr, i. 9p |>iiiiI>iHt, Lipot.-Cum. E. III. 

IliirrpM, IKin. C'Kiila 
ColuJui'ioe. -1. «.. Coiu. T. Lc !L Wsrd. IMl, 

I'jirhtlp 
Coiiqu.uiir, 78, K., Capt. W. G. iioMit, ie»7, 

Jllllllll 
CiiqnrUp, I. IC, Commdiiilcr A. G U. Boe, IMS, 

CI,IBil 

CsmDninl. i, tc. Cum. C. M. fiuPkli. IMt^ 

Cbiun 
CordcUn. 1 1, H . Cam. J. B. Scott, IMO, HoAk 

AiiL,!nfn and Vieti liidiei 
CuroiobiiElfl. Oh tL XPU-, LiL'Dt. Cam. U'A, A« 

Dpltiiv. Irlali. Cliiua 
OnurL. to, ic, Copt. W. B. BiUul, iaS7, 

McdJl4!nniDpiiii 
CumljLTliiuil, U, CsTil. W. K. ttntl. C.S„ I3E\ 

ipiviirl4i^ sfiip, sliecniCTi 
Corapofi, 23, Ci»ri.nkiidr,rp Sir W. Wkiouiiui, 

Bui., C.U . \ilitniliii 
CoiIpw. V, IP. Cum. J 9. Rudion. 1§K|, R. t. 

Cmiit uf AiTtTrlph {onliJcJ iimitfft 
CjEBrl, S, iir. Cmii, W". S. lip KuiiUuw llSBS) 

Ni>ri]i .^iiipnpB iiBil W(«i liidiui 
I>i?<lnlTi<, Id. Coiu, E. Flphl, lUD. NuTil 

Ilp9pr*t J^ndsliip, BrlEil-,1 
Ihul, fi, tt. Cum. F. W, RlPharda, \\ieiS) Caut 

of Ainpa 
Dulipr, S. it. .PI., Com.P. DeSmmawci, IBDi 

CItJuiiki-l lalmiiii 

DDUllllCil, ;!1, K. Cop'' >■ ^- SlTlBfP. leu, 

Dia*t Quaril, Riser lluqitier 
t>up. 1, bt. Afurp ^lUp. MnQ.-i:unL G. JUj^ziiDOd. 

{MH, iharlipnUr leTvjpp 
Drfpflpp, Id, IP. Dipt A. PliiUimon, IHBS, Clun- 

ofl Squudron 
pptiEf'.'biiDii, 0. it. vo., CciBi. W. K Jallilf^. 

InSfl. Pnpidr 
DoDpjtiil. Bl, IP., Capt. J. A. Fiynld, Iftlt, 

lipi'onpDrl 
Dt.lprcl, 2. ac.eunboit, Urut Com. W. F.Jahn. 

IDB. 1£SI>, S.B. CiHUI If Alliprlc4i 
OronttdKf^.Bp- ali>M-iUip, MiHl.-CfliH. A. Rrovii, 

jIfeM), pjnicuhir »i'nl''p 
DdVp i>I WL.lliii)-lGn. .le. U^ifmEk Sblp, CapU 

J- Sijrcumirp, IH&g, l^urUnioBIJi 
PuilPLin, HI. IP. Vipp-Adjn. Sir Jiimpji IIdiic. 

K.C W , C»|ii II. OibKin, Itun, N, ABiEiicB 

Bud IVpit Indies 
Ei<i;lp. fiiJ, ComuiHiidpi W. F., n<lipr. ISEII, 

Njivu] RpRprvt DriU STtlii. Lnrr|j«']] 
ErIipep, 4, ir.. Com E. it FipiiuinUt 1S«1, 

AuiUidlB 
Edpir,7l,9P Rj.Adml S. C.lTiipfm.C.B.ropt, 

G 7. P. llimil>!. Wai. Chdjiiipl ^umlniii 
Egmoni. rppciiuie iiiiji. Capt I". A. B. Cruufitrd, 

IfljH, [E-io dii Jinpiro 
Ellin, pud . Mui.-Com. A. Uiillislao, \iSS, 

ritrl9iiiuiilll 
EnphjiiLtrpti, 1, It, AdmiT^lly Vipht. Staff' 

Ciiin- J E- PfIIpv, Ittil'l, purtiPulnr *cmce 
Enlprui-isp. t, ap„ Com. C. J. Bonlcj. IMI, 

CI] 111 IIP' I Sflllallroil 

Kil[,:l,ap,. CapL.J. P. Lace, IBM. AuitnUi 
K.poir. a, >p., CoBi. H. L. S. Ftcle, IHI 
DpvonpacI, 



1SH5.] 



ROYAT. NATT IS C0WMI3SI0N, 



2S9 



EuinJdi. 55, ir_ Vitp irlinl Sir A. L. Kuprr, 

Eicrllflit. ffunriLTV Hhip. Gi^tr 4.- C- Ke;, 

C.B ,HaU, r'urtgninuTli 
Fmiry, tc- TrirJiln tpniliir Ut Vii-laria onO Albert 
Slair-CoBi. [1 N. Welch. IHM. rcirtaniriiilh 
EUiMa, 17. K. Com. Q. B. PuiuD, (iHuU.) 

AlutrallL 
FniNi}, 4, inil Uu'erJ. ScnrlFll. rurUltlolitli. 
Fmm, « , 17, Cum C. J.Wrrv.lSrtll.N.inienoii 

«rid Wat lDc]t4^ 
Fcrrpt, ». IVniniiJB Drigi Uftat-^Coin. R- 

MuDBtl. lilaS, ^ntliBDkptoa 
Firi-n*, B, Ht, m.Licul 'Com. G, R, Wiltinwn, 

ldi4. MrdiL«mneiui fBortry) 
riTMnrtn, il. v«., t-US Com. 7. W. fiiil, IHM, 

rrirt9[nimUj 
I'ii^-td. 43, Umunodon. 11. DlUilup, C.B., 

Wuulvich 
Firmer. 3, ac. ^nabimi, Lieut. Cgm. A^ KatDb. 

1(167, CbuiB 
Fumiiilnlili;. SB, Vide AilDinil Si( C. Tillml, 

K.U.ll , C:ii|,l. Joba l^lTiird, IM«. ShiFrucM 
Forwrinl, 3. ar. IJeut Cum. The Hon. 11, U, [*♦- 

uUn, lU,'i, Pni-inc 
r<(i, 2. ac. ar^jru-itiip, SlalT-Conir VoriJirtv. 

i 18M1 ii.irlKTilat ncn-icc Woolnlcli 
FinlfnrlL tl'lUiaui. 71, *r. rontain E. Cwld, 

l(U7, CcuU liuord, Forllnnil 
Bslaleu. 28, ic. Cuti. H. MBBUm, IB6S, Kafth 

Amenra and Wi-at iRdifA 
tisyirr. B. M, m. Com A. T. Tlinipp, (IMS) 

pvtjciilqr »r\'irF. 
GiftraliBT. 61, ic Cnpt. It. COule, I86t, Mtdi. 

nijuv, Sod Matter G. North, Qoepottnwn 
Olmllnlur, e. It. Trs, Capt >'. H. Slwrlt, 1S;-B, 

partjrnlar iltvicc. 
Onpploc, S. ic. Liiut. Cnm, E. n, ■Vtraai, 

Qtanhopper, 3, te. j^nhont, Lt. Codi. G. D. 

Moninl, l)ts; Chiiiii 
GiiffuniO. sc C«n, J. L. P«rj. I$B9, C. of ATrira. 

[finlrrcd Louie) 
GiuirliT, 3, le., Lieut-Com. Dent. ISM. Meil(- 

lerTBqi^nD 
Hjuulv, 1, It. 7<3.. Ijeut. Cuui- IL P. IJcuinj, 

ISnS, CDulflfATrira 
llinlT, 9. IC, piaht, Lieut. Cum, K. U. A. 

SninnTilinf, InM, Chiun 
Ilunier, l~. Bc, C'j.ini. W. E. FcoTlck, ISU. 

AurlmliA (^irJerid horned 
Emlinn, M, >c- lU-ar Admiml air L. T. Jonet. 

K.C.n.. C«pt. J. Qirlietl. i«i7, llnceniit'iwi! 
Hivneti, S.ie. euDlit, Lieut. £, Bnrtjej, I»I9, 

Chbn 
llnD^lii), 1, IC. )nmb»(, Ijeak-Com. Ifoimiiir- 

lug, Ctudn 
Iliiwkr, Cli.n', Copt E. Healhwle, 1863, Caast 

Giinrd, QnerDBtDwu 
llcetur, H, K., Cipl. PkbIj, CD,, I UK, Channel 

^[|anLlrTiD 
Huper, 4, tf, itare ahlp, Uul. Cum. A. F. 

Boier, \^i, ChiDD 
EriEirrnlii, rec. ■Jiip, Bfu Adm, If. T- Aiib'iu. 

C.B., Cum. ]t. B. HuVCT, IMP. Sliilbi 
FligliBjer. 20 «., Cap. M. S. Piiley, IM' 

FDrlvniHiltl 
TlliiiLiJnv4. a, te. tmop thip, Cuptoln £. Lac}'' 

(ISOS^ FDilimnnth 
il^dri. 1, It. •».. Cum. A. L. Miuivll, ISM, 

MedilerniDron (lurvejr} 
Implonilile. It, CiHii, £. L. H. Buy. 1800. Tnts- 

Intf Slilp, DevoQport 
ImpTTCTuiple, 7S, CiipL F. a. Tmnldtt (IBWj 

TniliiJUE ship, rietonport 
iDilua. R.<iit Ailliurul 1 U. C, ^^IDIHldl, C.B.. 

Ciipl. W. Kilru(iu«l>.ll(, C.B., ISJW. l»e*on|Kin 
[nduslrv, 2, ec tlorc slllp, MiaE. Colli. Ji^. 

C 1'. YoupI, !S50, parti riUuracrvJte 
Ipreetl^U^T, 3, It, wea. Lienl. Ciini. C, ti. I". 

Knuwiia. ittfi:!, CQjAt of Alricii 
Ir[«i>til>li-, DS. ti^., Cnpl. 1. H. HicLano, iRSI, 

Copat titiJird, SouIlmiripTim. 



lait. a, SlOTT nepot. Miu>.-Pom. T. t.eelbcni, 

Inoo. .';i..iiu l™ui^ 
inelnlj, 4, il ves . [jrnl .Com. H. M. N, Dye/, 

la3j» ScuErli KlaherLea. 
Jascur, 6. tr Cuoi. W, J. IL Orobbo (IHOl) 

Cjiiiit nf .\fricii 
Kntrel 1, ac, Lient.-Coin. Bnicl, 18*7 

Ching 
Lmiilrul. fi, sc., Cmu a. L. A, O. Uallbiiiil, 

Wi»[™ich 
Lmniler. 30, «[-. ConinujJnrr T. llnnrr, pjnnc, 
Liaan!. a, at. »M. Lleiil,.(ii]u, fl. J. ClinlKi. 

]fl^4, Siiei'meaa 
L«, i, )e. Lieut Com C. E. Foul, IgCl, tender 

til llattlefualii, Cuiut urArriEU 
l«ap:inl, Ifl.al. tcHel, Copt. CT-Lecldc, ISIS, 

Chliia 
Leven, i, tcFcv pun veuet. Lt. Com. U- P. 

Knerlii (lescj Chfna 
LtlTev, Sa, K. Captain Q. laikcr. liit, 

Hedifermwiii 
Lightning, 3, «.te*„ Stuff-Oooi.T. W.SuUnin, 

IBlfl. PemhroVe 
1-ilj. 1. at.. Com. A. C. P. Heneano, 1B67, 

h'ortli .Vm«ricB uod Weal loiiiea 
rjicrooil. /i, ar. C«pt. B. lainben, lUi 

Oevoupurt 
Lion, flu, jf Ciiptuin A. Finiubnr. 18tB, 

CooatlfUurd, firrciiuek 
Ljrn.g. ac.Cura. It. A, Furt, ISOl, Purtainoulh 
Hunnder, 10, Capt. J. G. UieUonI, [IttfiOjAarcn. 

lion 
Mopcientte. IS. (I. ni. Cupl, W. ArajlaM, 

I Mil. Uediterrnni'iiTi 
lluniUii, ac Mut. Cum. II. W. BnrDctt, IMfl, 

Cliuii 
Martin. 13, TraiBiiw Brij. Licut.-Coiu W, H 

[leulun. I8d7, [levoniKiri 
Medea. n, at tea. Com. IvArpy S. PrealOB.llS 0) 

North Anienea nnJ Weal ludlei 
Meilii«i,s. il.vea.Mai.-Coui.J IL Allanl, IBol. 

Shetrncaa 
Mecancf, so. Ciiptnin G. Woilehouae, ISE4, 

Medilerranejui. 
Kinuidri. IS. ae Cnpl. B. Jenliini. C.B., ISftf, 

Auptndin LUrderCEl liQuie) 
Mullrl.6,ic.Cum,C.II. Bimpaun ISnU.Coaal of 

ATnea 
Nnud, e, ttore ahtp, Mai. Cum. G. Jldd, 1890, 

CdUno 
Nereua, 0. atiiro depot. Stair Coui. C, ft, P. 

Futbci, l^t, Vjilpanii»o 
Niinlilf^S. Ifiiilfr lo OiinOnn. Lieut.-Cnm f W. 
llidLiiwcs. 186fl, >urlh Aipenen and fl'cit 
Indira 
Oponuin, 3, ac, Lieut., -Cum. St. John, 18^7, 

Chins 
OtdiIm, II, ae. Ciipt. A.. 11, Dnnlncr, IMR, 

Eaat Indicannd Cupo uf GmiO llnpc 
Clllnndo, te. ae. Cnpl. G. G. Itiuululph. ,1814 

Medilfminenn 
Orontf*. 2, pe,. liwjp ahlp, Cnpt. H- W. HlK, 

lMk2, pnilieuhr lerviee 
Oaliome. "I s^lehl. Coui. John D'AfPT. 1888, 

parCieuJar aeniee 
Oaprej, (c.. l.Com. W. McnaleJ. IBfiJ, China 
Paniiora, t. ae. Com. Vr. y. Rniton. 1881, 

CfluE pi ATnca 
Pnntnloon, 11, ac. Com. 7. Pnrvia. (1B«), Eut 

Indica and Cupc iit fiuoA llupe 
PeUcan, 17. ae. 6iin. S. W. Cnmlier, 18nT|i 
MolitejTauenn, ■ 

Pelonia. II, IC Act. Capt. A. Kinnlun. IS(r,n 

ChlDn 
pBmbrolie,SI». K.ComnHdnre A F. Bjdet, 181S, 
Cnpl, J. 0. JoLntuii, 18^0, Cuusl Gnatil 
llunvieh 
Fi^niruin. B. id . il^ilrr to PHnena Riitrl) 
Lleul-Cnin, E, s J. nnrfeMI., IHS7, l.Ml 
Indiea and Cnpe iit Uai«i Uti\ia 
Peraeiij, 17. *[- , f'oiu. C. H, Slj^ent. IBfl"!, fliln* 
IVIni'l. II, le. Con.. E MnJdtn, l»a, >oiHi 

Aiiiehrn nnd Weil IdiVu* 
lliaelim. M, «.i:»st a,\ii:(-,.?««<™'.>3** 



[Fm. 



STATIONS OP THE ROYAL NAVY IN COMMISSION. 

(^Correrlfd lo 21lk Ja*var^.) 
(Pi/A lie DaUi 0/ CsiuiniUfan a/ Ike offietri in Cnntmand. 



ibonkir, M, tr, CjomJ™. T, Crnfroll, C^.. 

Jjiioaica 
AcLJIm. ill, ic. Ci>|>l. E. W, Vaniitlurt, IMO, 

AcgriL, Uusp. Hhip. MuL-Coiii, D, 11, Spca, 

Actirc. 20, TnLliiiiitf ^liiii, far Khvql Rfwrre, 

Com. B.S.duR ll.ill, IH<>I, !;uiicli.'rliin.t 
A^FT, i(, VH , SiixpDd Muter W. DJiiluty, 

lllveotiirr, a. IF. i™pp ulitp, Cilpl. C, L W»iliL- 

Idvf, ISAj, piirltculipf nrr^iFE 
Advlrr, It. »pe,, IkTUDd MmliT Com. M, C- Euj- 

AllMrta, I pul,, aUiJI Uom. Wdcb. IHDn. tperiBl 
tcrfict 

aihu, 3. >t. in,. Cum. w. n. nioiiF, leoo, 

S.E. Cwflior AmtnriL 
Alert. IT. H. Cum. II. C. ll^joidli, ISM. 

FoFldr. 
ADti-lope, 3, >t. TEi., l.lFUt.-Cani. C. 0. D. MUng- 

]iim, IHM, OhuI i>r Afrin 
ArcLcr. n. tr. tapl, K. Mun™. (IBSl) Cwut 

Qf Afnco 
Argad, a, AlFiim ru. Com. II, L, RoaDd, 1303, 

Chion 
Knt\. V, ic. Cum. W. C. Clinpm&ii, ISib, 

Furtiminith 
Alia, Rciu- Adiniril Gnirp] Klhol. Cnpl. [I. 

Ciililwrll, C'-H , IBbI, Ciunnl Slup □( Ri«rve, 

fuitqUQUtll 

AiHDmD<]e, 1, ir.. Cool- [I, B. WoutlruiuSc, 

I^IMJ, pjirl Ifutfli wiYie*: 
Aurufn, ^ii, 9C- Cdpl- Sir t. L. UqCUnlJck, KL, 

IB.*ii. purUrgliirirrvirc 
Bnim, Bl. xa,, Slill-Cani. J. W, Weill, 1803, 

Sirtncouru, a, jl, .rl Com. J B'ArcJ, IUdS, 

Norlli Autrim and U'mC IrtdirB 
BBmHn, 9|, >[., L'unUin 11. Bavi. liiS. 

CIJji. 
Blarl Ijit!.'. 3, ind, Siaff.CDm. WIiUHit, 

1603, %ail«tch. 
Black Piuirr, 11, sc. Co]il, Lard !■. 11. K^rr. 

Blbier, i, Lirui.-CoQi, ProvM, Ib^t CUhUiul 

BlenhFlui, so. ic. C<ipl. T. H. Mown, IMB, 

Cmil Gonid. Miltnnl 
BiHCaxni, so, Com.G, S. Nim, ISIt9, TmiU' 

SUA T^ii^tii Southaniplon 
UounPcr, 3 >r- piirtiojl, LIrul.-Com. F. W, 

LtwLi, IHoU I'lillm 
Riilliiint, 10, com, J. E, BicUord, l»flU, Kitnl 

Jtp.'Aprvi^ Drilt.'^Eov, IJiuidrtf 
BrltniMitii, &, CoiJtl InitniitLT ^liip, CnplDin 

IL A. PonfU, C B,. 1"66. fliirt.inrall. 
BflUJuJ, n. It. Yet., Cipt, C. VTiiic, IIUU, Nru-lli 

AiiHTbcD DiiJ Wttt Inilin 
nuil>nl. » IC. ^unlnat, licul-Cuiu, 1. C, 

TuL'kcr. l^BS, CliuiB 
fluuanl. U. It tcv. Com. T. II- M. Murtfn. 

18&Q, \cirlb Amtncu aud Wi-tl Inillr* 
Ctdmiia, 31, tc, cup. A* C. GuTilim, im. 

Cljilk-m. 
Piunhndfp pinnerv Slup, C«pl C. J, F. Eimrl, 

IhqA, DcvoQporl, 
CjnniilKia, 17, »c.Cum.T. M. Jonn.lBSO, rniillc 
Cjiiiuriiia, Naval Bomrk. Cqpt. 0- 11. Majr 

rtsSO) Dttoiyiort 
Ci^rjidoc, Br. ^, LipuL.-CDDi, tf. Hi WiHiinioa, 

l&6rt, Mfllilermopfln 
Cului. 21. Coin. C. K. JnFtFOD, IBM, Kiinl 

BMcrvt Drill Sliip, ShieUli 
ClnllaiinT, 91. ir. J. J. Kmiiinl}, CD., 1H16, 

IVorIb AmeTJu md W. Iijdie*iord«rcd bomn 



CliunTidivr, 17, ir. Cmn, J. £, F, Hlsk, IKIiO, 

MnliltfrtHncuu 
CImiTl.illi, -Jl. M, Cirpl. E. W. Tuinmr, 1S8T, 

tucdif (Lifiti-ccd liampj 
CUo, IB. tr., CiLjit N, £. B, Toniiinr. iHlV, 

Faciflr 
Cloirn, i, tc, miit>wl. licnl,4>m.j. S.TmUb. 

Uil; Cloiin 
CorliiiU'ift. 3, >r Linlt. Com. H. U GIUwB 

|]^D[»^ MiTdilrmiacan 
Dirkrhiifpr, 3, ti- tniobnal, IJenL-Cum, E. M. 

lijimU, iJt.'iB, CI,Wa 
Colli IOC, 4, tc. Cum. T. Lc )I. Wiu-d, 1SC1, 

lUi'inc 

Conquenir. 7S, K., Capt. W. 0. lAVd, t$&7i 

Jjipda 
Ci»|iiulit,l.ic,,Cummiinda- A. G.R. Roc, ISM. 

Cliina 
Coriunrant, ». M, Cnm. C, M. BoCtlr. WO, 

CUIUS 
CordLliii. it, rr , Cum. 3. R. SwU, tgnO. Hurlh 

Anii.nni ami Wtit Imliti 
CoroiLiiimlel, A, sL vc»., Lttut. Cnm, I^'A. A4 

tlFTinv. IHit*. Cbina 
Connct. ?ll. ic„ cupl. W. K. HoUiiid. I8S7, 

MfdilcnnilicnlL 
CrailM-rioiid, Jl, C"ipl W. K-Htll.C.H,. 186*. 

tccuHi^ slJip, SiifcrnCB* 
Curui-iji,. 'jA. CipiiLmodoni Sir W, Vp'lwqitn. 

tiHrt, I.:. a. Aiiiit'iliii 
CutI», U, IF. Com. J S. nnairin, IMI, s. K. 

Cuiiil of iliLirriT4 lonlFtPil lnmip) 
Cjfuel, B, tt. Coni, Vi", S. lit Itiuiliuni [IBOS) 

Nonli Aiil^iirn and W1-4I lodicn 
Itodnlu., 11, Cum. E. Fi"id, 16SB, Ntml 



1U.KE1C liiTlltlilp. Brjiiol 
.1. t;vi 

v( Alrira 



Dm, fi, <r. Cum, 



Ricliunll, llBDO) Coujl 



Hulict, 3. It. '<<•., Com, r. Dl SuDiiiuKi, ISSt 

ClinrincI lilhiiiri 
Dauullni, M, >r. Cipl. J. N. ^Inrnfc, ISM, 

CoU9l Guiinl. RiiEr ItliDibf^ 
lire. 1 il, .-il.-.i- Milp, M«.-Com. C. Ko) lira Oil, 

IH.^H. EjpiElk^lilpbr tDtviiY 
Drri'iiFc. 10. >r CD|,t. A. FliilUmon. 18SII, CUnD- 

U11I >r|liiitlrua 

Do i.'Iiilion, 0, Hi. »M,, Com. W. K. JoUilTe, 

llfio, Pun DC 
Donrjid, 41. IC, Cnpl. ]. A. rD]TIi1oi, lent, 

llci t>ii]H»rl 
DcilerrI, 3. >e. ciiol-fAt^ Lieul Corn- W. P. John- 

win, IPoPi, S.K. C.iiaiL if Amenta 
XlrtHiinlKi^.ftr. alore-iliip, MiuL.-Com. A, llnwb, 

il^S»f, p,irlii-ul:it ^cn^^e 
Duke nf W,.llm(,-1im, 1*, llurratk Ship, dpi. 

J. SFi-eijrpilic, IHr^U, t'oTlimonlS 
IhiDr^Q, HI, ■F. Vii'E.Ailm. Sir Jifiin llonn, 

K.t B , rii)pt K. <lilp«>n, IBM. N Amciicn 

mill We«t Imliei 
Eogto, 111, Couiiii.iiilei W. £. llibcr, HkC, 

Rtivri] m.iiprve I'Hil HMp, Lirerf,-i.pi 
ErlipH, t, 14-,, Coin E. K- PrcnmiiUD. ISfll, 

Aii«1rkilin 
Ei1gp.r,;i.>i Br Adnil.S. C.nnrrei,C B.,C4ipl. 

(1 1. r lliinilit, l»M, Channel ^inDmlnii 
E^jDonl, ri'eriviiiir i^iii*. Cnpl. V. A. B. Cninfurtf, 

lurpH. R.IO iIe 1 luieiro 
Kllio. pnil , Miu.-Ci>in. A. Uidli&too, 1BS3, 

PLirtinioaMi 
Edcbuiicrr'u. 1, it, AdniicitUT Viitbt. Slnff- 

Cpnn_ J. E. PelkF. 180.1, pHpliiuinr irMcc 
EnLfriiini;, 1. .e„ Com. C. J. Bowhij. IMl, 

UiiinDel SqnaitnHI 
F.ik.lfl.ae,, Ciipl.J. F. Lore, ima. Aiiitnik 
Eipoir, », ■(.. CuiiL M, L. S. |-kle, I8nt 

Dei-onpiH'i- 



]SR5.] 



TIOYAT. VAVT E» COMMISSrOS. 



2S9 



Earvnlna, Si. >r. Tlrr Ailnil t<Lr A. I.. KllpT. 

KLMl , Cupi W. M l>u»uU, IMS. CliL.io 
lUrulliiIit, punnE'rr shiii, Cbpt. \. C^ Key, 

CD ,lBi(J. I'ljhliiuiqllb 
FBinr, BC- \iiriit. tritdpr l*> \ IrTorit PUil AlVifrl 
SBir-Cora. II N. Welcll. IWM, PiirBiunuth 
riilcLiQ, 17, »r. Com, O. 11. I'ltfkin. O-H-l.^ 

Fnniiv, 4. 2nd llotlFt J Sou-Irll. Porumontli. 
Fuirn. •P.n. Cum. C. J, Wrtj.lMO, N-imoricii 

Atid WlbI [ndii-A 
Fcnrl, », TrainlHH BriK, lleaL-Com. R. 

MiiiiFtr], ^bli^, Southitmplrru 
FlrcAv. !>. il. vri IjeuI -Corn. G. n. WUklnwa. 

Rroonreii, n. i».. MiuirConi. F. w. Pmil. 190!1, 

Vlignnl, 42. Cnnimodon. II. Donlop, C.B., 

Wfulnich 
fUuBFt. ?. if, nintw«l, lient. CdoL A. binlDii, 

IU7, Clibo 
Fprniidnbic!, as, Ti™ AdmiriJ Sir C. Tidliot, 

K L.U., Cavt^llin hDjli.rd.IKUI. Slxrcruru 
Foiniinl, 2. .p Liput Ciiui. the lliin, TL U. I.»»- 

feUi^i. IMTi, I'u.'iflc 
Fni, fl. !it. siDrt-jliip. |J|«T-Coni. MqriM^, 

HaO-IJ piirti4:nL4r lert'ipe Woolwich 
Frnlcni-k ndlDim, 7*. if. CoiiLain t. Cudd, 

I4aj, Ciuul Guard, PctllniiS 
GililFa. SB, ic C'lp, B. MiguitD, Ibii. Nortli 

AuitncJi mill Wffll IiinIic* 
'Jpjicr, 1, >t. VII. Com A. T. Tlinipp, |19S8) 

pofLLCiiirL^ B>'[vlre, 
OitimKjK, b\, jc CnpL B. Omit, 19M, Midi- 

IpiTimpun 
f^ipty. ^iid UBitpr G- North, Qiippinlown 
GliiTuUiT, C. It. iia , Cnjil p. 11. ^LuHt. 18;,6, 

pATticgliir tcrricp. 
Onppln. a. M. UmL Com. E. H. Tmiei. 

ISSS, Pndflc 
GrD4iltir|4^]pr. ?, Bp. k-iiulx^t. Lt. Cnm- 0. D. 

Xlnmnt. 1817, Cliii.Ji 
btiir'jii, J. ec Com. J. L. FeiT], ISSft, C.eif AMra. 

{[iritpred boihc) 
Groulrr, 3, IC, UFUl-Com. Dcul, leU. Ucdi- 

n4ad|, I, el. v(5., IJcnL Com. B- P. Uoutnij. 

10113, Caul cf Africj 
Hnrdi, J. tf. eunlil. Lieut. Cam. K. IL A, 

Midsiruini. IB&X. Chlan 
Harrier, IT. ic Cum. W. H. Ffsvlcli, ISiS, 

AijiEniiH (cinkrrd bame^ 
flHsTio^, bO. Bp. hrnr.Adiiiir"! ^tr L.T. JoncH, 
K.C.U., Cipt. J.CurljrtI, IH.'i7. (Junimslunn 
Havock. S.ic, gunlil, Llcul K. ButlitcJ, 18J9, 

CdiBB 
BBUffht]'. 2, K, gnnbmt, XinL-CcKD. Ualninir- 

ini^, Clijnn 
tiAWke, ail. SI-. Cnpt E. tlcathcoK 1^>. Caul 

Guard, Quccmlown 
Hscliir. at, ic., Ciipl. Binaif. C.B, IMS, Clmiinl 

^(jqaiirou 
Hcipcr, 4. BF. Btnro Bh[n, Hiat, Com. A. F, 

Bailor. iHii, Cblliu 
Hll>crtiliit rc«. bhip, BcBT .^dm. U. T AtuIlii. 

CD., Cam. U. R. llnrnv, IMD, Mnllii 
Bi'Kba^cr. iO IC, Cap. If. $. PuId;, l§fin 

PorLdmoilUi ' 

nimoJaTB, 0, flc. tTonp ihip, Caploln E. lAcy- 

Uwl^h, Fortiraauth 
Hrdrc. 1. ,1. tea., Ciioi. A. L MgnKll, tSti. 

Medilcmiiicaii {tiirvey) 
Impbin.liic. 94, Uiin. £. L. H. Roj, IMO, I'raiu- 

lui: t^liip, lIciDnport 
Imprteiwlili, 7«, CVpI. F. S. TremWt flSBSJ 

Trajiiinp SEuti. IViobptirt 
Indui, lU'ur Adinlml T. hi. C. Svuiondl. CB.. 

Ctipl, W. LdmiiBilimc, C.B., IHsa, DEiuiUKJn 
IniluiTrv. 2, tc. Blurc nhlp. .MubI. Cum. K. 

C. T. Youol. IMU, porUciib.rjumHt 
laiFa[i^l«r, ^, Bf. via. Ijunt- Cjica- C. G. F. 

KnowlcB. IBSS, Coait or Africa 
Iriciiitilile, Da. ic , Cnpt. J. B. Dlclcioa, I4bt, 

CoiMl Qonrd, fkmlliDmpTon. 



I«i>, a, Sbopt IVnol, Wml.-Coio. T. Lmllipni, 

liWI, ?-i.^(in Lcuin: 
Jui-kiill, 4, II .csj lj™t.Coin. H. «. ». Dvpc, 

IBoS, Scoirii yiitioneB. 
Jiisfur, a, ac C.iui. W. J. H. QmUbc aaSl) 

LflSil of .AJnca 
Kraljcl 1, B?., lJ(iit...Com. flranl, 1867 

Cbina 
landnul. B. Bc, Coui H. L. A. 0. Mailbnd, 

Wualwlch 
LeMdtt, 39, ic, Cummmlact T. Hantr. Pan.nc 
Liinnl, a, >t, vea. Llcol.-Cam. H. J. Ctallli. 

losi, Sbcempw 
LrtS.ac. l.bPui.Com.C E. Poni, 1M1, Ifndn 

la HaKldbuk*. CuMl iif AfoM 
Leupird, IM. SI. vcikI, Capl. C. T. Lccldc, IMS, 

Chini 
Lpicn, s. ierc" pin vcbbcI, LI. Cum. H. P. 

Kntnll (IMEi Cbina 
LilVfv, S9, .f, c.pLain G. tVkET, Isb*. 

^[rdil'IIQjitiat 
Ligbtninj, 3. «, n*, Slnlt-Cora. T. W. Suli-nn, 

!W1, PeiLl.rul.c 
LUj, i, K., C™. A C. F n,iicai«. 16S7, 

Nunli .ImcMcn and Weal Indiia 
Limrnool, .15, ac, Ci.pl. R. InmlieK, ISiS 

UHVflnport 
lion, 00. ac. Cnptnin A. lanitibnf, 1M», 

Cllntl Gu<u4, Oroen'vV 
Lvni,D, Bc.Com. H, A l'«r, 18111. Parlamouth 
MmindpT, lO.Capt.J.G. Blckfunl, 1 166(1) Aim o- 

Biun 
Magii'icnnc. IB, il, vn, Cnpt. W. ArmjUn, 

IBHU, MidllenTili'au 
Monilla. BC. iSiic. Coin. n. Vf, BBrnell, ISSB, 

Cblnn 
Marliii. 1*. Triijniuft Brin, I.lcut.-Coni W. H 

Kcalon, IS&T, llcronTniri 
Mcdca.B.Bt rcB.Com. IJ'Arpv s. PrcBlun,(l8 0) 

North Anierirn and UVbI lndl« 
MedUMi. J. St. VH. Uni.-Coro, J ll.Albitd, 1831. 

Shppmcsi 
Mkbui*. to. CiLptniq G. Wudcliiniae, IMl, 

III r^lpmncii. 
Hinndn. IS, k CipT. It. ImkinBi C.B., 1897, 

AuBlTMlin [ardcrrd bODiE) 
llulbiii, ic.Cuin.C, J[. aiuipnn IBBO.Couit of 

Africa 
Naiad, d, Blun aUip, tlai Cum. Q. Itcld, IWD, 

Cnllno 
Kereaa, (1, aEure deiiul. SUTf Com. C. IL P. 

Fiubai, IBH-H. V»I|>aiitlHj 
Klmblc.lt. tcEiderlQ Diincim. IjLcaL-Com F W. 
UuUuacs, l»se, Narib AiiicriCD auil Wal 
Indies 
Opdatom, 1. K.. Lleal,,-Cnni. SI. Jiibn, I8ri7, 

China 
Omtn, at, >t Capl. 1. H, Rmilncr, men. 

EiKt ludjcfl and dne ofGoud Hope 
OrUndo, M. ac. Cnpt. G, G. Bniidulgib, ,IBM 

McdilcimnLjin 
Cironl™, a. BC . Innip ililp. Cupl. n. y. Uire, 

\m-2, lij.rliridir Bcrvico 
Oilmnic, al. jurbt, Cmi. Jubo P'Am, laiW, 

particular arr^ ICC 
Oijiip.j. BC, t, Cum. W. Mrji(ic). Isn^p China 
Pnndimi, S, tc, Cnai. W. F. Roitan, laill, 

CuatI of Afnrii 
PanlaluDD, ]1. If. Cum. F. Punii, (IBM), Baal 

Inibca and Copt ut Hood Ilapa 
Pcliram. 17. ac. I'nm, H. W- Comber, ISS?, 

MuiileiTaiiciin. 
Pelom., SI, tr. AcU Capl. A, Kingaton. 186?, 

China 
FEmbiahc, 60, tr. CumniDdnrc A. P. Ryder. 1&10, 
Capl. J. O. Jotinsod. ISiO, CnBBl Guard 
Henrich 
Pdieuld. S, ac, pcodcr lo PrinccH Royiill 
LiFqt..Cmn. E. S. J. Gnrfurlh, 18.17. Uail 
ludlpB and Cap? uf Good Hopa 
PprlPTis. 17, (r.Cum.C. E. BIMOna, IMO, Chins 
Pdrri:!, 11, ac. Coui. £. Miiddeu, 1868. NaiUi 

Anirrii'niuid W*i^li,i\» 
PhMlun. IS. wi.Cii^'. ^l.\fcS.V*l«^raJ,^.w* 



2S0 



BOTAL NAVT IH COUUtSSIOK. 



[Fas. 



PlK£4>et M, te^, CiiiUin T, D, A' Yorttvur, 

Pigmy, s, bl. v. MjuI^e Com, W, W. Viae, Iftll 

PartfliDaqih 
Fbvitf, A. »f . Cum TJte Tlcm A. U C0117, ]BSD» 

Nnrlii Am^nr* ami ^val liidip* 
Pnmipinp, S, it. tbb. SliUf-Loui, Oilrer, liM3, 

iVtWn* l(urtr>) 
?tRiilcnt» ififi-'on, W, MduIiI. IBSfi. Nifht hc- 

BEfi' lJnlJ>liip» LuniluD- 
Tnncc C'jnwft, iift, »-- , i;ri|ii G.O. WlUi-i, Cli. 

1^60, ChumK'k S^uhilnjn 
FrincHB AliL«. I, air vn. Mu>I.-OiDi, IL- (X 

UjcF, IHa:i. DEtiiJktfurL 
Pnni:F!v Citiirloiif, \'2. i:^ipU\'m M, S, Ni.lluLh, 

18-i'L. ItcfiTliJii^ ^Im;p. ItoLix; Kt-ii|; 
Fnrtrnt Rlhel], 7J(. ar. ILEu^-A-lnt. G. I>1 V 

t>i9l lndjrt and Chou nf GttaiJ IJiiiiir 

Coot, ll«b J, U. Vivi4n, Id&Q, VJit't'^iltHr 

10A-I. MdlilermarEiii 
r^riulc* ^1, ac Ctpt A. W A. Hwid, >\ir(li 

Rfldcr. I.'., II, Com. L >. T. ^ttiirt, IS&l. 

fiMroaa, J^, a»-. Oip(. Conal GlfljfUnl^ 0^9). 

Bd-ittrtr, &. 4c. Cam- W, K, Gonlun. IWJ, Cnut 

**f Aifitft 
lU|iid. 11,1c Com. C T^JpuvnlflmiiCofAFricu 
Kxtllcr, 17, ftc. Cum. J. W. WcMt, (f-fti L'Mi... 
AnlllHiialio, E*], gp, iTuiiLBtcidijrE A» P, E Wi^jdoI, 

C,U. Cwial or Africa 
BfiiNiMi. -1, ac. dpi. A- WilmlLunT. Ittll, 

CliBirnFl Squbilnm 
jUsuLitn^^u, I'll if. C'npl. W. C^ ChtiukLcrluiaf 

Rcumjtc. ?'^. I": Kr.-Ail. TU B. Vdverlon, CB,, 

Ch[tt, ILun, l\ A l-'c»|i'Y, iF'li'i. Mpililcmikrnn 
Eillrnkan, tt. k-, Com, Jl Wanl, LBi^^ Climn 

SrnF iiur*rjh 
RiLkfilild. n. ic Cum nau» M, R- N'pImiji. l^S, 

In58, NorTli AjurriPA QTiil WabI LuiIJes 

I'infcfrd liontEl 
B/^wriu, II, »r.. Com. In- H- Vrrehini>CH iSflO^ 

NorUk Ainenrvi hmt WeH IniUn 
Hovnl AOrliiiik', 'JA. Arfml. Jii* C- 11, Ire- 

mnntLt, K.C ll. Ciipt. f.Fl, F ^^niaur, C<B. 

RdplJEL, U, tr. C^m, E, J PDlliinl, (leCI) 
> ^nt4-nrn uibJ Wnl [mlitt 

CoulHuiird KinifiinWD, I>u1>ltn 
Ro>iiJ Uiik. J<A, B4:, C4ipL, ¥. A. C»td|)IicU, 16&i, 

MrililErrDikmn 
n<>jnl SHtvi'i-i-ieii. &, ir., PorTfliDnatti 
^4iumndrtrH *. etr vn . Com. Iliif Hon. J. 

Cnritn)fi0, ^§d|, Aiutinlu murvc^} 
ShImii^jih I. Bl, yei , Com, F^ G. SuLlip. 

Ir^fln, nikftjirqlnr Bfiricf 
Sfltflllilif. 31, tc. Ciipt^ S. S- L. CioftoD, [BAQ, 

Sr E CmBL fif Aiu4<rira 
f^turn^Cdpl^iiW Lorjn^, C.B.,ie4S, PcmTiniJie 
Si-viUt. 31, KL, Cnpt. IL W. Coiulrnity, H^'S. 

Cliiitn. 
Stalart, S. Trmnins Unj- LicuV-Com Hon. J. 

T. h^trmthdcirp, llt'iU, rortanimitJi 
fi(<riik!;ri])ainii>. Ilf^r'i'l^'ini- ^tiiii^ Ch^I, J, IL Cnch- 

bufii. I^'hU. C»t|ic 1*1 UuqJ Ul]^ 
PcETii. 35, iC, CjHUiotnlnfi: f. B. UoDtrf4iw, 

CLIJU 
Slunnttn. 3A, ir, Cftpt O^ J. J««tt, {IBAE) N. 

SbirpthoDltrH 9. ■«,, lioal -Goo- ClbTding. 

1M7, ilt-'M 
S^ivldnkkc, 3, «r. ffuiibcnr, LlniL-Coirir Jibn 

^<>rl. Lea4t». £-Cou(af Ajnrrii* 
Sbrnmlrr, 11, ic Com, R. Gh PuuElq*. IBCO, 

f^l«n*r, Sp te. nonbontt LiAut-CDm. HeaU, 

ISU. Chiii« 
Sup, 13, «e., Lifal.^' am FQrt>«. Ifl^fl, Chlim 
Hbip^ &i H. Cum. A- H- W. iluLliBpamlifl. IbAl. 

BbJtrmir, t, ac. Com. L. f. Joart, iSflL Cuaii 



Cluniid l^lhodi 
SpMrr, 2. ar voiL^onCp LiimL Con. B. 4- T. 

SiuliUft, IbJjl. .^^i t^uiotur AfHunen 
Sfknvl'tly. ti. <L«, MidE-l'uiu. G, Allim. fAcUuif) 

IVriljlJlULiltl 
&HHr»r^l. Tt, Trpiinin* Hub* LicutrConi. T, K. 

Iliklhin, iHfrT, r>*?^uiij*iirl 
St. Cr^ifgr. ?i, Bc. Cl^|lL t B Ricf IflSB- 

CuubL GlUUil. >iilii'uUlli 
auimicb. i^ mc. LituL.-CoiB- Pqnlapt IllQttt 

Gluiih 
9t. Viihcrnl, 7(1. Tnimma Skip, Uitn. %. J. 

Gr^^'iUr, LWXI. Pkjri*Piiuuin 
f^U«Jj, B, »r. Coia. Hum W. C, TitlhW, IMU 

>(irOi AnitncukiDd VV'nT Liiii.|i-i 
Slark, J, ^nlHiiit, lj|*gt.-r,in) E ToilUlcT, 

ipnilcT la IIlc KicdlciiL. FoMiiiu'uUi 
SLnimlro^]. 'i.tE, in, Cum, A^ PlklUpi, JMO, 3-E> 

Cnasl of AiiiPrim 
Btjipfl, il M*. rnpi. tUc \hn\. W-J. Wnnl, 1804. 

iVoTlb Allll^ll'lb qiLI^ Vi'^tt liblllE^ 

=<llp|il*, -itrtHHt ilkLii M.ifl Com, C. Burffltl, 

\>^U. paniruUr tcr-ltc 
Soqinsf, 4. *c. Com. G. TryiHi, IWO, Mcdi- 

irrpini-aji 
Sntli-i, n^. K-. BAir--^<IinT Unn. J- DEVOUkb. 

Captriia T. T. Coodf, IhOJ, P^rLlV 
SwallDv, !», sr., MbaI Com. E. ^ildin l&U, 

1'lLJiir> an'i inpi^n (mnrv) 
TiDiKr, i^ K Lrikip »Ui|k, 1.Apt F- R SllriU|, 

Ctiinji (oFiEcrcil home) 
Ti^or, IQ, «r. CupLJ.F- U Wiinvn^flili IU% 

Itelmuiin 
TnTnlj^i, 7U, K. CnpL J. Boflup, 8., 

ffifS, CoflilGBard, Vuccn'i Fcnr, S.B. 
Tn'toiir. US, tc, Capl. Lonl CUrord, tiM. 

Fdcilic 
TriocnmiiU^, Ifl, Com- W. J. ro»nid< IM*. 

KiiiitL B«HVF drill iSlitti. llarllppuol 
Trinnilo. 'J. *e , Ui'UL'Con. Cfcnfffl, 1MB, 

CUminci bitiiridr^tn 
Trillin, tr.. A. litrul-C-m. JL H. NDpier, tfi&7* 

S.b^. CousT of AiudiLm 
t'rgi'oi. 4, -c- iroop iihip, Ca-pi 9. |J. Ucndef- 

idDh IhGi^, puitb<.uLir ■vTi'i<« 
Viloniu*, lil, «. vr»„ Capt-CC Fiirajtlin IW7, 

Capcvf G[>(kI I1d]V 
Vicfnripk Aitd ALi»Tt, ttrJm vhpM. Ciipt. Il-S H. 

rniiitr LtiniiiKin. K C fl. (l!W»pj rorlsaioulli 
Vielorv. Vi. A»liitLr;kt Sif MirEijid Si7niour. 

r,'C U- C*.L»j.iii Imiui* ^ojlL, CB,, (Ip4ft) 

runtrmtUlli 
VirtoiiiL I'l-^. »r,, Ylrc Adni Riihirl Snigrt. 

K l] . ClIpULD P. G. iiooUouoQKl^. l^'t^* 

V'^LertniicKn 
Tifil-nt, i. ti-.. Com. W. U llnhwn, la&», 

Fs*l IniUi-a fliiJ Ln[i» EirGEjnd Hona 
Viniln-rnF, aift^ flhip, Mul-Cddi. J. CBtoju, 

lasa, l>rn«iido Pi} 
VjmRo, 1, tX rri> Cfln. C. F- Palnwr, IfiGA 

?^<iiUi AiuiTiFh iibil Wp«L Indim 
Tlvid. :f, El, V ?«Luff Cehil U. W. AUsi, IMS, 

Vulciin. ti. Bc. trxpp skipp CapT A. C.SlTode, IMS 

Kiiit IoiLl-i nud cNba. ptitiage lioiua 
WaniJiTLT, 4, EC. Com, M. C ^rjPtaur, ISfill, 

Mi^LllEurroiii^jiQ 
Wasp. \l. BT. Cjipl. W. Buwdpn {IBSlJ E"l 

TDihts and Oipc cT GAud Hupp 
Wfjurt. :!. ac. tEtinlKWC, Ltnit, Com- H^ fi, 

ll>df. ldA&. UitnJi 
Wellolrj, ;v, CipluD W- n, EUnrt, G3 

Ifi&X CkatkBiii 
Wocr. fl, at r Cpin. k. H. J. Jcdmrtou, IBAt, 

UcditcrmuE-iU) 
Wildritp St. v»., MuL-Com^ O. BnxkiakD, 

W)»flici(tT. IX liriU l^lMp fur «"*■! RoErye, 

Cum C J- BnlTiJUf. Ixlft, ^hrrdFtn 
WnWrnnr. 21, ft, Cap! P H, I>r Donoj, 

|aB7. N- Amciifft <i&Li Weat ]n>he9 
^VooTnvt. 1, «t. Luul-Gam, Atltinip IM>. 

CJtiim 
Wrci. ^, 4C aWc-slkip, °.liilTCDin Vh G, RolrcTti, 

IniVl, (Kirtirukf f^'iticc 



F" 



186a. ^ 



S0I 



STATIONS OP TOE BRITISH ARMY. 

{CorrtcJed up ia 27lh January, 1865, inttujtivf.) 
CWbtrt biro jiLicca o^ oicntlonnl, tLo Jidt-DuEced ti thai a1 wlil4-b tbe DF^intls itaUonecl- 



2pil .Ju-— \l in.liDf 

2ii[| Jii — fleii^>tl^ CaiitrrJiurr 
arcl iE^,^aumt>Bv. CuuitrUUtT 

iib do,— i}[ii»hn 
fllh do.— JlrlBhmn 
Till dik — f1ri>|fal. CiEitprburj' 
III Ura^ootb* — Aldritbot 
and du — AJilmhoI 
flril HiiHin— JMBiichqlsT 
4ih ■![».— Dmidillc 
Stb Luicen— U«n^K Cantor liury 

7lh HnH*r*— UeniTai» UmldBtont 

Bill do —York 

Pfh J.Dnccn—UuTitlh 

iDlh HuBBar* — Uthlr 

lltb Hdmk(*— UabLIn 

lltta LiDccn— sdlifffieM 

tStli HuiBBr* — HountLui* 

14th c1t»,— AMrcihot 

l&L|i HLiBiiiri— Eillnbujyh 

1 7 1 h do .^ U ad r». Bf ild ■( o# 

iHih HiniBfi— Wndrnt^ CaulcrLurx 

Idlli do.— Df Dgpl, Cqmrrbory 

SUili n**. — BeiLgAl^ Caiiicrbory 

3lal da.— Dtn^iq^H Bluidtlonr 

MlllUiTrTrBlinUtl'M.I'-Woolwtcli 

tiD (Jn^t bal.)— Alf^rrfhnt 

!>□■ (nid [j:ii,/— \V oolitic h 

Do. (Jib tiiii.j— Nl'v Z^dlotid 

L>it, lAtb bBt,;— AMf nbat 

Dd. [nth b«L)— CufrBtfb 

OrviHMltrr Guard* (1<( bal,)— CbtlKik 

Do, L2nd bai )— Shorn chlftf 

Da. \'.*T\i fjdi.j— WtlllogLoD ItuftBi-lit 

CuhliirfBm ^Liordi ^Itr tiBLj— H clIinglDn BIlB. 

Do (^inlbai.J— Windsor 

Stall FuB.Goartltd II tiBi h— To w«f of London 

Pu, i?tid ^lal.)— ai. licurce> llarT4ikl 

Itl FuDi (ItLl- Uiidrai, lotcEieaKr 

Da i^nd tiai )— Jfr»*v, CulcheBirr 

2nd do. fill batj- L)p^<m;niri. WaJme/ 

Du. iJjid tial }— Brruiu'la. Wfllmct 

0fd do. il>t bai.}— >ihrfllr[d. Limrrltib 

Do. (Sod bat)— Barbd'lo^t. LlmerLL^k 

4th lia (Jtr tipitj— Boinboy, Cb»hihuD 

Da.i:jjid bai}— Malta, Chalham 

fith iln {1*1 bnt)'U'o^tnj1rU. ColchHlrr 

Do. (Sadbat J— CdiicDf Cioo-I iiQiff, ColcAeilfr 

Slh do, {Iti ^i4(,J— D^viii|io[i, t'ulrhtfiitr 

l>D-(^pi1 li»Lj— JamaUa, Cok-heniT* 

7th iko. [Jat bat I— Brot^Ji', Waliacr 

Do (^Dd bBLj^MaUa. \tatmrr 

eth lU. ;li1 bat}— ftrnnrbeiipr, Tfrn^ilemoK 

Do, [^iid E)Bl,t— ilalta, Tciniilrmorr 

Pth lio. (tat bat-)— (ilUraJiaf. Limerick 

Vo. ['iad bdt-l— Cbi04i« Jjiin'rlck 

Dllb do, (III bal,)— CaiJi. Of (^d Nopr^rmton 

Do. ^^nd bat J— CSV'' "' tid. Hup--, Prtaton 

Hill do (111 liat.J^UriiKi'^ Pernor 

Do. (3nd ><iit.j C. of (f oori Hopir. FrTni'ir 

l^lli ilo.UaE bat.]— New £«alBikd, Cbulbam 

Do. I^nil ba[.}'-Ufe(i^J, Chatham 

Jflth da.JlilIiBt-J— Uon-r, F.rmoY 

Do, (3od bat }— MakiriiluB. P<-rinor 

I4(b do, tltt bai.j—Aldfrifini, Fermajp. 

I>lk(3Dd baL)— NfwZiMiluJid, fr*moy 

.Rtlido Otlbal,)— N nronawicV, Pcmbrok* 

Do. 9iiilbai,>— Gibraltar, Pcnbrolf* 



lUth dn-fivl bil >— Canada. Tpmpl'inoTV 

Dur [i.'i|.| bitf 1— Nwa^cDllaH Tvmi^irmort 

17in <ii}. LaT b.ii J^-^ aiiada, Liinrrtrk 

11-1. rVo.j but I Ku*fl Scoila, Mmprlqlr 

jBtb dis l>l bal.J— Madraa, UiitlcvBi> 

Dn, ['.fnd bill ) — Npw Zniland. Untltran 

il/iit dd. n» ^*^ I— BtfnKBi, ChBiliflm 

l>ik f^ui^ bat.)— B^rmah. cjliaiham 

3Ulh do. (Itt bar )— nrn^bl> Chaiham 

Do (^nd bm.)— Japan, (Jhat^iBOl 

2lH do, [lai bai.]— {"orraoiLiulh, Biff 

Do. t^iai bMt-l— Marl rat, Uirr 

2:Jti{Mo.UtibalO— MdkBH ■'arklmvit 

Do, C^nd baL)— Uftlta, Parkhurac 

2drd do. U>L tiHi.^— Dtfiigpi, M'nlnitr 

Do. <:^nd bat.)— Gill ralUr, Watmrr 

24tb do. (lit bat.^— StiornclIlT?. Cork 

Dn, {7nd lial.J—JJaaiiiltia, Cork 

3Airi do. (lab bat.)— Caiuida. AthlDu* 

Dfi. tHad liat.i — Ci'J'Idii, AihJont 

3Gih do,~.PDii»mDi«lh| Belfaat 

S7lb do.— Bfcigal. CoiU 

^Hth do,— HoaihiiT. Fe'tnoy 

30tlj do.— Nrwrvn PreaEou 

AOih do.— ranada, Parkhunt 

&l ai do .—Aid pn ho r. C \ml h jna 

&2iid do.— W alar turd, PfratoD 

Adrd dn-— RoinbBy» FerOiay 

3J(h do.— HBLigal, Coiihi-aler 

Jtfiib du.— Brngaf, ChnllLHm 

3dtb do.— llangal^ Alhlona 

37rrt do,— Dov*r, p.'mbralie 

3aih do.— UFO^rat. Ckjkhi-aier 

flllh do,— Alilrrlhnt, TcDivlrtnore 

4ath dn.— Ne^T Z«4Ibe)iT. Ulrr 

4liE do.— DitbllD, Pr»tiiD 

49nd do^— llcnflal^ StrrJIng 

4;4rd dn.—Men ZcaJBiM. ChBtbam. 

44th dOr— Bimbay, CuFfh Filer 

4&th da.^Kornb>y. farkhurit 

>4l»ih da — BinFfBl, Boti^vBitt 

47Eb rio,-^(.'bi>uiin, Aililuna 

4Hth do.— Uenvnl, t iirli 

*\nh do.- l>ublln, Beirait 

AOih do.— Nf w ZtfuiBiid, Parkbuni 

Glat do- — Br Ufa I. I'lialham 

b'ind da. — Hm^al. Chatham 

Mid do.- Cnrrqgh, Birr 

ft-llta da.— BfOBBl, Cnlchcitrr 

Ulh dd.— Bengal, Ptetlaa 

Ddih do.— Hooitiav. Cn If h rater 

fijib [lOr— NriT ZrsJBnil. Cork 

AALhda.— jlFOtrnl. Uirr 

S^th do.— AldrralJ"t. Pretlon 

flilLh du. flat bat.)-DuLilti>, WIncbeitir 

Do, Cfnd liat.)— AliJtfralii>i. Winch*aler 

Do. [.1rd bal.)— ItifntaU, W^ncbrater 

Dn i-lib baf.)— CaihA^lii. WlnrheiUr 

Ala; do. — Cu'radk, Pen>li''ohr 

6!^i|[| da.— Aid rra Unit Urlfut 

ejrd dn.— Canada, Brlfavt 

S-llh da.— Pari* mouth. Colcbritrr 

flnVh do.-Nr» ZriUnnd. J^lrr 

Oikh dn.— Madraa. CDlrbraIrr 

rtvtb do,— L:|i1nB, Alhlona 

rtHih r]o.-"N'rw Zfaland, Frrtnojr 

ODih dii — Ooipori. FFroioir 

7tiih dk>.— Nr^ Zralaad^ CalrhBUr 

?l6l do,— Hrnpaj, Prflh 

73od rro,— lloinboy, Abrtdrrn 

?3nidn.— yhornfJiff. ColiliaBlrr 

74tb do.— Eillntiufgh, Abrrdreo 

7Mb Jo.- ALderiliui. Chiiiham 

70tli Fnnl— MadiBt, Bciraat 



292 



STATIONS OF THR BRTTISB AHHT. 



[Feb. 



Kth do.— Dnblla, Aberdeen 
7fttl1 de— Hengal. Sllrllng 
SOlb da.— Bengil, ijulterint 
BlU do.— HenBsl. Cbitbmm 
S3e4 do.— Ucniiil, Colchr-Irr 
SSrd do.— AklfiiliDt, Clmttain 
S4lh do.— Dublin, Pimbrolii 
Utb do.- AJdtnhat, Fembrok* 
Mlh du.— Oiamllar. Timplemot* 
B7ih da — Oaipon. Bulleiant 
Smh do.- Bengiil. Colcbeilfi 
6Sth da.— Bfd^I» PermoT 
Mifa do.- BeagKi. Ci>li^Deiter 
Sltt diK—Bcngal, Cbmliipi 
niid do.— GlBflgDW* Stirling 
03nl do. — Ben^l, Abcrdpea 
Hth do.— Bengxl, Chatham 
Uih do.— Bombty, Fcrmoy 
Mlb do.— CK|ie, B'irul 
S7(b da.— Benpil, Ualcbeeter 
Mth do. — Bengil, Colcbnlir 
BRthdo,- Cblpi.Cork 
lOOtta root'-lfilWi Fukliiint 



lOlitdo. — BeogBl, CbAtbHI 

102nd do. — Uadru, Cbmiun 

103rd do.- Bombuy, Colcbnler 

104th do.— St OKI I, Parkhunl 

lOtlb do.— Mudrai, Pembroke 

106lh do.— BoQibay. Btrr 

IO?lb do.— Bmgali F^rmoT 

lOSlbda.— Midni, FFnnO]> 

IMth do.— Bombay, Cork 

Rifle Brigade (lit bat.)— Cuadu, WlncbHttr. 

Da. (Sod bat,}— Bengal, WLncbnler 

t>i>. (Hrd bat.)- Bengal. WInchealei 

I>o. |41b bat.)— Gibraltar. Wlnehetter 

lit Weil India Begl Dent— Bahama* 

2nd do. — Barbadoe^ 

8rd do. — HIerra i^caoe 

4lh do— Cnpe Cout Caaila 

ith do — Jamaica 

CeTloo Rifle Reg<menl— CF7I011 

Cape Uoanted HI9«— Capeor Hogd Ho^ 

Boral Canadian BIBe Regiment— Cuada , 

Royal UalU rcsclble Anlllcr)— Hilts 



DEPOT BATTALIONS. 



Ill Depot Battalion— Cba than 

and da,— Chatham 

Srd do. — Chatham 

4lta do.— -ColEheiter 

^th do. — Parhburtt 

Olta do.— Walmer 

7th do.- VVInrbiater 

8Ib do.— Pembroke 
lR[h do.— Colctaeiter 

Dth do. — Colcbeater 
lUh do.— PmioD 
I2tn da.-.-Atblane 
18th do —Bin 



14th Depot BslulloB—Belfu 
IStb do.— Bnttenut 

iOtb da.— Templetnor* 
I7lh do.— Limerick 
18th do. — Pennaj 
1Mb do,— Fenno; 
lOlb do.— Cork 
I3nd do.— Stirling 
3drd do. — Aberdeen 
Cifdrr Depot- U aid ilo-w 
do.— Cantirbiuf 



1804.] 



293 



PROMOTIONS ANl? APPOINTMENTS. 



NAYY. 



rjioMOTiONs. 

Bear-Admiral Georgo St. Vin- 
oent King to be commaiider-in- 
chieP, East Indies and Cbilui. vice 
Kuper, whose period of service is 
expired. 

To be Master — Second Muster 
Jamea Cole. 

To be Chief Engineers — William 
Brown of ihe Victoria and Albert ; 
William Powell (acting) to the 
Dromedary. 

iPrOlNTMENTS. 

Captains — A. L. Mansell to tho 
E;dru; Montagu B. Dunn to the 
Mepurp. 

CommundorH — G. B. Wilkinaon 
to tbe Firefly; W, G. Belsoa to 
the Meeanee; John D'Arcy to the 
Oabomo; N. L. A. L. Muitland to 
the Landrail ; W. K. Joliffo to the 
Dovaatatioo, vice Pike, invalided ; 
John StokoB tatafl') to the Bri- 
tania. 

LieiitenantB — Thomas M. M. 
Wyiiyard to the Indus ; Oxford 
B. Cameron to the Cumberland; 
Herbert P. Compbell (flag) to llio 
H-iberniii; Harcourt T. Ganunell 
to llio Victory ; Thomas Bama- 
botham to the Highfijor; William 
Moger to the Koyal Adelaide; W. 

B. Bond to the Meeanee ; F. B. 
Herbert to the Trafalgar; H, C. 
Onslow to tho Canojiua ; Frede- 
rick C. W. Liardet to the Boyal 
Adelaide; William M. Moger and 
George M. Comber to the Meg«ra ; 
J. F. G. Grant to the Victory ; B. 
St. J. Gurforth (in command) to 
the Penguin ; George H. Honeago 
t« the Landrail; David Boyle and 

C. Mason to the Cadinns ; B. B. 
Lambert to the Boyal Adelaide ; 
F. B. Boardman and L. Ching to 
the Steady ; J. W. F. Harvey. W. 
P. Barron, and E. L. Byng to tie 
Excellent ; L. Geiieste to the 
Hibernia; 0. E. Muberiy to the 
Irreaiatible ; W. M. Magerto tha 



Highflyer; 0. G. Jones to tho 
Edgar; Charles Jenkins to the 
Asia; W. St. Ivea to the Cumber- 
land; H. Berkeley to the Blen- 
heim. 

MaBtera — CorneliuH Fox to the 
Zealous ; Charles Wotton to the 
Sphini; John Wave to tho Boyal 
George; E, B. D'Arcy to tha 
Mutineer; W. H. Painter to the 
Wanderer ; Edmund Swain lo the 
Orlando; William H. Pantcr to 
the Wanderer; William G. Atkin- 
son to the Basilisk; George A. 
Brown to tbo Sutlej, for surveying 
service ; W. H. Adlam to the 
Megisra. 

biirgeouB — -Peter William Wal- 
lace, MD.,to the Sutlej; Alexander 
Collins, M B., to the Galatea; 
Arthur M'Konnft to the Prince 
Consort ; George H. Byan to the 
Shannon ; James Johnston to the 
Cudmus; George F. Banks (addi- 
tional) to the Alaeander; Thomaa 
Craig to the Eattleanako; Michael 
W. Cowan, M.D., to the Zebra; 
J. A. S. Meikl^olin to the Colum- 
hiuc; Johu Dunwoodie to tho 
Euryalus. 

Paymaetora — George W. Ander- 
Hoa to the Hastings ; Joseph 
Martin to the Excellent; Jamea 
B. Andrews to the St, Vincent; 
Georgo H. L. Wise to the Irreaia- 
tible; W. Dewar to the Defence; 
George W. Whillie to the Daeher; 
John E. Skinner (in charge) to 
the Oaborue; James C. Meagher 
to the Marauder ; Bicbard F. Wiley 
to the Jblegiera. 

Sub- Lieutenants — Charles T. 
G. Hicka and James H. P. Owen 
to the Victoria; Robert W. Evans 
and M. G. Le Cocq to the Victoria ; 
L. A. G. Eoborta to the Cadmus ; 
B. B. Wilkinson to the Highfljer ; 
Oswald P. Tudor, Cecil M. Turner, 
Robert C. JolifTc, David M. Smith, 
Charles A. Tucker, and FradKvwJt 
N. C. H^, Ui ■Aia^wc^ni.-'i*-, ^j-"« - 



PBOMOnOKS AND APPOIXTUESTS. 



[Feb. 



Cox to tbc Dcfeocei anil J. 6. 
Haye lo the Ke«<aix-b ; Bgiiisld 
H. Tbonjton lo iLe HigLDj'er; 
Hiirry T, Greenfell to the Ed^jar. 

AgMBlant-SurgiJOiiB — J, Fraser 
totheBattlesnuke; Witliam Graut 
(acliog) to tbc Uejaiider; C. J. 
D';ron shire to thePeiigiiin; J. W. 
Anhrord to the Doncgiil ; F. H. 
Eichar'Uijii to Jamaca Iloapituli 
E. W. Doyle (acting) to ibe PHn- 
cvue Hoyol; Thomas BriHlmne to 
the MeKo^ni 1 Mfliwcll Rodfiers to 
the Gibraltur; Frederick L. W. 
"WriRhf, William Pattnllo, M.D„ 

C. CLWimLETley,M.D.,ai.d-Urred 
Bnoiil (iicling) to tbe Eur^alna; 
Ooorgo Hair lo the Fisgard; 
Tbonius A. O'FUtierty to the 
Laiidrai] ; W, H. SisBOiui to the 
Britiiniiio. 

St'cond Masters — Tbomas H. 
Btnith to the Megrem ; Thomaa 
J. U. ItupBOii to Ihn Black Prince; 
Tbursrou Stringer to the Land- 
rui]; Thonuia II. Smith to the 
Vicl-ory 

Mi'lribipmeii — J. E. Rufisoll to 
the Hevciigc ; A. F. Turner and 
R. ..liisaie to the Ciidiuus; 0. U. 
Aylen to t4ie Priiice Consort : W. 
8. Tujior, Henry V. B.iker, Henry 

D. B.irrj', Robert Findloy. Arthur 
W. E. Prolhei'o, KdwJird H. Gam- 
ble. John E. P. Walcot, Henry D. 
MaokenKie, Edwiird Chichester, 
and John Hicks to the Victoria; 
GroBVenor StaQbrd and Edward 
W. P. Boxer to the Achillea ; Pre- 
deriok G. M. Powell and John H. 
Orlobar to the Hoc'tor; Count P. 
C. McLiixa, to the Edgar; Harrr 
U. Lowe to the Royal Oak ; Ed- 
ward A. HoUjcck and Richiird N. 
Greeley to tlie Phubo; Arthur H. 
Eyngto thcLi-ccriioo!; Ferdinand 
Beauclerk to the Revenge; John 
W. B. Reeve to the Gibraltiir; 
John E. F. KJiig, Edward 0. St. 
John, and Richard W. 0. Voyaey, 
totho Victoria; Edward B. Bi-oo£s 
to the Cfldmua ; C. S. Mimdoville 
to the Meeanec; James Evans, 
Neviiisou J, W. de Courcv, FitB- 
herbei't tlodrington, and John O, 
Musters, to the Highflyer; Richard 
V. nuiii|iQge, Henry A. K. JIurray, 
Martina J^TCauelaiid, and Edward 
P Brooks, to the Cadmus; Charles 



R. Dawes and Herbert E. Heyland 
to tbe Princess Rfjyal; George 
Bedford to the Achilles; Lionel 
II. Kirnrao to the Dancao; R W. 
F'oster lo tbe Black Prince; A. 
M. S. Grteme to the Aurora; Ro- 
bert D. ClementB to the Hector; 
Henry D. Barry totho Duncan; 

F. G. J. Lillington to the High- 
flyer; C. G. Gardner to the Cad- 
mus; Geoi^ C. Boya to the 
Pylades. 

Naval Cadets — Robert Stewart 
to the Victoria ; Charles H. Coch- 
ran to the Roynl Oak ; Philip A. 
Paraon to the Duncan; Geo. W. 
Hilt and Saluael H. Kay to the 
Cadmus; Philip H. Heming to 
the Higbfljor; Frank J. GrosBO 
to the ValorouH; William 0. C. 
Forsyth to tbe Princess Royal; 
Arthur P. T. Jaraea to the Don- 
can; George B. Long to the 
Achillea; Charles C. Stewart and 
William Hoghton to the Cadmaa ; 
E. A. Richmond to the Acbilles; 
Charles W, Hicks, Edward T. 
Jones, Harry P. Dawson, Charles 
W. G. Spring, Arthur H. Stone 
Douglas, E. B. Henderson, and 
Andrew Rogers to the Victoria; 

G. L. HFLeckie to the Cossack ; 
C P. Streeion, J. R. Broadley, &nd 
H. W. Saville, to the Liverpool; 
H. P. J. Wyatt to the Achilles; 
T. B. J. Ross and S. H. Stewart 
to the Defence; Goo. H. Whalley, 
Herbert B. Alexander, John D, 
Harris, Frederick B. Warren, 
James Gardner, R. M. JohnHtoue, 
A. A- Aahiugton, W. T. Bourke, 

C. F. Crawahay, and P. Hocken, 
■\Val ter 8. Kin g, Francis T. Brooke, 

D. Phelps, Frederick G. Stafford, 
John Perkins, George M. Bennet, 
and Edward D. Hodgson, aro 
nominated. 

Maste.r'B AsBistantH — Charles 
W. Stuurt to the Victoria ; George 
D. G. Filrocrto the Hoyal Oak.- 
W. S. N. Gow to the Black Prince ; 
Regiimid V. Curly on to the 
Achilles; Francia S, B. Snell to 
the Victoria; George W. Ballia- 
ton to the Landroil; H. C. Tre- 
muyiio and W. H. Wyllia to the 
Cadmus; T. Pillwuli to the Doe; 
J. E. Petley and C. B. Franks to 
the Highflyer. 



1865.] 



pRosronoss and appointments. 



295 



Cierks— Henry B. Whitley to 
tbeDashcn Charles M. P. Tarr to 
tho Royal Adelaide; Edward W. 
Ifownham to the Sovorii ; !t'. A. 
Smith to the Frederick William, 
Alfred Smith and Thomas M'Car- 
thy to tho Megteara, F. H. Page 
to the Canopaa. 

AsHiBtaiit-Paymaaters — George 
Prince to the Trafalgar, Edimiiid 
M. Buasell (in charge) to the 
Jjftndrail, Francis H. Chown to the 
Princess Royal, William K. Home 
to the Black Prince, Horace J. 
Gardner to tho Blenheim, Charles 
W. King to tho Bombay, Alexander 
W. Brett to the Royal George. 

ABsistant-Clerk a — EdwardArm- 
Btrong, John S. Eamaoy, John 
Maclaurin, and Henry A. T. 
Cnmmins, to tho Fiagard (addi- 
tional), Frederick C. Good to tho 
Irresistible, G, F. Carter to tho 
Frederick William, Arthur A. 
Pearson to tho Pembroke, and 
William H. Whyhan to the Escel- 
lent, Thomas F. Harrison and 
George Tavlor to the Princess 
Royal, William All man to the 
Aurora, Richard S. S. Boss Lewin 
to the Dauntless, Robert Wright 
to the Landrail, George A. Murray 
to the Victoria, 

Chief Engiueera — Edward J. B. 
Bird to tho Cadmus ; Bcnjamiu 
Fittock Pine to tho Highflyer; 
William Dounison to the Megajra. 

Engineers — Philip T. Cruchey 
to the Victoria and Albert ; George 
Hunt (b) to the Landrail ; George 
Hunt (a) and John Singer to the 
Heg£era; E. JiliUes tothoHolicon; 
P. Lewis to the AraeUa ; fi. A. 
Wells to the Indus, aa super. ; 
W. McDowall to the Dauntless ; 
H. Knight to tho Cadmus; J. 
Sumner to the Highflyer ; G. S. 
Scholes (couflrmcd) to the Cum- 
berland ; J. Hindley (acting) to 
the Dauntless. 

First Class Assistant Engineers 
W. J. Lullock to tho Hawke; J. 
Sharp t<i the Asia ; W. Green to 
the Argus; James Bi-ough to the 
Aurora; George Edwards to the 
Trinculo ; R. H. Lavcrs to the 
Indus as supernumerary; C, F. H. 
Butt to the Wasp ; R. W. Allison 
and W. N. Seuuctt to the Princess 



Roval ; C. Wiggins to the Fisgard ; 
H.'J. lies and J. D. Chatcr to the 
Uadmus; John Adams to the 
Highflyer ; Henry Scott to the 
Octavia ; John Wnght and Charles 
E. Stewart to the Indus; James 
Murray to tho Asia, for hospital 
treatment; W. Pearson to the 
Landrail ; John P, Gardner to the 
Asia. 

Second Class Assistant Engi- 
neers — C. R- James to the Indus, 
as supernumerary. 

EOYAL MARINES. 

AsuiKALTi, Jan. 7. 
Eoyal Slariue Light Infantry — 
First Lieut, and Quartermaster 
Albert Henry Ozzard to be capt., 
vice Morrison, retired on full pay 
^3rd Jan. ; Second Lieut. Thomoa 
Lakin to be first lieutenant, vice 
Ozzard— 3rd Jan. 



Admiralty, Jan. 12. 

Royal Marino Light Infautrj^ — 

Second Lieut. Loslie Philip Smith 

to be first lieut., vice Dixon (Ist), 

Slnced on half pay — 5th January ; 
irat Lieut. Edward Brace Pnt- 
chard to be capt., vice Budd,'*e- 
tirod — 7th Jan. ; Second Lieut. 
Charles Arthur Kennedy to be 
first lieut., ^-ice Pitchard— 7th 
Jan. ; First Lieut. Wm. Henry 
Wroot to be flj-at lieut. and quart.- 
mast., vice Ozzard — 10th Jan. 

COAST GUABD. 

ANNUAL PROMOTIONS, 

To be Captain — Commander 
Hugh Maximihan Elliot Wey- 
mouth. 

To be Commanders — Lieutenant 
Wm. Bailey, Castletown; Marcua 
Knox Carlingford. 



AITOINTMENTS. 
Inspecting Commanders — 
Hawks worth Pawkes to Dona- 
ghadeo, vice Douglas, period of 
service expired ; Edwani T. Lod- 
der, to Newcastle ; Edward S. 
Meara to Dingle ; Hon. Reynolds 
Moreton to Folkestone, vice Wall, 
period of service expired ; James 
B. Grove to Plymouth, vice 
StrangewajB, period of service ex- 
pired ; George Dohartij B^E»A.\a 



2P6 



FS0U0T10K8 AND APP0INTHBMT8. 



[Pbb. 



Weymtrath, vice H. M. Elliot, 
promoted ; JameB H. Coxon to 
Queenstown, vice Broad i Fredlc. 
Harvey to Swansea, vice Philip, 
period of service expired. 

Chief Officers — Lieut. Henry 
Maraden to Wicklow heed ; Wm. 
Pollard (Second Ciase) to Tramore, 
from Tarbert. 



BOYAL NATAL EESBETB. 

To be Lieutenants — John Irwin 
Browne. 

To be Honoraiy Lientenanta — 
William Davis John Btunaden 
Homftn. 



1865.] 



PB0M0TIOS8 AND APPOISlifEMS. 



<*7 



ARMY. 



THE ASMY GAZETTE. 

•#• Where uot otherwise specified, 

the rollowing CotnmissionH bear 

the current date. 

St. James's PALArB, Dec. 17. 

The Queen hns becD pleased, on 
the nomination of the Right. Hon. 
Lord Folpy, to appoint Henrj 
JobUrg- Waliack, Esq., bte Capt. 
in the 77th Rcg't . one of Her 
Majesty's Honourable Corps of 
gentlemen -at- A mis, vice Mark land 
Barnard, Esq., resigned. 

The Queen has been jiieased, 
on the nomination of the Itiubt 
Hon. Lord Foley, lo appoint 
Lient.-Col. John Henry LownUoSi 
Jate of the fith EcgC. of Fuot, one 
of Her Majesty's HonoumblB 
Corps of Gentle men -at. Arms, vice 
Chaj-lea J. Sawyer, Esq., resigned. 

Wab Oi-nca, P.aix Mall, Dec. 20. 

2iid Refrimenl of Life Guards — 
Sir George Rendleshain Prescott, 
to be cor, and sub-lieut., by pur- 
chase, vice Frederiak Young, pro- 
moted 

Royal Horse Guards — Lieut. 
Mylles Bagnall Bowyer Addorley 
to be capt,, by purchase, vies 
Walter Palk Ciirew, who retires; 
Oor. SimnuEl Chark-s Newton to 
be lient., by purchase, rice Adder- 
ley. 

2nd Dragoon Guards — Lient. 
William Jones Thomas to be 
capt., by purchase, vice Francis 
Graham Powell, who retires; Cor. 
and Adjt. Allen Deane to have the 
rank of Lieut. ; Cor, Edmund 
Warren Craigie to he lient., by 
purchase, yice Thoroaa ; Thomas 
Ord, gent., to be cor., by purchase, 
Tice Craigio, 

11th Hussars — Ens. Johu St. 
John, from the 12th Foot, to be 
cor., vice Henry William Langley, 
■who has retired; Cor. John St. 
John to bo adjt., vice Lieut. John 
Mi.'Lnughlin, vho resigns the up- 
pointraprt. 

Mililarj Train — Lieut. Walter 
Smeat Sox Battiscombe, from the 



S3rd Foot, to bo lient. vice Simner, 
who eidiaiigea. 

Rtii Bepimeiit of Foot — Lieut, 
John Thouii,oa Bowers t<i be ai^t.. 
vito Lieut. James George Cook- 
burn, promoted— 3rd May. 

Bih Foot— Lieut. Geo. NichoU 
James Bradl'ord to be capt^ by 
purchase, vice Hwiniicrtoii Hnlh- 
day Dyer, who retires ; Ens. Wm. 
Howe Uonnia to he lieut., by pu-r 
chitse, vice Bradford; Robert 
Juliaji Orde Jocelyn, gent., to be 
ens., by purchase, vice Hennie. 

12 th Poot^Quarl.-maat. Cor- 
poral-Major Johu St. John, from 
the 1st Life Guards, to be ens., 
without purchase, vice Henry 
Oswald Carey, transfurred to the 
76th Foot; William Wallace 
Soderick Onalow, gout., to be ens, 
by purchase, vice John St. John, 
transferred to the lUh Hussars. 

25th Foot — Henry AugusttlH 
Chichester, gent., t*) be ens , with- 
out purchase, vice Thomas John 
Leadbetter, promoted. 

33rd Foot — Lieut.-Col. Alexan- 
der Kobe rts Dunn, from the 100th 
Foot, to he lieut.-eol., vice Lieut.- 
Col. and Brev.-Col. Edw. Westhy 
Doriovaii, who eichanges ; Lient, 
BirchaJl G. Graham to be capt., by 
piirc^huae, vice John Brown, who 
retires ; Ens. Alfred Handcock to 
be lieut., bj purchase, viee Gra- 
ham i William Alexander Dola- 
sellcs Edeu, gent., Co be ens., by 
purchase, vice Handcock. 

-Jiith Foot — Capt. Mont Cholme- 
ly Morris, from the 54ih Foot, to 
ire capt., vice Newbolt, who ei- 
char.goB — 4ih Oct. 

S3rd Fuot — Lieut. Bonianiin 
Simner, from the Military Train, 
to be lieut., vice Battiscombe, who 
exchanges, 

&4th Foot— Capt. Edward D. 
Newbolt. from the 3IHh Foot, to 
be cnpt., vice Morris, who ex- 
change s — 4th Oct, 

7ijlL Foot — Home Seton Gordon, 
gent , to be ens., by purrhose, vice 
John Bcresford Hammond, who 
retires. 



398 



PROMOTIONS iNI) ArPOINTMWirra. 



fPKB. 



80th Foot— Surg. John A1ejt- 
ander William Thompson, M.D,, 
having completed twenty years' 
fuli-pny service, to be sur^--niBJ., 
under the provisions of Lbe lloyal 
Warrant of the lat Oct., IHob— 
IPtU Nov. 

Sath Foot— Ens. Edward James 
Harris to be lieut., by purchnBe, 
vice SIiil,th(!w EJwarrl Lpmll>itler. 
who rotii-en i Jiimea Arnold Awiiry, 
gent , to be ens., by purchase, vii.'e 
Harris, 

bT(b Foot— Ens. William WvTiiie 
Jeudwine t-o bo lieut.. by piircunse, 
[vice Arcbib»lil Neil (jumpbell, 
who retires; William Guslwjck, 
Gord, gent., to be eua., by purcliaite, 
vice Jeudwine ; Lieut. Wultor 
Onrr Mackiiinon to be inatruetor 
of mu.'kotry, vice Lieut. Archibuld 
Neil Campbell, who had resigned 
the appointment — lat Dec. 

lOtJih Foot — Lieut.-Col. and 
Brev.-Col. Edw- Weatby Donovan, 
fi"om the 33rd Foot, to be lieut.- 
col,, viw Alexander Roberte Dunn, 
who oxehangeB 

let West India Rpginient— Ens. 
Charles Henry Wilson Lo